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TCM editor
Chinese medicine (Chinese herbology, Traditional Materia Medica), refers to the traditional Chinese medicine theory to guide for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment or drugs regulate body functions. Process according to traditional Chinese medicine into medicine, Chinese herbal medicines. Medicine mainly originated in China, in addition to plants, animals, drugs such as gall bladder, bile, acutus, velvet, antlers, etc; shellfish such as pearls, sea clam shell; minerals such as keel, magnets, etc. are used to treat medicine. Chinese medicine derived from a small number of foreign countries, such as American ginseng. [1] 

Why use a casserole boil medicine

The main ingredient is silicate casserole, and traditional Chinese medicine ingredients will not react chemically destroy the medicinal properties. Iron, aluminum pot boiling process is easy and medicine in a chemical reaction to produce toxins. And casserole is heated evenly, heat slowly, medicine or water can not evaporate, is not easy to paste pot.
Chinese medicine decoction should pay attention to what more
Chinese medicine decoction decoction generally 2 to 3 times, at least should be fried twice. Usually not before boiling with high heat, simmer after boiling. General head boiled and then fried fry over low heat 20 to 30 minutes, two fried boiled and then fried low heat 10 to 20 minutes.
Medicine should not be taking more overnight
Air, temperature, time and other factors make bacterial contamination in liquid enzymatic decomposition reduction effect, bacteria breeding, starch, sugar and other ingredients nutrition fermentation hydrolysis, resulting in deterioration of liquid sour, after taking on human health.
Related terms:
Casserole Compendium of Materia Medica
Chinese name English name of Chinese medicine Chinese herbology, Traditional Chinese medicine alias herbs, crude drugs amount to about 2,000 kinds of famous books, "Compendium of Materia Medica", "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic"
Contents 1 words concept ▪ Basic Information ▪ ▪ cited to explain the history of the ancient 2 development ▪ development ▪ future development of modern 3 Clinical research ▪ ▪ food therapy drug efficacy 4 Cosmetics book Compendium of Materia Medica ▪ ▪ ▪ local pharmacy herbal medicine popular book ▪ Cosmetics ▪ ▪ medicine Reform and Development of writings 5 ​​6 7 tonic misunderstanding incompatibility Compatibility ▪ ▪ ▪ Contraindications ▪ side effects of this by boiling method 8 ▪ cleaning appliances ▪ ▪ ▪ boiling ▪ soaking 9 Other relevant dose Therapy ▪ ▪ four poison gas not "poison" ▪ monarch Philosophical concepts ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ general classification medicine Detection ▪ Notes ▪ scientific harvest
Term concept editor
Basic Information

Headwords: Chinese
Pinyin: zhōng yào
Phonetic: mi fa ㄨ ㄓ ㄧ ㄠ '
Similar words: medicine
Basic interpretation: [traditional Chinese medicine] medicine used drugs. [2] 
Cited explanation

1. peaceful drugs. San Guowei Ji Kang "health" theory: "So Shennong, saying: 'on drugs to support life, medicine cultivation' who know the honest reason for their lives, because the auxiliary support in order to pass too." Jin Zhanghua "Natural History" VII: " Chinese medicine cultivation, that Acacia Juan anger, day lily lotus "Song Xu Xuan" title Crane Temple "poem:." Sigh often too sick medicine, to be asked Scriptures beg little further. "
2. Chinese medicine used drugs, which most plants. [2] 
Development history Edit
Ancient Development

Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
Chinese working people for thousands of years in the course of the fight against the disease, through practice, constant awareness, and gradually accumulated a wealth of medical knowledge. Since time immemorial the text did not interest, that knowledge can only rely modeled dictation, and later with the text, will gradually record, there have been medicine books. These books played a summary of previous experience and facilitate the spread and promotion of the role. Chinese medicine has a history of several thousand years, the Chinese people in their long struggle with the disease is extremely rich in lessons learned, for the prosperity of the Chinese nation has a huge contribution. Because the majority of drugs grass, so the drug will be recorded in books called "Materia Medica." According to research, Qin and Han Dynasty, herbal medicine has been more popular, but unfortunately these are herbal Wang Yi, no trace. Now the oldest known herbal book called "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", author unknown, according to which according to geographical names, the Eastern Han Dynasty physicians may be revised from previous works.
Shennong
"Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" The book is in three volumes, containing such drugs, including move, plant, mine three categories, a total of 365 kinds, each drug item download sexual taste, function and indications, ordered another example briefly describes the basic theory of medication , such as toxic, non-toxic, four gas flavors, compatibility testimonies, medication methods and pills, powder, cream, wine and other forms, can be said that the Chinese before summing up our knowledge of drugs and pharmaceutical development for the future of the foundation. To the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Liang Hongjing (AD 452 ~ 536 years) would "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" finishing supplemented with a "Annotations of Materia Medica," a book, which adds 365 kinds of Han Wei and the following doctors used drugs called "doctors do not record ʱ?? [3]
Under each of the original drug not only the taste, function and indications have anything to add, and adds origin, acquisition time and processing methods, greatly enriched the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" content. In the Tang Dynasty, due to the development of productive forces and external transport increasingly frequent, should circumstances so require, government-appointed Li Ji, who presided over Upgrading Dow note Herbal Classic, called "Tang Materia Medica" life after Su Jing and other heavy plus amendments by 114 kinds of medicine, to significantly celebrate four years (AD 659 years) the enactment, called "Newly Revised Materia Medica" or foreign drugs have entered the drug varieties become increasingly increases. To fit "Tang new Materia Medica", the book by the then government revised and enacted, it can be regarded as the first country in the world is a pharmacopoeia. This 844 kinds of herbal drug, along with medication profiles, creating a graphic control of herbal books precedent, not only has a great influence on the development of pharmacology, and soon spread abroad; for the development of the world has made medicine important contribution. [3]
The above is my summary of ancient knowledge of drugs three times, after every certain period, due to the knowledge of the drug
Radix
Radix (18)
 Continuously enriched, there appears a new summary. As Song "Kai Bao Materia Medica", "Jiayou sidebar Materia Medica", are conclusive. By the late Northern Song Dynasty, Tang Shu Medical Shenwei compiled a "certified by the history of emergency preparedness class Materia Medica" (referred Syndrome of Materia Medica). He will "Jiayou sidebar Materia Medica" and "Maps of Materia Medica" merger, increasing more than 500 kinds of medicine, well collected many unilateral prescription medicine and the folk, supplemented by the history of literature, come a lot of drug information, making the book more substantial content, style 亦较 complete, revised by the government had sent three times, with the "grand", "governance", "Shaoxing" The reign, as the official line of books. Great Ming Dynasty medical scientist Li (AD 1518 ~ 1593), in the "Syndrome of Materia Medica" based on) a thorough revision, "the age of thirty calendar Nim, book test eight hundred, draft where Sany" compiled in line with the development needs of Materia Medica masterpiece - "Compendium of Materia Medica" in Li's death three years (1596) in Nanking (now Nanjing) print and publish for the first time. The book contained 1,892 kinds of drugs, more than 11,000 square attached. [3]
Modern development

Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
The establishment of the Republic of China, ending two thousand years of feudal monarchy, but China has not changed the nature of semifeudal and semicolonial society. Besides, the government years of war, social unrest, economic recession, resulting in a slow and uneven development of Chinese science and technology far behind Europe, Japan, China lost 16 centuries ago in the world's leader in science and technology generally. In the case of a large influx of Western technology and culture, it appeared in Western coexist. Accordingly, society and the medical profession of traditional Chinese medicine gradually with "Chinese" medicine, "said the modern Western medicine has thus gradually called" Western medicine "medicine." Abolish the Kuomintang government adopted the policy of Chinese medicine, hindering the development of Chinese medicine, which sparked widespread protests in the pharmaceutical industry. In the academic medical workers struggling to forge ahead, despite the difficulties, herbal medicine or pharmacy still be developed. According to incomplete statistics, Chinese existing Republic of China has more than 260 kinds of books, mostly style novel, diverse, focus on practical. Because of their discussion range, style, language, etc. differ with the traditional herbal medicine, or for popular reasons are generally not to Herbal name. Meanwhile integrated traditional Chinese medicine books and handouts more, the majority of the contents are somewhat clinical utility. The former Jiang Yubo, "Chinese pharmacology Integration" more representative. The book has Subjects, the monograph of two parts. Subjects outlines the basic theoretical knowledge about the medicine; the effectiveness of classification according to the monograph were written more than 400 kinds of aliases drugs, smell, shape, function, system of law, toxic, non-toxic, dosage, contraindications, prescription and so on. Its style and content with the former similar, but more concise and practical. As Qinbo not "pharmaceutically stresses", divided into divergent, diuresis, qi, regulating blood, warm, cold medicine and other 12 categories to be introduced, such as Zhang Shan Lei "Herbal justice", belongs to the nature of traditional medicine theory. The book discusses the combination of personal experience medication medicine herbs, function and identification, processing, boiling method, there is a good influence.
Future Development

Domestic drug consumption market reality urban residents, rural is a huge potential market, pharmaceutical market capacity will be further expanded. Chinese medicine including Chinese medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, Chinese Herbal Medicine, Chinese medicine is its most important component. According to the "2013--2017 depth of China's medicine industry research and investment analysis Strategic Planning Report" statistics, China has more than 80 percent of urban residents had to buy their own medicine. Huge demand for the further development of traditional Chinese medicine industry provides a huge space.
Provinces medicine, Chinese medicine, bio-medicine "five" plan shows that most provinces and cities where the drug industry growth rate is expected to be between 20% -25%, some provinces and cities is expected to more than 30% lower than a small part of the provinces Fifteen%. In the planning forecast several key provinces and cities in Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine industry average growth rate of over 20%, of which Shandong Province with an average annual growth rate of more than 30% or, Sichuan, Jiangxi, respectively 25%, about 23%. Forecast, traditional Chinese medicine industry, "second Five-Year" period will maintain an average annual growth rate of 12 percent, the total output value of over 559 billion in 2015, but the comprehensive provinces of specific planning, medicine industry in China is expected higher than the overall growth of the pharmaceutical industry show prediction "Twelfth Five Year Plan", the annual growth rate, or up to 20% to 2015 total industrial output value of Chinese industry or will reach about 700 billion.
Clinical research editor
Drug efficacy

Many not only the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine has withstood the test of long-term medical practice, but also has been proven Institute of Modern Science. Some of the molecular structure of the active ingredients and herbs, also have wholly or partially understood. For example, the active ingredient ephedrine ephedra asthma, the active ingredient of antimalarial Changshan Changshan base, fumaric pain is the main component tetrahydro palm leaf tetradrine (tetrahydropalmatine), the main component of berberine and Cork Zhili berberine (berberine ), the main ingredient of antibacterial skullcap baicalein, the active ingredient purgative under sennoside like. In order to ensure the efficacy of drugs, Chinese working people in long-term practice, for the cultivation of drugs, harvesting, processing, processing, storage and storage, etc., have also accumulated very rich experience. Many facts prove that the ancient Han Chinese working people accumulated through long-term practice of medicine heritage is extremely rich, extremely valuable. We should cherish this great treasure house of the motherland medicine, and strive to explore, to be improved.
The Development of foreign pharmaceutical knowledge to Egypt and India earliest. Egypt around 1500 BC "papytus" (paper herb) and after India's "Ajur veda" (the life of the Vedas) have been recorded in drugs. Greek, Roman, Arab medicine in development also has a long history, such as the Greek physician Dioscorides's De Materia Medica "(pharmacy), the Roman Galen (AD 131 ~ 200 years) book" Materia Medica "(Pharmacology ), the Arab physician Avicenna (AD 980) book "Canon Mediclnae" (medicine Code) and the like are specifically pharmacological works, has a greater influence on the development of the ancient medicine.
Food Therapy

