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升麻 Cohosh (Cimicifugae Rhizoma) Cimicifuga - Sheng Ma

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升麻

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升麻,中药名。别名:龙眼根、周麻、窟窿牙根,为毛茛科、升麻属植物大三叶升麻、兴安升麻或升麻的根茎。多年生草本,高1~2m。根茎为不规则块状,多分枝,呈结节状,有洞状茎痕,表面黑褐色,须根多而细。茎直立,有疏柔毛。叶互生,基生叶和下部茎生叶为二至三回羽状复叶;小叶片长卵形或披针形,边缘有粗锯齿,叶面绿色,叶背灰绿色,两面均有短柔毛。花小,黄白色,排成圆锥花序长达112.5px,生于枝顶;萼片5片,边缘有毛;退化雄蕊2枚,先端2裂;发育雄蕊多数;9月结果,果实密生短柔毛,长圆形略扁,秋季采挖为佳,除去泥沙,晒至须根干时,燎去或除去须根,晒干备用。生于