Record food therapy "Herbal" (Tang Meng milling), according to Famine plants "Shortage of Materia Medica" (Ming Zhu Jiu), focusing on the drug identification, "Ben Cao Yan Yi" (Song Kou were yellow), focusing on drugs gun Sunburn "on artillery Sunburn" (Northern and Southern Liu Song Lei Xiao), and easy to learn reading, rake Now or clinical disease sized reference herbal variety. The Qing Dynasty, the writings WU Chun's two monographs plant: "The plant name, map test" and "plant name, map compiled expertise" come out, the former record 1,714 kinds of plants, 838 kinds of plants which are described. For each plant form, color of taste, quite detailed description of the purpose and place of origin, along with precise illustrations, with particular emphasis on plants with medicinal value research homonym, so though the drug monographs, are also an important reference value. In addition, our knowledge of ancient people also received drugs planted in many medical writings and prescriptions. Such as the Eastern Han Dynasty Zhongjing book "Treatise on" and "Golden Chamber", the Eastern Jin Ge Hong's "elbow Emergencies", Don Sun Ssu "emergency preparedness daughter to party" and "Qian Jin Yi Fang", Song Chen Shih Wen etc. compiled by "Taiping Huimin and economic Bureau", Ming Zhu Xiao et al, "Universal Relief" and so many others. These books were contained drugs and prescriptions, it has also been widely used in a lot of, with good effect. [4]
Diet Diet can be divided into two major categories of traditional Chinese medicine and therapeutic herbs:
1. therapeutic medicine: therapeutic medicine refers to having eating disease prevention or health rehabilitation role, also known as "edible medicine", "Herbal" or "Food and medicine," and so on. Such therapeutic medicine including cereals, fruits, vegetables, spices, animals, fish and other categories.
2. Diet Diet: Diet is formulated from having a therapeutic effect of drugs, food and spices from the diet, generally speaking, herbs can be made solely by the consumption of traditional Chinese medicine processing, but also medicines and food as raw materials, according to certain Prescription, processing and cooking together. [4]
Dictionary book editor
Compendium of Materia Medica

Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
Li comprehensive finishing in this book and summarize the knowledge of the drugs before the sixteenth century of our people, and made great progress. He painted change drug map, revised error, according to the natural properties of the drug, divided into sixteen classes, sixty categories, under each drug, sub Shiming, Variorum, Shuji, indications, invention, with parties and related drugs term, full and clear style, with the word strict, is the history of our country's greatest works of Materia Medica, is extremely glorious history of scientific achievements. Li personally herbs in the mountains long-term, far poorer way place, over the exercise vulgar, traveled to the north and south of the drugs field visits and organize research, and with a realistic scientific attitude force provision Yu Ru's fallacy, denounced the heresy alchemist, the correct ancient Many herbal drugs in terms of variety and efficacy of error, only to "Compendium of Materia Medica," a book of all herbal reach levels far from the previous generation, the book in the early 1500s to spread the world over, has repeatedly engraved and translated into many languages, not only for the World Medical has made a great contribution to the study of animals and plants are also important minerals books. Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty Zhao Xuemin compiled "Compendium of Materia Medica", a book on the "Compendium of Materia Medica" made some positive error and added 716 kinds of medicine increased. From the Han to the Qing Dynasty, no less than a hundred kinds of herbal books, their own strengths, but it can be called a summary, only said a few books. Remaining as local "southern Yunnan Materia Medica" (Ming Lan Mao), foreign drugs specifically remember "sea medicine Materia Medica" (Don Lee martyrdom).
Local Herbal

Where there are a variety of traditional herbal belong to 肖步丹 "Lingnan herbs recorded" Gao Yue "Tarzan drug records" more features, but also enriched the variety of drugs. Herbal greater progress, most content-rich and practical. As Qinbo not "Dietary Guidelines), the traditional briefly characterized; Yang a, Chen Zhonggui" Food for curing diseases common sense ", Roger Leopard" edible herbal medicine ", is more the voice of experience. Other aspects, such as the late Qing Dynasty by Cao Bingzhang According to Zheng Xiao Yan relegated to "counterfeit drugs identified" patch set from the "update counterfeit drugs identified", contained 110 kinds of medicine, on origin, shape, smell, and so on to discuss or compare attending for Identification of the authenticity of the pros and cons of drugs provided valuable experience. Yang Huating "pharmaceutically map test", quote herbal literature, drug varieties made a scientific research, together with patterns, there is a great reference value.
Pharmaceutical Works

As Yang Shucheng "China Pharmaceuticals", Zhou Fusheng "updating Pharmaceutical Guide", about the content than those realistic. Then work in the pharmacy, in addition to the traditional expression, but also produced in Western medicine Huitong make. Huitong school of medicine, the use of natural science and some of the results of Western medicine and complementary medicine based sources expression, composition, efficacy and pharmacology, etc., or to explain to each other Western pharmacology; meantime depth, uneven gains and losses. In various writings, to Guo Wang, "Chinese medicine new feel," Wen Jing Xiu "Recent experimental drug study" and Ruan its hydrocarbons, Wang Yiren, Dong Keren's "Ben Cao Jing new note), and other more representative. Given the number of traditional Chinese medicine this period numerous, extensive knowledge, learning and dissemination of traditional Chinese medicine has a lot of inconvenience, so not only will read, including a class of medicine introductory song books a lot, and the new generation of Chinese medicine dictionaries. [5]
Dictionary

Greater impact in 1935, Chen Cunren compiled the "Chinese Medicine Dictionary." The book is 2.7 million words, to close drug eye 4300, naming each drug were introduced BOOKS aliases, basic, origin, morphology, properties, composition, efficacy, indications, ancient written research, forgeries, neighbor doctrine, with the application, dosage, administration Taboo, reference materials, etc. 21. Data-rich, comprehensive collection of ancient and modern about the discussion, and the accompanying drawings. It is the history of the development of Chinese medicine first large-scale dictionary. In addition to the above, is reflected in the herbal medicine or Chinese medicine academic progress, deserve special mention are: efficacy and indications are clearly open to respectively effect a more accurate representation, increasing the dose of Chinese medicine, as well as gradually with family, genus, species name represents traditional Chinese medicine group sources. During this period pharmaceutical botany, pharmacognosy has become a new interdisciplinary research plant-based medicine natural sources (classification), trait or identification, etc., and made outstanding achievements. As Zhao Yu - yellow "Chinese New this sketch Zhi", "Qi Zhou Chi medicine", "Modern Herbal pharmacognosy" and Pei Jian "Chinese Medicinal Flora", are very representative. [5]
The popularity of traditional Chinese medicine

Since 1927, the Chinese Communist Party leadership of the region, attaches great importance to the popularization and development of the pharmaceutical industry, in the development of drugs to combat the disease, the extensive use of Chinese medicine, has made a lot of experience and achievements. It laid the foundation for the establishment of People's Republic of China after the pharmaceutical industry. [5]
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, since the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese People's Government attached great importance to the pharmaceutical industry to develop a policy to unite in traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine as the core of Chinese medicine inheritance and take a series of effective measures for the development of the pharmaceutical industry ʱ?? With the rapid development of modern natural science and China's economic, cultural, education, pharmacy and therefore we have made considerable progress. From 1954 onwards, the state has planned to organize, published a number of important herbal books, including "The Classic", "Newly Revised Materia Medica", "Syndrome of Materia Medica", "outline" and dozens. Since the 1960s and a series of complex "Wu Pu Materia Medica", "Do not record", "Newly Revised Materia Medica", "Herbal Supplements" and more than a hundred species, the study and preservation of ancient herbal literature of great significance. [5]
Chinese medicine books

. ① Institute of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences preparation of the "Chinese Medicine Chi", the original book is divided in four volumes, the revised book is divided into six volumes, one of two volumes of roots and tubers, collection contains 206 kinds of drugs; three volumes of seed Fruit class collection contains 138 kinds of drugs; four for the whole grasses collection contains 135 kinds of drugs; five for the leaves, flowers, bark, rattan wood, resin, algae bacteria, other classes, 148 kinds of drugs were contained; six of animals, minerals, to be out. Each volume drugs are accompanied by ink drawings, photos and color graphics shine. Each pharmaceutical introduces the history, the original plant (dynamic) objects, plucking, medicine and marketing, chemical composition, identification herbs, the taste and efficacy, pharmacological effects and clinical applications, notes and so on.
②. 70's by the "National Herbal Compendium) prepared by the writing group" National Herbal Compendium "collection contains a total of 2288 kinds of Chinese herbal medicine, with more than 2,100 pieces of ink drawings. Introduced the drug sources, morphology, habitat distribution, cultivation or raising points, acquisition processing, processing, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects of taste functions, attending usage, prescriptions, etc., comprehensive, brief. Compare widely reflected the national Chinese herbal medicine resources and applications.
③. After a long effort by the Jiangsu New Medical College preparation of the "Chinese Dictionary", received a total of 5,767 kinds of Chinese carrier. Each drug was given name of the drug, sexual taste, Meridian, Indications, election party, "clinical reports, each to be discussed until 19 written. It contains ancient Chinese medicine contained in the content.
④. The primary Chinese Herbal illustrations Codification Committee compiled the "primary Chinese herbal medicine field guide," The book is 25, were contained in the 5000 kinds of Chinese painting, along with text commentary, including the base of the original plant (animal) forms, collection and processing, chemical composition, pharmacology, efficacy of taste, attending usage, dosage, notes and so on.
⑤. By the Ministry of Health, Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Yunnan Institute for Drug and other compiled "Chinese folk medicine records," first introduced the drug more than 1200 kinds of Chinese multi-ethnic. Each pharmaceutical sub-national drug name, origin, national pharmaceutical experience, medicine testing, research and other items of information, specific description of the base of the original drug, the scientific name, medicinal part, shape and drawings, historical situation, function, and composition, pharmacology, clinical applications. In addition, Xu Guojun "pharmacognosy", Xie Zong ten thousand "Chinese herbal varieties discussed," Liu Shou "Chinese research literature summary" etc from different angles reflect the traditional Chinese medicine research, have a greater impact at home and abroad.
Since the founding of New China, the government has organized a large scale power resources survey and collect data. Most of these results are reflected in the country and throughout the history of Chinese medicine or medicinal flora, fauna and other works. It is known that there are 12,807 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine resources total, of which 11,146 kinds of plants, 1,581 kinds of medicinal plants, 80 kinds of medicinal minerals. In traditional Chinese medicine resources survey, based on a number of domestic resources development and utilization of imported medicine has made remarkable achievements, such as Rauwolfia, benzoin, incense, etc., have in domestic production. Chinese medicine resources protection, offsite introduction herbal medicinal domesticated animals and medicinal plants and comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine is also quite effective. American ginseng, Tianma, velvet, bear bile and ginseng, and so on Uncaria are typical examples of these aspects. [5]
Reform and Development Editor
March 1987, the Ministry of Health, the State Drug Administration jointly issued "on the strengthening of the development of Chinese medicine formulations Work", called for "Pieces of Chinese medicine commonly used to study and reform." After years of exploration, modern medicine has to take easy, absorb fast, accurate, safe, clean, easy to carry, without boiling direction. The Chinese cultural legacy in combination with modern science and technology, and Jiang Yin Tianjiang who pioneered the "single herb concentrate particles (now named: Chinese medicine formulations particles)", the Chinese Herbal Medicine by extraction, concentration, drying and other processes refined The single herb products. Chinese Herbal Medicine maintains the taste and effect, used in traditional Chinese medicine clinical diagnosis prescription formulation, adaptation syndrome differentiation, prescription changing needs, Chinese medicine is a model of innovation.
Most modern research of Chinese medicine has made noteworthy progress: ① the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine has been systematic and comprehensive consolidation of herbs, go through, made a lot of research and other anti-eighteen, eighteen anti experimental study to achieve greater results. But difficult to study aspects of larger, there are many issues to be resolved. ② Pharmacognosy identification of science and Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine in the identification of sources in addition to general, character identification, but also widely used microscopic, physical and chemical means. And identification techniques has been to achieve rapid, accurate direction with a small amount of seized goods. ③ by modern research technologies and principles of traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine school has been great development. Accordingly, many Chinese medicine processing, has been improved and standardized, and use a lot of advanced equipment and technology to improve the quality Pieces. ④ established pharmaceutical chemistry, the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine have been extensively studied. Most commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine defined the main active ingredient, in part to clarify the chemical structure. ⑤ established Pharmacology. For most commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine has been systematically studied pharmacology; antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumor, antipyretic, diuretic, blood pressure and other aspects of a large drug screening. Past unnoticed polysaccharides, tannins, amino acids, peptides, etc., has been found to have a variety of biological activity. It played an important role in elucidating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine terms. ③ With the development of Chinese medicine, the new formulation increases, as well as improve the quality of testing and control methods, the proprietary Chinese medicine production has been toward modernization. In order to develop a unified drug standards, the Ministry of Health set up an early pharmacopoeia Compilation Committee, later renamed the Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, in 1953, 1963, 1977, 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2010 has published a version of the seven " People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. " Since 1963, USP minute "one", "two" Writing. "A" is part of traditional Chinese medicine, the main collection contains herbs, traditional Chinese medicine prescription preparations, and another legend preparations Appendix General, medicine verification methods. The collection contains herbal each edition are adjusted. 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" published by three points, a collection contains herbs and Pieces, plant oils and extracts, prescription and single herb preparations, a total of 2136 kinds of species, 612 kinds of amendments. Chinese medicines content, depending on the variety and dosage forms were successively columns are: Determination of Chinese name, Pinyin and Latin name, source, prescription, production method, character, identification, inspection, extract, content, nature and owned by, function and indications, usage and dosage, attention, specifications, storage, preparation and so on. Appendix content and advanced detection methods greatly increased. At the same time, the state has always attached importance drug OF POLITICAL construction work, we have developed a number of related management practices traditional Chinese medicine, and so in 1984 the State passed the "Drug Administration Law of People's Republic of China." Enacted for the protection of people's health, development of Chinese medicine and health services, improve the competitiveness of Chinese medicines in the international market has an important significance of the Drug Administration Law.
Tonic misunderstanding editor
Myth # 1, more expensive, more fill
Some people think that the more expensive medicine more fill, often willing to spend a higher price antler, ginseng and the like traditional Chinese medicine, in fact, may not be enough tonic effect. "What is missing, make up what is" is the basic principle of tonic, Chinese medicine should not be used to divide the price of high or low level of effectiveness, the key is to select the appropriate according to their own constitution tonic, especially the elderly, should be practical as a tonic principle.
Myth # 2: The more fill
"Multi-tonic, cure, disease-free physical" argument is very scientific. Lot winter tonic, will suddenly increase the burden on the stomach and liver, making long-term weakness of the digestive organs unbearable, leading to digestive disorders.
Regardless of the actual situation
Treatment principles of Chinese medicine is "virtual who tonic ', not a deficiency, people should not tonic. Even the deficiency, there deficiency, blood deficiency, yang, yin points, but also guilty of human organs, lung, liver deficiency, spleen, kidney and so different, people in front of tonic, should check with a professional medical advice, combined with the performance characteristics of various tonic, symptomatic administration, such as hot body who is not suitable for taking ginseng, deer horn, hippocampus and other hot property drugs.
Incompatibility editor
Compatibility

Compatibility refers to purposefully and potency characteristics required by the disease, selectively with two flavor with the use of these drugs. The occurrence and development of the disease is often complex and ever-changing, usually the actual situation and see, mixed cold and heat, and the number of disease phase, so a drug alone is difficult to balance the parties. Therefore, when using two or more drugs flavor, it must have a choice, which is proposed drug compatibility relations.
The previous application compatibility with the single herb relationship between drugs and medicine drugs called "impassioned", "impassioned" among those who in addition to a single line, the other six are talking about the relationship compatibility. It is described below:
1. The single line: the single herb that can exert the desired effect without the other is called a single-line drug aid. Such as Ginseng alone, with only the big blind ginseng treatment vitality off the card that is valid.
2. phase shall be: that the performance of the efficacy of the drug with a similar application, you can enhance the efficacy of its original. Such as gypsum with altogether can enhance the effectiveness of heat purging fire.
3. Phase make: that there is something in common with the use of drugs in terms of performance and effectiveness, and to a drug-based, supplemented by another drug that can improve the efficacy of the main drug.
4. Phase fear & kill one: that one toxicity or side effects of the drug, another drug can be reduced or eliminated. Such as toxicity raw Pinellia ginger can reduce or eliminate, so say Pinellia fear ginger. Also known as a drug can reduce or eliminate the toxic or side effects of another drug. Such as ginger can reduce or eliminate raw Pinellia toxicity, Gu Yun ginger Pinellia killing poison.
6. Phase evil: the combination of two drugs, one drug with another drug caused the original phase separation effect reduced, or even loss of efficacy.
7. On the contrary: that the two drugs in combination can produce toxicity or side effects. As "Eighteen against" Several drugs.
In addition to the above-mentioned six areas outside a single line, which can be summarized as four changes in the relationship, that with
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
The case of Wu applications: ① some drugs due to synergies and enhance the efficacy of clinical medicine is to take full advantage of; ② Some drugs may be offset against each other, weakening the original effect, medication should take note; ③... Some drugs are due to the interaction, and can reduce or eliminate existing toxicity or side effects, drug toxicity in the application or potent drug must be considered optional;. ④ some drugs because of interactions generated or enhanced side effects, belonging to incompatibility, in principle, should be avoided with the use.
Based on the above, we can see from a single herb medicine to application compatibility is achieved by long practice and understanding of the process up gradually accumulated wealth. Application compatibility is the main form of Chinese medicine drug medication. Drugs are combined according to certain testimonies, and determine a certain weight ratio, made the appropriate dosage forms, namely prescription. The development of prescription drugs combined, also higher forms of drug compatibility applications.
This by

"The Classic Preface example," pointed out: "Do not use with the evil, the opposite person." But with the evil and the consequences caused by the opposite is not the same. Compatibility with evil drugs can decrease the effectiveness of certain aspects, but is a relationship of compatibility can be utilized, not an absolute contraindication. And "On the contrary damage, deep in phase vicious" may endanger the patient's health, and even life-threatening. Therefore, application compatibility prohibited drugs on opposite principles. Pharmaceutical industry commonly recognized incompatibility, there are "Eighteen anti" and "19 fear."
Eighte: Licorice by anti-Gan, spurge, seaweed, Daphne; Aconitum anti Fritillaria, Trichosanthes, Breit, Ampelopsis, white and; Veratryl anti ginseng, Radix, Salvia, Scrophulariaceae, Asarum , peony.
19 fear: fear Puxiao sulfur, mercury arsenic fear, Euphorbia fear litharge, croton fear cows, cloves fear turmeric, Aconitum, Aconitum fear rhino horn, teeth nitrate fear triangular, Guangui fear vaseline, the ginseng Wulingzhi fear.
Five Shu Han Baosheng Amendment "Shu Materia Medica", the first statistics on the number impassioned reference to "phase sixty kinds of evil, on the contrary are eighteen", most people called "Eighteen against" in the name of the cover from this. Phase one of the traditional Chinese medicine impassioned fear, content is as described above. But the Song Dynasty some medicine works, appear to fear, evil, anti names used chaotic situation, and the "Classic" "with fear" contrary to the original meaning. As the incompatibility of "19 fear" is presented in this case.
For Eighte, 19 fear as incompatibility, history of medicine, although compliance believe the majority, but there are dissidents, some people think Eighte, 19 fear is not an absolute contraindication; Some medical experts also believe that, In contrast with drug use, can produce a strong effect opposite and complementary. Yet, if used properly, can be more chronic ills.
Modern anti-eighteen, nineteen fear experimentally study pharmacology, we made a lot of achievements. However, due to the anti-eighteen, nineteen fear many problems involved, there are differences across the experimental conditions and methods, so that results vary widely. Most simple toxicity tests negative result or conflicting results. Early findings tend to negate; observe the gradual deepening "should not be denied," the voice getting high. In addition, experiments show that the anti-eighteen, nineteen fear side effects of drugs on the human body size, and the absolute dose and relative dose inter-related.
Overall, since the eighth anti-experimental study 19 fear is still in its early stages, it is too early to determine their choice, pending further study. Where it Eighte, 19 fear of drugs on, without sufficient basis and application experience, generally should not be used.
Taboo

Contraindication to taking the medicine can be divided into five categories:
1. Chinese medicine Incompatibility: certain drugs because after formulation may have the opposite, evil phase relationship, so that they reduce the efficacy or cause adverse reactions, contraindications with the use.
2. Pregnant drug contraindications: mainly to avoid moving tires, abortion, because most of the women after pregnancy Big Chill, heat, steep profits slip diarrhea, expelling blood stasis and toxic drugs and poor tolerance, and therefore must be related drugs hanged.
3. During medication diet taboos: commonly known as diet, medication main factors in order to avoid interference when, in order to improve the efficacy, diet can be divided into two categories corresponding to a particular drug under different disease conditions diet medication, the former such as ginseng bogey radish, turtle bogey amaranth, licorice avoid chub, Changshan bogey onions, Poria bogey vinegar. The latter is required to avoid cold chronic medication, avoid sexually transmitted diseases during the heat treatment of spicy, greasy, sore carbuncle ulcers, skin disorders avoid fish, goose and spicy stimulation products.
4. decoction taboo overnight taking: Because medicine contains a variety of ingredients starches, sugars, protein, vitamins, essential oils, amino acids and various enzymes, trace elements, when most of these ingredients are dissolved in boiling soup concoction inside. Dosage is generally the first to take advantage of warm clothes half, 4 to 6 hours before serving half.

Side effect
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
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Reference material











Home        Common Herbs 常用草藥


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清热药 Antipyretic herbs

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炒苏子 炒莱菔子 炙百部 前胡 白前 桑白皮 葶苈子 炙紫菀 炙冬花 鱼腥草 炒白芥子 桔梗 浮海石 制远志

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平肝熄风药:天麻 勾藤 炒僵蚕 炒地龙 蜈蚣 全蝎

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祛风湿药:羌活 独活 木瓜 威灵仙 仙灵脾 海风藤 青风藤 制狗脊 骨碎补 防风 虎杖 香加皮 稀莶草 秦艽 鸡血藤 忍冬藤 续断槲寄生 制南星 制川乌 制草乌 泽兰

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活血化瘀药:当归 川芎 制元胡 郁金 丹参 桃仁 红花 炒地必虫 怀牛膝 川牛膝 制乳香 制没药 炙甲片 牡丹皮

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行气药:陈皮 木香 炒枳壳 制香附 姜黄 制元胡

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止血药:白及 茜草 蒲黄炭

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芳香化湿药:藿香 佩兰壳 砂仁 炒苍术 制川朴

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消食药:炙鸡金 炒莱菔子
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利水渗湿药:茯苓 泽泻 茵陈 炒车前子 米仁 金钱草 扁蓄 瞿麦 滑石 海金沙


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安神药:炒酸枣仁 制远志 制五味子

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补虚药:紫河车粉 鹿角片 炒杜仲 制山茱萸 枸杞子 党参 炒白术 黄芪 甘草 当归 炒白芍 熟地黄 麦冬 北沙参



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泻下药:生大黄 火麻仁 郁李仁 大戟 牵牛子 甘遂 芒硝



生姜Ginger
乾薑Dry Ginger

靈芝Ganoderma (Red Reishi Mushroom)

山藥Chinese yam
大枣Jujube
石榴Pomegranate
苦瓜bitter melon

荷叶Lotus leaf


冬虫夏草Cordyceps sinensis

逍遙散 - 疏肝解鬱 Xiaoyaosan - Relieving the Depressed Liver
升陷湯 - 治大氣下陷 rise depression soup - cure Large qi Subsidence
歸脾湯 - 養心益氣又健脾 normalized Spleen soup - nourishing the heart Supplementing Qi healthy spleen
交泰丸 - 治心腎不交失眠Jiao Tai Wan - cure insomnia of heart and kidney fight

四君子湯 - 補氣健脾Four Gentlemen Decoction - Complement qi Healthy Spleen
小柴胡湯 - 外感良方Xiao Chai Hu Tang - flu Recipe

血府逐瘀湯 - 活血化瘀 Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang - Promoting blood circulation stasis
補陽還五湯 - 擅治中風後遺症Bu Yang Huan Wu Tang - good at cure stroke sequelae
金匱腎氣丸 - 補腎溫陽 Jinkuishenqiwan - complement Kidney warm Yang
六味地黃丸 - 治腎陰虛 Liu Wei Di Huang Wan - cure kidney yin deficiency
藿香正氣散 - 解暑化濕理腸胃Huo Xiang Zheng Qi San - dispel summer heat dampness management stomach

中藥名就是中藥作用 - 朱壁修講解Chinese herbs Name is the effect of traditional Chinese medicine


中药

 编辑
中药(Chinese herbology、Traditional Materia Medica),是指在中医学理论指导下用于预防、诊断、治疗或调节人体机能的药物。中药按加工工艺分为中成药、中药材。中药主要起源于中国,除了植物药以外,动物药如蛇胆,熊胆,五步蛇,鹿茸鹿角等;介壳类如珍珠,海蛤壳;矿物类如龙骨磁石等都是用来治病的中药。少数中药源于外国,如西洋参[1] 
为什么熬中药要用砂锅
砂锅的主要成分是硅酸盐,不会与中药中的成分发生化学反应破坏药性。铁、铝锅则极易在煎煮过程中和中药发生化学反应产生毒素。且砂锅受热均匀,传热慢,煎药时水分不易蒸发,不容易糊锅。
中药的煎煮应注意什么更多
中药煎煮一般要煎煮2~3次,最少应煎2次。一般未沸前用武火,沸后用文火。一般头煎的煮沸后再用小火煎20~30分钟,二煎煮沸后再用小火煎10~20分钟。
中药不宜过夜服用更多
空气、温度、时间和细菌污染等因素使药液中的酶分解减效,细菌繁殖滋生,淀粉、糖类营养等成分发酵水解,以致药液发馊变质,服用后对人体健康不利。
相关词条:
砂锅本草纲目
中文名
中药
外文名
Chinese herbology、Traditional Chinese medicine
别    名
中草药、生药
数    量
约2000种
著名典籍
《本草纲目》、《神农本草经》

目录

词语概念编辑

基本信息

词目:中药
拼音: zhōng yào
注音: ㄓㄨㄙ ㄧㄠˋ
同类词: 西药
基本解释:[traditional Chinese medicine] 中药所用的药物。[2] 

引证解释

1.平和的药物。 三国 魏 嵇康 《养生论》:“故 神农 曰:‘上药养命,中药养性’者,诚知性命之理,因辅养以通也。” 晋 张华 《博物志》卷七:“中药养性,谓合欢蠲忿,萱草忘忧。” 宋 徐铉 《题白鹤庙》诗:“常嗟多病嫌中药,拟问真经乞小还。”
2.中医所用的药物,其中以植物为最多。[2] 

发展历史编辑

古代发展

中药中药
中国劳动人民几千年来在与疾病作斗争的过程中,通过实践,不断认识,逐渐积累了丰富的医药知识。由于太古时期文字未兴,这些知识只能依靠师承口授,后来有了文字,便逐渐记录下来,出现了医药书籍。这些书籍起到了总结前人经验并便于流传和推广的作用。中国医药学已有数千年的历史,是中国人民长期同疾病作斗争的极为丰富的经验总结,对于中华民族的繁荣昌盛有着巨大的贡献。由于药物中草类占大多数,所以记载药物的书籍便称为“本草”。据考证,秦汉之际,本草流行已较多,但可惜这些本草都已亡佚,无可查考。现知的最早本草著作称为《神农本草经》,著者不详,根据其中记载的地名,可能是东汉医家修订前人著作而成。
神农本草经
神农本草经》全书共三卷,收载药物包括动、植、矿三类,共365种,每药项下载有性味、功能与主治,另有序例简要地记述了用药的基本理论,如有毒无毒、四气五味配伍法度、服药方法及丸、散、膏、酒等剂型,可说是汉以前我国药物知识的总结,并为以后的药学发展奠定了基础。到了南北朝,梁代陶弘景(公元452~536年)将《神农本草经》整理补充,著成《本草经集注》一书,其中增加了汉魏以下名医所用药物365种,称为《名医别录[3] 
每药之下不但对原有的性味、功能与主治有所补充,并增加了产地、采集时间和加工方法等,大大丰富了《神农本草经》的内容。到了唐代,由于生产力的发展以及对外交通日益频繁,应形势需要,政府指派李绩等人主持增修陶氏所注本草经,称为“唐本草”后又命苏敬等重加修正,增药114种,于显庆四年(公元659年)颁行,称为《新修本草》或外国药物陆续输入,药物品种日见增加。为了适《唐新本草》,此书由当时的政府修订和颁行,所以可算是我国也是世界上最早的一部药典。这部本草载药844种,并附有药物图谱,开创了我国本草著作图文对照的先例,不但对我国药物学的发展有很大影响,而且不久即流传国外;对世界医药的发展作出了重要贡献。[3] 
以上所述是我国古代药物知识的三次总结,以后每隔一定时期,由于药物知识的
首乌
首乌 (18张)
 不断丰富,便有新的总结出现。如宋代的《开宝本草》、《嘉祐补注本草》,都是总结性的。到了北宋后期,蜀医唐慎微编成了《经史证类备急本草》(简称证类本草)。他将《嘉祐补注本草》与《图经本草》合并,增药500多种,井收集了医家和民间的许多单方验方,补充了经史文献中得来的大量药物资料,使得此书内容更为充实,体例亦较完备,曾由政府派人修订三次,加上了“大观”、“政和”、“绍兴”的年号,作为官书刊行。明代的伟大医药学家李时珍(公元1518~1593年),在《证类本草》的基础上)进行彻底的修订,“岁历三十稔,书考八百余家,稿凡三易”,编成了符合时代发展需要的本草巨著——《本草纲目》于李时珍死后三年(1596年)在金陵(今南京)首次刊行。此书载药1892种,附方11000多个。[3] 

近代发展

中药中药
中华民国的建立,结束了两千多年的封建君主统治,但是中国仍未改变半封建半殖民地的社会性质。加之国家连年战争,社会动荡,经济衰退,致使中国科技发展缓慢而不平衡,远远落后于欧美、日本等,失去了16世纪以前中国在世界科技上普遍领先地位。在西方科技文化大量涌入的情况下,出现了中西药并存的局面。与此相应,社会和医药界对传统的中国医药逐渐有了“中医”、中药”之称,对现代西方医药也因此逐渐称为“西医”、西药”。由于国民党政府采取废止中医的政策,阻碍了中医药的发展,因而引发了中医药界的普遍抗争。在学术医药工作者奋发进取,尽管困难重重,本草学或中药学仍然有所发展。 据不完全统计,现存民国时期的中药专著有260多种,大多体例新颖、类型多样、注重实用。由于它们的论述范围、体例、用语等与传统本草有所不同,或为了通俗的原因,一般都不以本草命名。其间综合性中药著作和讲义较多,内容多数偏于临床实用。前者以蒋玉柏《中国药物学集成》较有代表性。该书有总论、各论两大部分。总论概述了中药有关基本理论知识;各论按功效分类,分别记述了400余种药物的别名、气味、形状、功用、制法、有毒无毒、用量、禁忌、处方等。其体例和内容与前者基本相似,但更简明实用。如秦伯未《药物学讲》,分为发散、利尿理气理血、温热、寒凉药等12类加以介绍,如张山雷本草正义》,属于传统药论性质。该书结合个人用药体验论述了中药的药性、功用以及鉴别炮制煎煮法等,有较好的影响。

未来发展

国内药品的现实消费市场是城市居民,农村是巨大的潜在市场,医药市场容量还将进一步扩大。中药包括中成药中药材中药饮片,其中成药是最重要的组成部分。据《2013-2017年中国中药行业深度调研与投资战略规划分析报告》数据统计,我国有80%以上的城市居民自行购买过中成药。巨大的需求为国内中药行业的进一步发展提供了巨大的空间。
各省市医药、中药、生物医药“十二五”规划显示,大部分省市预计其中药产业增长率在20%-25%之间,部分省市预计在30%以上,少部分省市低于15%。在几大中药重点省市的规划预测中,中药行业的增长率均在20%以上,其中山东省年均增长率或达30%以上,四川、江西分别在25%、23%左右。预测,“十二五”期间中药工业将保持年均12%以上速度的增长,到2015年总产值超过5590亿,但综合各省市的具体规划,预计我国中药行业整体增速高于中医药事业展“十二五”规划的预测,年增长率或可达20%以上,到2015年中药行业工业总产值或将达到7000亿左右。

疗效考证编辑

药物疗效

很多中草药的疗效不但经受住了长期医疗实践的检验,而且也已被现代科学研究所证实。有些中草药的有效成分和分子结构等也已经全部或部分地研究清楚。例如麻黄平喘的有效成分麻黄碱、常山治疟的有效成分常山碱、延胡索止痛的主要成分四氢掌叶防己碱(延胡索乙素)、黄连和黄柏止痢的主要成分小蘖碱(黄连素)、黄芩抗菌的主要成分黄芩素、大黄泻下的有效成分番泻甙等等。为了保证药物的疗效,中国劳动人民在长期的实践中,对于药物的栽培、采收、加工、炮制、贮藏保管等方面,也都积累了极为丰富的经验。大量事实证明,中国古代汉族劳动人民通过长期实践所积累起来的医药遗产是极为丰富、极为宝贵的。我们应当珍视这个祖国医药学的伟大宝库,努力发掘,加以提高。
反观国外药物知识的发展,以埃及和印度为最早。公元前1500年左右埃及的“papytus”(纸草本)及其后印度的“Ajur veda”(寿命吠陀经)中均已有药物的记载。希腊、古罗马、阿拉伯在医药的发展中也有悠久的历史,如希腊医生Dioscorides的De Materia Medica”(药物学),古罗马的Galen(公元131~200年)所著“Materia Medica”(药物学),阿拉伯医生Avicenna (公元980年)所著“Canon Mediclnae”(医药典)等都是专门的药物学著作,对古代医药学的发展都有较大的影响。

食物疗法

记载食物疗法的《食疗本草》(唐·孟铣)、记载救荒植物的《救荒本草》(明·朱橚)、侧重药物鉴别的《本草衍义》(宋·寇宗黄)、侧重药物炮炙的《炮炙论》(南北朝刘宋·雷敩)以及便于学习诵读、翻检查阅或临症参考的中小型本草多种。 清代道光年间,吴其浚的两部专论植物的著作:《植物名实图考》和《植物名实图专长编》问世,前者记载植物1714种,后者描述了植物838种。对于每种植物的形色性味、用途和产地叙述颇详,并附有精确插图,尤其着重植物的药用价值与同名异物的考证,所以虽非药物专著,亦有重要的参考价值。此外,我国古代人民关于药物的知识还收栽在许多医学和方剂学的著作中。例如东汉张仲景所著的《伤寒论》和《金匮要略》、东晋葛洪的《肘后备急方》、唐·孙思邈的《备急千金要方》和《千金翼方》、宋·陈师文等所编的《太平惠民和济局方》、明·朱橚等的《普济方》等等,不胜枚举。 这些书籍中收载的药物和方剂,很多至今还被广泛地应用着,具有很好的疗效。[4] 
药膳可分为食疗中药和食疗药膳两大类:
1.食疗中药:食疗中药是指具有防治疾病或保健康复作用的饮食物,又称为“食用中药”、“食疗本草”或“食物中药”等。这类食疗中药包括谷物、水果、蔬菜、调料、禽兽、水产等类。
2.食疗药膳:药膳是由具有治疗作用的药物、食物和调料配制而成的膳食,总体说来,药膳既可单独由食用中药加工制成,又可以中药材和食品为原料,按照一定的组方,加工、烹调而成。[4] 

辞典著作编辑

本草纲目

中药中药
李时珍在这部书中全面整理和总结了十六世纪以前我国人民的药物知识,并作了很大发展。他改绘药图,订正错误,并按药物的自然属性,分为十六纲,六十类,每药之下,分释名、集解修治、主治、发明、附方及有关药物等项,体例详明,用字严谨,是我国本草史上最伟大的著作,也是我国科学史中极其辉煌的成就。李时珍长期亲自上山采药,远穷僻壤,遍询土俗,足迹踏遍了大江南北,对药物进行实地考查和整理研究,并用实事求是的科学态度力辟迂儒之谬论,痛斥方士之邪说,纠正了古代本草中不少药物品种和药效方面的错误,才使《本草纲目》一书达到前代一切本草远未达到的水平,这部书在十六世纪初就流传中外,曾经多次刻印并被译成多种文字,不但对世界医学作出了伟大的贡献,也是研究动植矿物的重要典籍。清代乾隆年间赵学敏编成《本草纲目拾遗》一书,对《本草纲目》作了一些正误和补充,增药716种。由汉到清,本草著作不下百余种,各有所长,但可称为总结性的,只有上述几书。其余如地方性的《滇南本草》(明·兰茂)、专记外来药物的《海药本草》(唐·李殉)。

地方本草

属于传统的地方本草亦有多种,以肖步丹《岭南采药录》、高宗岳《泰山药物志》较有特色,也丰富了药物的品种。食疗本草有较大的进步,大多内容丰富、实用。如秦伯未《饮食指南),以传统、简要为特点;杨志一、沈仲圭《食物疗病常识》、陆观豹《食用本草学》,则多为经验之谈。其他方面,如经曹炳章据清末郑肖岩所撰《伪药条辨》补订而成的《增订伪药条辨》,载药110种,就产地、形态、气味、主治等以论述或比较,为辨识药物真伪优劣提供了宝贵经验。杨华亭《药物图考》,摘引本草文献,对药物品种作了科学的考证,并附有图谱,有很大的参考价值。

制药著作

如杨叔澄《中国制药学》、周复生《增订药业指南》,有关内容均较切合实际。当时的中药学著作,除了传统的表述外,还产生了中西药汇通之作。汇通派医药学家,利用自然科学和西方医药学的某些成果,补充表达中药的基源、成分、功效及其药理等,或以中西药理互为解说;其间深浅、得失参差不齐。在各种著作中,以郭望《汉药新觉》、温敬修《最新实验药物学》及阮其烃、王一仁、董克仁的《本草经新注)等较有代表性。鉴于此期中药数量众多、知识广泛,对中药的学习与传播已有诸多不便,故不仅便读、歌括一类中药入门书籍不少,而且新产生了中药辞书。[5] 

辞典

影响较大的是1935年陈存仁编著的《中国药学大辞典》。全书270万字,收药目4300条,每药分别介绍命名、古籍别名、基本、产地、形态、性质、成分、效能、主治、历代记述考证、辨伪、近人学说、配合应用、用量、施用宜忌、参考资料等21项。资料丰富、全面,汇集了古今有关论述,并有附图。它是中药发展史上第一部大型辞典。除上述外,反映在本草或中药学术的进步,值得特别提出的是:功效和主治已明确分别开来,功效表述较准确,增加了中药剂量,以及逐渐用科、属、种名表示中药基源等。 这一时期药用植物学、生药学已成为研究植物类中药的自然来源(分类)、性状或鉴别等新兴的学科,并取得了突出的成就。如赵燏黄《中国新本草图志》、《祁州药志》、《现代本草生药学》和裴鉴《中国药用植物志》等,均很有代表性。[5] 

中药普及

1927年以来,在中国共产党领导的地区,十分重视中医药事业的普及与发展,在研制药品、防治疾病中,大量采用中医药,取得了不少经验和成绩。它为中华人民共和国成立后的中医药事业奠定了基础。[5] 
中药中药
1949年中华人民共和国成立以后,由于中国共产党和中国人民政府对中医药事业的高度重视,制定了以团结中西医和继承中医药学为核心的中医政策,并采取了一系列有力措施发展中医药事业。随着现代自然科学和中国经济、文化、教育事业的迅速发展,中药学也因此取得了长足进步。 从1954年起,国家有计划地整理、出版了一批重要的本草古籍,计有《本经》、《新修本草》、《证类本草》、《纲目》等数十种。60年代以来又辑复了《吴普本草》、《别录》、《新修本草》、《本草拾遗》等百十余种,对研究和保存古本草文献有重大意义。[5] 

中药著作

①.中国医学科学院药物研究所等编写的《中药志》,原书分四册,修订后全书分六册,其中一、二册为根与根茎类,收载药物206种;三册为种子果实类,收载药物138种;四册为全草类,收载药物135种;五册为叶、花、皮、藤木、树脂、藻菌、其他类,收载药物148种;六册为动物、矿物类,待出。每册药物均附有墨线图、照片及彩色图照。每一药物介绍了历史、原植(动)物、采制、药材及产销、化学成分、药材鉴别、性味及功效、药理作用及临床应用、附注等内容。
②.70年代由《全国中草药汇编)编写组编写的《全国中草药汇编》共收载中草药2288种,附墨线图2100余幅。各药介绍了来源、形态特征、生境分布、栽培或饲养要点、采集加工、炮制、化学成分、药理作用、性味功能、主治用法、处方等,内容全面、简要。比较广泛地反映了当时全国中草药资源与应用。
③.经过长期努力由江苏新医学院编写的《中药大辞典》,共收载中药5767种。每一药物分药名、性味、归经、功能主治、选方”、临床报道、各家论述等到19项加以记述。它包含了所载中药古今有关内容。
④.由原色中国本草图鉴编纂委员会编著的《原色中国本草图鉴》,全书共25册,收载彩绘中药的5000种,并附文字解说,包括基原、植物(动物)形态、采集加工、化学成分、药理、性味效能、主治用法、用量、附注等内容。
⑤.由卫生部药品生物制品检定所、云南省药品检验所等编纂的《中国民族药志》首次介绍了中国多民族药物1200多种。每一药物分民族药名、来源、民族药用经验、药材检验、科研资料等项,具体介绍了药物的基原、学名、药用部分、形态及附图、历史现状、功用,以及成分、药理、临床应用等。此外,徐国钧《生药学》、谢宗万《中药材品种论述》、刘寿山《中药研究文献摘要》等均从不同角度反映了中药研究成果,在国内外有较大影响。
新中国成立以来,政府先后多次组织力量资源进行了大规模调查和资料的搜集。这些成果大部分都反映在全国和各地中药志或药用植物志、动物志等著作中。现已知中药资源总数有12807种,其中用植物11146种,药用动物1581种,药用矿物80种。在中药资源调查基础上,一些进口药材国产资源的开发利用也取得了显著成绩,如萝芙木安息香、沉香等已在国内生产。中药资源保护、植物药异地引种、药用动物和药用动物的驯化及中药的综合利用也颇见成效。西洋参、天麻、鹿茸熊胆和人参、钩藤等就分别是这些方面的典型事例。[5] 

改革发展编辑

1987年3月,卫生部、国家中医药管理局联合发布《关于加强中药剂型研制工作的意见》,要求对“常用中药饮片进行研究和改革”。经过多年探索,现代中药已经向服用方便、吸收快捷、计量准确、安全清洁、携带便利,不需煎煮的方向发展。这一中华国粹在与现代科学技术的结合中,江阴天江人率先创立“单味中药浓缩颗粒(现定名:中药配方颗粒)”,将中药饮片经浸提、浓缩、干燥等工艺精制而成的单味中药产品。保持了中药饮片的性味与功效,应用于中医临诊处方的调配,适应辨证施治、处方变化的需要,是中国中药创新的典范。
中药的现代研究大多取得了瞩目进展:①中药的基本理论得到了系统、全面整理,对药性、归经、十八反等作了大量研究,十八反的实验研究取得较大成果。但这方面的研究难度较大,有不少问题有待解决。②生药学和中药鉴定学,在中药鉴定方面除一般来源、性状鉴定外,还普遍采用显微、理化等手段。而且鉴定技术已向用少量检品达到迅速、准确的方向发展。③通过中药炮制技术与原理的现代研究,中药炮制学得到了较大的发展。与此相应,对许多中药的炮制、作了改进和规范,并采用了许多先进的设备与技术,提高了饮片质量。④建立了中药化学,对中药的化学成分进行了广泛的研究。多数常用中药明确了主要有效成分,部分弄清了化学结构。⑤建立了中药药理学。对多数常用中药的药理进行了系统研究;抗菌、抗病毒、抗肿瘤、解热、利尿、降压等方面进行了大量药物筛选。过去不被注意的多糖类、鞣质、氨基酸、多肽等,现已发现有多种生物活性。它在阐明中药功效方面发挥了重要作用。③随着中药制剂的发展,新剂型的增多,以及质量检测控制手段的提高,中成药生产已走向现代化。 为了统一制定药品标准,卫生部及早成立了药典编纂委员会,后改为中国药典委员会,于1953年、1963年、1977年、1985年、1990年、1995年和2010年先后出版发行了七版《中华人民共和国药典》。从1963年开始,药典分“一部”、“二部”编写。“一部”为中药部分,主要收载中药材、中药成方制剂,另有凡例与附录的制剂通则、中药检定方法等。所收载的中药各版均有调整。2010年版《中国药典》分三部出版,一部收载药材及饮片、植物油脂和提取物、成方和单味制剂等,品种共计2136种、修订612种。有关中药内容,根据品种和剂型的不同分别依次列有:中文名、汉语拼音与拉丁名、来源、处方、制法、性状、鉴别、检查、浸出物、含量测定、性味与归经、功能与主治、用法与用量、注意、规格、贮藏、制剂等。附录的内容以及先进的检测方法等大为增加。与此同时,国家一直重视药政法的建设工作,先后制定了多个有关中药的管理办法,并于是1984年国家通过了《中华人民共和国药品管理法》。药品管理法的颁布对保护人民健康,发展中国医药卫生事业,提高中国药品在国际市场的竞争力有着重要意义。

进补误区编辑

误区1、越贵越补
有些人认为中药越贵越补,常不惜花高价买鹿茸、人参之类的中药,其实进补功效未必就好。“缺什么,补什么”是进补的基本原则,中药不应以售价的贵贱来分功效的高低,关键是根据自身体质来选择相应补品,尤其是老年人,更应以实用为滋补原则。
误区2:越多越补
“多吃补药,有病治病,无病强身”的说法很不科学。冬季大量进补,会骤然加重脾胃及肝脏的负担,使长期处于疲弱的消化器官难以承受,导致消化系统功能紊乱
虚实不分
中医的治疗原则是“虚者进补’,不是虚证的人不宜进补。即使是虚证,也有气虚、血虚、阳虚、阴虚之分,人体器官又有心虚、肺虚、肝虚、脾虚、肾虚等不同,人们在进补前,最好先向专业医生咨询,结合各种补药的性能特点,对症施用,如热性体质者,就不适合服用人参、鹿茸、海马等温热性的药物。

配伍禁忌编辑

配伍

配伍是指有目的地按病情需要和药性特点,有选择地将两味以上药物配合同用。疾病的发生和发展往往是错综复杂、瞬息万变的,常表现为虚实并见、寒热错杂、数病相兼,故单用一药是难以兼顾各方的。因此,在使用两味以上药物时,必须有所选择,这就提出了药物配伍关系问题。
前人把单味药的应用同药与药之间的配伍关系称为药物为“七情”,“七情”之中,除单行者外,其余六个方面都是讲配伍关系。现分述如下:
1.单行:即单味药即能发挥预期效果,不需其他药辅助的称为单行。如独参汤,只用一味人参治疗元气大脱证即效。
2.相须:即性能功效相类似的药物配合应用,可以增强其原有疗效。如石膏配知母可以增强清热泻火的功效。
3.相使:即在性能和功效方面有某种共性的药物配合使用,而以一种药物为主,另一种药物为辅,能提高主药物的疗效。
4.相畏&相杀:即一种药物的毒性反应或副作用,能被另一种药物减轻或消除。如生半夏的毒性能被生姜减轻或消除,故说生半夏畏生姜。或称一种药物能减轻或消除另一种药物的毒性或副作用。如生姜能减轻或消除生半夏的毒副作用,故云生姜杀生半夏的毒。
6.相恶:即两种药物合用,一种药物与另一药物相作用而致原有功效降低,甚至丧失药效。
7.相反:即两种药物合用能产生毒性反应或副作用。如“十八反”中的若干药物。
上述除单行外的六个方面,其变化关系可以概括为四项,即在配
中药中药
伍应用的情况下:①.有些药物因产生协同作用而增进疗效,是临床用药时要充分利用的;②.有些药物可能互相拮抗而抵消、削弱原有功效,用药时应加以注意;③.有些药物则由于相互作用,而能减轻或消除原有的毒性或副作用,在应用毒性药或烈性药时必须考虑选用;④.一些药物因相互作用而产生或增强毒副作用,属于配伍禁忌,原则上应避免配用。
基于上述,可知从单味药到配伍应用,是通过很长的实践与认识过程逐渐积累丰富起来的。药物的配伍应用是中医用药的主要形式。药物按一定法度加以组合,并确定一定的分量比例,制成适当剂型,即为方剂。方剂是药物配伍的发展,也是药物配伍应用的较高形式。

本经

《本经·序例》指出:“勿用相恶、相反者。”但相恶与相反所导致的后果不一样。相恶配伍可使药物某些方面的功效减弱,但又是一种可以利用的配伍关系,并非绝对禁忌。而“相反为害,深于相恶性”,可能危害患者的健康,甚至危及生命。故相反的药物原则上禁止配伍应用。医药界共同认可的配伍禁忌,有“十八反”和“十九畏”。
十八反:甘草反甘逐、大戟、海藻芫花;乌头反贝母瓜蒌半夏、白蔹、白及藜芦反人参、沙参、丹参、玄参、细辛芍药
十九畏:硫黄畏朴硝,水银砒霜,狼毒畏密陀僧,巴豆畏牵牛,丁香畏郁金,川乌、草乌畏犀角,牙硝畏三棱,官桂畏石脂,人参畏五灵脂
五代后蜀韩保升修订《蜀本草》时,首先统计七情数目,提到“相恶者六十种,相反者十八种”,今人所谓“十八反 ”之名,盖源于此。相畏为中药七情之一,内容已如前述。但从宋代开始,一些医药著作中,出现畏、恶、反名称使用混乱的状况,与《本经》“相畏”的原义相悖。作为配伍禁忌的“十九畏”就是在这种情况下提出的。
对于十八反、十九畏作为配伍禁忌,历代医药学家虽然遵信者居多,但亦有持不同意见者,有人认为十八反、十九畏并非绝对禁忌;有的医药学家还认为,相反药同用,能相反相成产生较强的功效。尚若运用得当,可愈沉疴痼疾。
现代对十八反、十九畏进行了药理实验研究,取得了不少成绩。但由于十八反、十九畏牵涉的问题较多,各地的实验条件和方法存在差异,使实验结果相差很大。简单的毒性试验大多得到负结果或互相矛盾的结果。早期的研究结果趋向于全盘否定;观察逐渐深入,“不宜轻易否定”的呼声渐高。此外,还有的实验证明,十八反、十九畏药对对人体毒副作用的大小,与药物的绝对剂量及相互间的相对剂量有关。
总的说来,由于对十八反、十九畏的实验研究尚处在初期阶段,决定其取舍还为时过早,有待进一步深入研究。故凡属十八反、十九畏的药对,若无充分根据和应用经验, 一般不应使用。

禁忌

服用中药的禁忌大致可分为五种:
1.中药配伍禁忌:某些药物因配方后可产生相反、相恶关系,使彼此药效降低或引起毒副反应,因此禁忌同用。
2.孕妇用药禁忌:主要为避免动胎、堕胎,因孕后妇女大多数对大寒、大热、峻泻滑利、破血祛瘀及毒性较大的药物耐受性差,因此对相关药物必须忌用。
3.服药期间饮食禁忌:俗称忌口,主要为避免服药时的干扰因素,以便提高药效,可分为某一种药物对应的忌口与不同病情条件下用药时的忌口两类,前者如人参忌萝卜、鳖甲忌苋菜、甘草忌鲢鱼、常山忌葱、茯苓忌醋等。后者为慢性病服药须忌生冷,热性病治疗期间忌辛辣、油腻,痈疡疮毒、皮肤疾患忌鱼虾、鹅肉及辛辣刺激之品。
4.中药汤剂禁忌过夜服用:因为中药里含有淀粉、糖类、蛋白质、维生素、挥发油、氨基酸和各种酶、微量元素等多种成分,煎煮时这些成分大部分溶解在汤药汁里。一般服法是趁温热时先服一半,4~6小时后再服一半。如果过夜服用或存放过久,不但药效降低,而且会因空气、温度、时间和细菌污染等因素的影响,使药液中的酶分解减效,细菌繁殖滋生,淀粉、糖类营养等成分发酵水解,以致药液发馊变质,服用后对人体健康不利。
5.中药不宜加糖服用
一些人在服中药时,常因汤剂苦口难以下咽而加糖,对此,有关专家指出,一些中药是不适宜加糖后再服用的,加糖后的药剂在降低了苦味的同时也降低了药效。
专家介绍,中药有寒、热、温、凉四气和辛、甘、酸、苦、咸五味。其中,辛能散,甘能缓,酸能收,苦能涩,咸能软,不同口感的中药具有不同的药效。有些中药加了糖就会改变苦味汤药的药性而影响疗效。
一些苦味药能刺激末梢神经,反射性地分泌唾液、胃液等消化液,以达到帮助消化、促进食欲的目的。如果在药里放了很多糖,完全掩盖了苦味,就会失去健胃之效。
另外,中药的化学成分一般都比较复杂,糖特别是红糖中含有较多的铁、钙等元素,一旦与中药里的蛋白质和鞣质等成分结合后,就会引起化学反应,使药液中的一些有效成分凝固变性,也从一定程度上影响了药效。
俗话说:“吃药不忌口,坏了大夫手”。忌口即指治病服药时的饮食禁忌。忌口是中医治病的一个特点,历来医家对此十分重视,其有关内容也广泛存在于《内经》、《伤寒论》、《金匮要略》等医籍中。实践证明,忌口是有一定道理的。因为我们平时食用的鱼、肉、鸡、、蔬菜、瓜果、酱、醋、茶、酒等普通食物,它们本身也都具有各自的性能,对疾病的发生、发展和药物的治疗作用,均产生一定影响。

副作用

近几年,因滥服中草药导致肾炎和急性肾功能衰竭的病人日趋增多。专家为此呼吁:必须提高人们对中草药肾毒性的认识。
据专家介绍,多年来“中药副作用少”的说法使人们对某些中草药的肾毒性缺少足够的认识和重视。90年代中期,比利时医生首先发现,相当数量的“肥妞”、“胖嫂”在无所禁忌地服用减肥中药后发生急性肾衰,由此提出了“中药肾病”的概念。
南京军区南京总医院全军肾脏病研究所的研究表明,中药木通、厚朴、粉陀已、细辛中含有的马兜铃酸能导致肾小管及间质、近端肾小管酸中毒及低渗尿。此类患者临床初期出现少尿性急性肾衰,随着时间的推移,转变成慢性小管间质性肾炎。而这些患者的治疗极为困难,往往逐步走向终末期衰竭。
专家强调,许多江湖医生打着“偏方”、“验方”的旗号,滥用中草药治疗各种肾脏疾病,加重患者病情甚至导致尿毒症,对此必须提高警惕。
中国中西医结合学会肾病专业委员会副主任委员刘云海教授研究发现,有近50种中药对肾脏有毒性,可引起急、慢性肾脏功能损害和肾脏衰竭。
这些可导致肾脏损害的中药有三类。
第一类为植物类中药:雷公藤草乌木通使君子、益母草、苍耳子苦楝皮天花粉、牵牛子金樱根土贝母、马儿铃、土荆芥巴豆芦荟、铁脚威灵仙、大枫子山慈菇曼陀罗花钻地风夹竹桃大青叶、泽泻、防已、甘遂、千里光、丁香、铭藤、补骨脂白头翁、矮地茶、苦参、土牛膝、望江南子、棉花子、腊梅根等。
第二类为动物类中药:鱼胆、海马蜈蚣、蛇毒等。
第三类为矿物类中药:含砷类(砒石砒霜、雄黄、红矾)、含汞类(朱砂升汞轻粉)、含铅类(铅丹)和其他矿物类(明矾)等。
中药大部分是天然药物,有效成分比较复杂,如生物碱、皂素、鞣酸质,挥发油等。既然是药,其多数则会有不同程度的副作用。一般地讲,中药的副作用比人工合成的西药要小些,但也有些药物毒性较大,如红砒石、白砒石、水银、斑蝥、青娘虫、红娘虫,生藤黄等。毒性稍轻些的有:白附子、生附子、生川乌、生草乌、生半夏、马钱子、巴豆、生天南星、生甘遂、闹羊花、天仙子、蟾酥、土木鳖、吕宋果、云轴子、枫茄子、枫茄花,生硫磺、巴豆霜、白降丹、罂粟壳等。当使用这些药物时,必须慎重,如枫前花浸酒,口服可治疗风湿性关节炎,剂量过大,常会引起中毒死亡。因此,有毒性的中草药必须在医师指导下服用。
中药中药
那么,平时在中药方剂中常用半夏、天南星、附子、川乌、草乌等,为什么不发生中毒呢?一方面是由于对这些药物进行了炮制,如生半夏口服会引起呕吐。唇舌发麻。声音嘶哑等副作用,而生半夏用姜汁、明矾、盐等炮制后,其毒性大为降低。另一方面,还要掌握正确的使用方法,如水银用做主药治疗皮肤癌宫颈癌时,只能限于外用,严禁内服,不然会发生汞中毒。
有些中草药虽然毒性轻微,若使用剂量过大,则会产生严重毒副作用。如木通有通乳作用,若用其大剂量(50克)与猪蹄同煮,服后会发生肾功能损害。又如白果,因其含有微量氢氰酸,在过量情况下,就会出现发热、呕吐、腹泻、惊厥、抽搐、肢体强直、皮肤青紫、瞳孔散大、脉弱而乱,甚至昏迷不醒等中毒现象。
当需要用一些有毒性的中草药时,首先应慎重,要严密观察,并注意剂量是否恰当,前者时间应稍长些。其次可与一些药物配伍,以减少毒性。如用于肝硬化腹水的十枣丸,就是配伍大枣来缓和甘遂、大戟、芫花这些有强烈泻下作用的中草药,起到减少毒性的作用。对一些有毒性的中草药,常配伍甘草来缓和毒性。现已证明,甘草中所含甘草甜素在药理上确有解毒作用,证实了《本草纲目》上记载甘草“解百药毒”的正确结论。

煎煮方法编辑

清洗

中草药大都是生药,在出售之前一般都进行了加工炮制,煎煮之前一般没有必要淘洗。如果的确觉得草药有些脏,可在浸泡前迅速用水漂洗一下,切勿浸泡冲洗,以防易溶于水的有效成分大量丢失,从而影响中药疗效。

器具

煎药器具以砂锅、瓦罐为好,忌用铜、铁器皿。

浸泡

一般来说,凡人们在生活上可作饮用的水都可用来煎煮中药。中药饮片煎煮前浸泡既有利于有效成分的充分溶出,又可缩短煎煮时间。多数药物宜用冷水浸泡60分钟。水的用量一般为:第一遍煎煮时将中医饮片适当加压后,以液面淹没过饮片约2厘米为宜;第二遍用水量可少一些。头遍煎结束后,将药汁滤出,重新加水至高出药平面0.5~1厘米即可。

煎煮

煎煮中药应注意火候与煎煮时间。火候指火力大小与火势急慢(大火、急火称武火,小火、慢火为文火)。中药煎煮一般要煎煮2~3次,最少应煎2次。一般未沸前用武火,沸后用文火。一般头煎的煮沸后再用小火煎20~30分钟,二煎煮沸后再用小火煎10~20分钟。
用于治疗感冒的解表中药或清热药煎煮时间可缩短5~10分钟,而用于治疗体虚的滋补中药煎煮时间宜增加10~20分钟。在煎煮过程中,尽量少开锅盖,以免药味挥发。

剂量

中药煎煮后每次所取得的药液量成人一般为150毫升,学龄期儿童为100毫升,婴幼儿为50毫升。

其它相关编辑

四气疗疾

中药有“气”,“气”是什么?它能治病?我们的回答都是肯定的。在《神农本草经》中说:“药又有寒、热、温、凉四气。”“疗寒以热药,疗热以寒药。”药之“四气”便由此而来。中医药理论中说到“气”,居然有 27个义项。这个“气”,不是我们日常生活中的概念,而是特指“药性”。我们的先祖用寒、热、温、凉来诠释药的特性,比“毒”要具体、科学多了,这中药的补,不仅内容丰富,而且别具文化情趣。有补气、补心、补血、补肾、补脾、补肝、补肺补阴、补阳等等,与之相应的方药有“补心丹、补肝散、补肺散、四物汤、归脾汤、补阴丸、补血荣筋丸、补中益气汤四君子汤杞菊地黄丸六味地黄丸、百合固金汤、补阳还五汤、补肾磁石丸、补肺阿胶汤等等,有以上功能的单味药,不下数十种,举不胜举。此类补法多是补脏气。这个“补”,是调理、增强的意思;这个“气”,是指生理功能,即用药物来调理增强五脏六腑的生理功能,使之发挥正常作用,充分体现中药对人体功能器官治本的作用。《神农本草经》中把药分为上、中、下三品 (即“类”),并说:“上药养命,中药养性,下药治病。”又说:“上药……为君,主养命以应天”,“中药……为臣,主养性以应人”,“下药……为佐使,主治病以应地”。 所谓养命、养性,都是突出了中药调养人体的功效,从而保证机体、各个器官组织的功能正常,这就是许多人信奉中药的原因之一。这是中药学的进步,也是它的特色,这其中也充满了文化意味。中药的这种特性,被一一体现在每一味药中,因为它对于疗疾治病十分重要。对于寒病就要用热性药,对于热病就要用寒性药,这里药性与病性是相逆的,所谓相反相成,这就是药文化的一种具体表现。若非如此,如果“以热益热 (用热药治热病,下句仿此),以寒增寒”,就会导致“精气内伤,不见(现)于外”,这是治疗上的严重失误(《汉书·艺文志·文技略》)。孙思邈在《大医精诚》中严肃地批判了那些“寒而冷之(是寒病,却用寒使病症更寒,下句仿此 ),热而温之”的医生,“是重加(即加重)其病”,必导致死亡。中医药学上称这种用药方法为“正治”,即常规治法。由此可见,运用药的“四气”来治病,是多么重要,许多服用过中药的人,或许对此知之甚少。

毒药非“毒”

追溯到远古神农时代,《淮南子·修务训》中这样记载:“神农……尝百草之滋味,水泉之甘苦,令民知所避就。当此之时,一日而遇七十二毒。”由此,古代把所有治病的药物泛称“毒药”。《素问·异法方宜论》说:“其病生于内,其治宜毒药。”在古人看来,是药三分毒,实际上是指药物的特性;后来才用以专指毒性较大的药物。《医学问答》对此有解释:“夫药本毒药,故神农辨百草谓之‘尝毒'。药之治病,无非以毒拔毒,以毒解毒。”医圣张仲景更有精辟之论:“药,谓草、木、虫、鱼、禽、兽之类,以能治病,皆谓之毒”,“大凡可避邪安正者,均可称之为毒药。”神农一日而遇七十二毒,是说他一日之中,辨别了 70余种药物的特性。药之特性,用对了可以治病救人,用错了就会伤人害命。对中药,一言以敝之,就是用毒药治病。神农尝百草的本草,是一种勇于探索的伟大义举,是一种舍生忘死的高尚行为。无怪对起步于先秦、成书于东汉、历经几百年、融汇了几代医药学家的辛勤劳动与智慧的第一部中药学巨著,作者们宁肯要隐去自己的姓名,而冠以“神农”之名——《神农本草经》,除了受托古之风的影响之外,恐怕也是对这位中华民族药物学的圣祖的一种纪念吧 ! 由此不难看出,“毒药”一词的丰富文化内涵。正是这毒药,为中华民族的繁衍生息、疗病保健做出了不可磨灭的贡献。

君臣佐使

君臣本是一个政治术语,古代天子、诸侯都称君,辅佐君者称为臣,君臣有着严格的等级之分。古代药学家将它引入药物配伍组方中,成为方剂组成的基本原则。早在西汉初年成书的《素问·至真要大论》中,岐伯回答黄帝关于“方制君臣”时说:“主病之谓君,佐君之谓臣,应臣之谓使”,《神农本草经》说:“药有君、臣、佐、使,以相宣欇”。明代的何伯斋更进一步阐释说:“大抵药之治病,各有所主,主治者,君也;辅治者,臣也;与君药相反而相助者,佐也;引经使治病之药至病所者,使也”。十分清楚地讲明了君、臣、佐、使之药的功能。更详尽一点说,君药是针对主病或主证,起主要作用的药物,按需要可用一味或几味;臣药是辅助君药加强治疗主病或主证作用的药物,或者是对兼病或兼证起主要治疗作用的药物;佐药是辅助君臣药起治疗作用,或治疗次要症状,或消除 (减轻)君、臣药的毒性,或用于反佐药,使药是起引经或调和作用的药物。以《伤寒论》中第一方“麻黄汤”为例,主治外感风寒的表实证。君药——麻黄(3两),辛温,发汗解表以散风寒,宣发肺气以平喘逆。臣药——桂枝(2两),辛甘温,温经和营,助麻黄发汗解表。佐药——杏仁(70个),苦温,降肺气助麻黄平喘。使药——炙甘草(1两),苦温,调和诸药又制约麻、桂发汗太过。麻、桂、杏皆入肺,有引经之效,故不再用引经的使药。麻黄、桂枝、杏仁、炙甘草的药性有有次,相互制约又相互补充,协调作用,形成一股强大的药力,去攻克外感风寒这一堡垒,临床疗效十分显著,成为千古名方、经方。中药方剂的组成不是几种药物的简单组合,而是在丰富的临床实践基本上形成的一个有机的整体。其中文化内涵的核心就是儒家所强调的“和”。

哲理

中药自有它的药理,如前所述;还有它的哲理,常为人所忽视或不识。我们知道,哲学是教人如何以更高层次认识事物、认识世界,并从中找出规律,以更好地指导我们从“必然王国”进入“自由王国”。这里仅就药中哲理略谈一二。(一)药性有“阴阳”:“阴阳”本是中国古代哲学中的一个概念,它概括了天下万物相对的两种不同属性,大至宇宙天地,小至草木鱼虫的矛盾与对立、共性与个性,无不尽在其中。这里仅择一些与自然、医药、人身有关的概念,以见一斑:天地、日月、男女、刚柔、动静、升降、生死、长消、寒热、正邪、益损、增减、气血、脏腑……《神农本草经》说:“药有阴阳配合,子母兄弟。”后世医药学家多用“阴阳”来阐释药理。金代医家李杲在《东垣十书·汤液本草》的“药类法象”一章中说道:“温凉寒热,四气是也。温热者,天之阳也;凉寒者,天之阴也。此乃天之阴阳也……辛甘淡酸苦咸,五味是也。辛甘淡者,地之阳也;酸苦咸,地之阴也。此乃地之阴阳也。味之薄者,为阴中之阳,味薄则通,酸苦咸平是也;味之厚者,为阴中之阴,味厚则泄,酸苦咸寒是也。气之厚者,为阳中之阳,气厚则发热,辛甘温热是也;气之薄者,为阳中之阴,气薄则发泄,辛甘淡平凉寒是也……气味辛甘发散为阳,酸甘涌泄为阴。”通过阴阳,既阐释了药之特性,又阐明了药之功效,具有高度的概括性和规律性。(二)治则有“反治”。在其二中提到了“正治”,还有“反治”。反治与正治相反,是当疾病出现假象,或大寒证、大热证时,对正治法发生格拒而采用的治法。其中有“热因寒用”,是以热药来治疗真寒假热证,要佐以少量寒药,或热药凉服才发挥作用;有“寒因热用”,是指用寒凉药治真热假寒证,要佐以少量温热药,或寒药热饮才发挥作用。这既体现了中医的辨证,又体现了用药的辩证法,具有很深的哲学内涵,这是中医药文化的独特之处。(三)补益有哲理。在其三中,讲到两方面的药补,金代医家张从正论补,颇具哲理,别树一帜。1、他在《汗下吐三法该尽治病诠》一文中,从扶正祛邪的角度,按照中医五行理论,认为祛邪就是扶正,独出心裁,提出了与《素问》不同的“五补”:“辛补肝,咸补心,甘补肾,酸补脾,苦补肺”的观点。以“辛”为例,辛味原本入肺,属金;肝属木,金能克木,所以用“辛补肝”(以下均仿此)。张从正治病强调以祛邪为主,认为邪去正自安,偏重攻法,他所谓“补”,实际上已含有“攻治”的意味,后世称他为“攻下派”。2、他在《补论》中,更是高论迭出:“予请为言补之法,大抵有余者损之,不足的补之,是则补之义也。阳有余而阴不足,则当损阳而补阴;阴有余而阳不足,则当损阴而补阳”。那么,具体如何补呢?他是这样阐述的:是热证,就用芒硝大黄一类的寒药,为了“损阳而补阴”;是寒证,就用干姜附子一类的热药,为了“损阴而补阳”。他的结论语出惊人:“岂可以热药而云补乎哉?而寒药亦有补之义也。”仅此二例便可以看出,这正是张从正所以能自成一家的超人之处。其中的哲理和文化底蕴,需要我们细细品味,方解药文化之三昧。(四)用药讲“中和”。“中和”是儒家的哲学,认为能“致中和”,则无事不达于和谐的境界。《说文》云:“……事之调适者谓之和。”中和,用于药理之中,含义有三层:一是调和,以不同的因素适度配合,使之比例恰当,如厨师之烹调羹汤,含有方法的意思;二是和谐、均衡、统一的状态。“和”是天下共行的大道。孔子说:“君子和而不同。”是说君子用自己的正确意见来纠正别人的错误意见,使一切做到恰到好处,却不肯盲目附和。可见,君子是很懂得“和”的道理的,我们的古代医药家们就是这样的君子!杨伯峻在《论语注释》中形象地解释“和”:“和,如五味之调合,八音之和谐,一定要有水、火、酱、醋各种不同的材料才能调和滋味;一定要有高下、长短、疾徐各种不同的声调才能使乐曲和谐。”君臣佐使之中,还有一个最佳组合的问题,这就是为什么麻黄汤中的几味药能达到最佳的辛温解表之效,而麻黄与细辛、羌活等辛温解表药物相配,却达不到这种效果的原因。君臣之间,不但有相互协调(配合)的关系,还有相互制约的关系,晏子说:“君臣亦然。君所谓可,而有否焉,臣献其否而成其可;君所谓否,而有何焉,臣献其可以去其否。”意思是:君臣也是这样,不能君说可,臣也说可;君说否,臣也说否,这样“以水济水,谁能食之?若琴瑟之专一,谁能听之?”应当君说可,臣献其否成全可,反之亦然。方药中的君臣,也是这样的道理。从麻杏石甘汤,是治疗邪热壅肺的名方,用麻黄为君药,宣肺平喘,是“火郁发之”之义,但其性温,故配辛甘大寒之石膏为臣药,石膏既可清宣肺热,又可制约麻黄温性,使其去性存用,两者相配,肺郁解,肺热清,咳喘平,疗效可靠,深得配伍变通之妙,此可谓“臣献其可而去其否”之范例。我想,中药方剂之所以有数千年的生命力,决不是偶然的,我们在本文中所提及的其二、其三、其四及其五的内容,在世界药学理论和文化中,都是独具特色、独一无二的。它们不仅融汇了我们祖先在药学上的唯物辩证的睿智,而且形成了中药方剂必须遵循的圭臬,还具有极其丰厚的文化底蕴。

理念

前些年当世界兴起“天然药物”热的时候,我们自己业内的人也主张用“天然药物”来取代“中药”,并说这是与世界接轨,是让西方人接受中药的一个重要举措。此举曾在药界掀起了不小的浪潮,一直延续至今。稍有知识的人都知道,“天然药物”的提出和兴起,是西方医药界针对西方人惧怕化学合成药物的毒副作用,从而转向自然界寻找新的药物途径,通过研究,从某些含有特殊药用成分的动植物身上,运用科技提取一种或(几种)药用成分,制成药物,用于临床,这无疑是当代制药学的一个新的领域、一种新的发展。令人不可思议的是:为什么有些人竟以接受新事物为幌子,一下子就联系上中药了,认为中药汤剂西方人说它是“一锅浓浓的草根树皮黑汤,既不卫生,又难喝,还说不清它的成分,实在可怕”;中药丸剂西方人说它是“一团黑乎乎的药丸,难以接受”。于是就下了这样的结论:中药落后,成分讲不清,应该赶紧改成“天然药物”,否则就会在国际上没有市场、没有前途。难道“中药”真的面临绝境,惨到要改名换姓才能生存的地步吗?我们的观点是明确的:“天然药物”不等同于“中药”,务请诸君保持清醒头脑。对于“天然药物”的概念与内涵,上文已做简述;而“中药”的概念与内涵,与之决不相同。尽管中药材大都取自“自然界”,有些也可以直接药用,但这还不是真正意义上的“中药”,我们称之为“中药”的,也不是可以笼统而言的,首先,是指经过炮制的各类饮片。炮制的作用,除了清除杂质,便于制剂和服用外,更重要的是消除或减低药物的毒性和副作用,改变药物的性能,加强疗效。以地黄为例,生地黄清热凉血,经用酒蒸晒成熟地黄之后,就具有温性而滋肾补血的功效。炮制总分为水制、火制、水火合制等。水制有洗、漂、泡、渍、水飞等;火制有煅、炮、煨、炒、烘、焙、炙等;水火合制有蒸、煮、淬等。而每一种方法中又细含若干种具体方法,其内涵是极其丰富的。而这些炮制方法,已成为我们国宝级的机密。其次,中药是指按照四气五味、君臣佐使等特性与法则配比而成的方剂药物,而不是随心所欲的杂合物,然后根据需要,或汤、或丸、或散、或膏……由此可见,“中药”与“天然药物”,既不可混为一谈,又不可相互取代。有着几千年历史的中药,有什么必要因“天然药物”的兴起,就乱了阵营,自动退避,主动靠拢,甚至要宣告投降呢?中药,就是中华民族的药,只有首先是民族的,才是世界的。它的四气五味、君臣佐使、正治反治等一系列独特法则与文化内涵,是不可轻意弃置,更不可随意取代的。不能西方人说它是“一锅浓浓的黑汤”、“一团黑黑的药丸”,我们就自觉中药落后,没了底气。如果放弃了汤药,中医的特色(辨证论治)也就失去了光彩,后果严重。 有模糊数学、模糊逻辑,无疑都是高深的科学门类。由此我联想到了一锅汤药、一团药丸,对它们经过配比后的药物成分暂时说不清,那么,何不将它称之为“模糊药学”呢?由此我又联想到世界无论是自然界或是科学界不是有着许许多多的“模糊”难题在困惑着人类,等待我们去考察、研究、揭秘吗?对宇宙,我们知道了多少,又有多少模糊未知的,但是,我们不是有综合宇宙学吗?对人类居住的地球,我们依然存在许多模糊与未知,不是有综合地球学吗?就说对人体自身,我们到底还有多少模糊与未知,人类基因图谱的问世,无疑是大大向前迈进了一步,而综合性的人体科学还面临着多少有待探索的课题。人类不会因为对某种自然现象处于模糊之中,而去指责它;人类不会因为对金字塔等许多古代建筑处于模糊之中,而去指责它们;人类更不会对自身的器官、组织、功能模糊不解,而去责怪它们……同理,人类暂时对一锅药汤、一个药丸的成分处于模糊之中,又有什么了不起呢?何况它们已存在了几千年,救治和保养的人数以亿计,仅这一条就足以证明中药的科学性与实效性。我不相信把这些道理告诉西方人,他们还要跟中药较劲 !要让世人都知道中药的内涵、中药的文化,其底蕴是何其丰富!我们的任务,在把中药推向世界的同时,要加大药文化宣传的力度。我主张“中药”与“天然药物”应该相互并存、相互借鉴、友善共存、各谋发展。世界如此辽阔,人类如此之多,不可能容不下这两种事物同生共存。它们各有特色,各有优势,完全不必“合二为一”。是金子总在闪光。西方人不是照样吃上了中国的煎饼、油条、豆汁和菜肴吗?照样唱上了中国的歌曲、京剧,说上了中国的相声,穿上了中国的旗袍、布鞋吗?如果真有需要,外国人照样会喝中药汤、吃中药丸的。

一般分类

解表药细辛 桂枝 防风 羌活 蔓荆子 葛根 柴胡 炒牛蒡子 蝉衣 荆芥 薄荷 桑叶 菊花 升麻
平肝熄风药:天麻 勾藤 炒僵蚕 炒地龙 蜈蚣 全蝎
行气药:陈皮 木香 炒枳壳 制香附 姜黄 制元胡
芳香化湿药:藿香 佩兰壳 砂仁 炒苍术 制川朴
消食药:炙鸡金 炒莱菔子
利水渗湿药:茯苓 泽泻 茵陈 炒车前子 米仁 金钱草 扁蓄 瞿麦 滑石 海金沙
补虚药紫河车粉 鹿角片 炒杜仲 制山茱萸 枸杞子 党参 炒白术 黄芪 甘草 当归 炒白芍 熟地黄 麦冬 北沙参

中药检测

要进行中药化学成分结构检测,首先要保证样品的纯度,如果被测样品达不到一定纯度,则无法鉴定结构式。鉴定结构式采用的方法有化学法(利用化学反应等)、波谱法等。波谱法是非常准确的先进方法,包括紫外光谱(UV)、红外光谱(IR)、核磁共振法(H-NMR、C-NMR)、质谱法(MS)等。
如果被测成分是已知化合物,在确定纯度后,不必作很多鉴定工作,选择其中几种即可。如果能得到已知物的标准品或对照品,将被测定成分和标准品进行色谱分析(TLC或HPLC),Rf值或保留时间一致,混熔点不下降,红外光谱完全一致,分子量一致,就可说明被测成分和对照品一致。如果得不到标准品,则和文献中已知物的红外光谱(最好是已知物图谱)、质谱数据进行对照,有时还需和已知物的NMR谱数据进行对照,如果一致则说明被测成分和文献报道成分一致。
如果被测成分为未知物,则要作很多工作。对未知成分的结构测定,也要注意文献工作,注意该中药的来源,注意同种属植物中化学成分的研究情况,收集信息,对结构鉴定很有益处。未知物的鉴定基本有二种情况,一种是全新结构的化合物,一种是基本骨架已知,而只是取代基种类不同或位置不同,对后一种情况,收集文献资料对医学`教育网整理鉴定结构非常有用。
中药化学成分的检测程序
对一个化合物,一般按下列步骤进行检测:
纯度的确定
(1)首先观察外形、颜色是否单一纯正,晶形是否一致。
(2)色谱分析:薄层色谱结果为单一斑点,应注意点样量不可太小,展开剂不可只选一种。有时可用气相色谱和高效液相色谱法,结果为单一色谱峰。
(3)熔点测定:熔点距一般应小于2℃。
物理常数的测定
物理常数固体样品包括熔点、比旋度等;液体样品包括沸点、折光率、比旋度等。
分子式测定
采用高分辨质谱法得到分子离子峰,可直接得出分子式。如无高分辨质谱则可先测出分子量(一般用质谱),再进行元素分析测出所含元素及百分含量,求出实验式,最后计算出分子式,实验值与理论值应非常接近。
化合物功能团和分子骨架的推定
采用的方法有计算不饱和度、化学反应、IR光谱、UV光谱、NMR谱、MS数据,综合分析,有时与已知物进行比较,以确定被测样品的基本骨架与功能团(取代基)。
化学结构的确定
通过综合分析所有波谱数据,必要时要作一些特殊的测试,如NMR中的一些新方法,甚至作Ⅹ射线衍射等测试,确定化学结构式。如果有可能,进行人工合成,将从中药中提取分离所得样品与人工合成品进行全面比较来证明结构式的正确性。

注意事项

由于中药的质地、性质往往有显著差异,因此,煎煮方法或煎煮时间常不相同,有先煎、后下、包煎等。煎药要注重火候,火候的控制要根据药物的性质和质地,如解表药,适宜用武火急煎,滋补药文火煎。

科学采收

科学的采收应包括:药用植物的药用部分中有效成分积累动态和生长发育阶段这两个指标,既要考虑有效成分含量,又要注意产量。如薄荷的采收,一年两次,第一次在小暑后大暑前(七月中下旬),主要供提取薄荷脑用,第二次在霜降之前(十月中下旬),主要作药材用。实验证明,薄荷在花蕾期叶片中含油量为最高,原油中薄荷脑的含量则以盛花期为最高。而叶的产量又在花后期为最高。槐米是植物槐树Sophora japonicaL.的花蕾,主含芦丁,可达28%,如已开花,结果,则芦丁含量急剧下降。

天然药物资源学

 天然药物 天然药物资源 天然药物资源学 天然药物资源化学
 天然药物资源管理学 天然药物资源地理学 药材 传统中药
 中药 民族药 草药 动物药
 植物药 矿物药 海洋药物 道地药材
 原产药材 药用植物资源 药用动物资源 海洋药物资源
 药用菌物资源 药用矿物资源 药用昆虫资源 药用植物种质资源
 药用动物种质资源 [天然]药物资源调查 [天然]药物种类调查 [天然]药物资源蕴藏量
 [天然]药物资源经济量 [天然]药物资源年允收量 药用植物生产量 药用动物生产量
 天然药物资源更新调查 器官更新 药用动植物种群更新

其他科技名词

中医药学总论

其他科技名词

参考资料
词条标签:
药品  自然学科  社会  医院  医学  中药

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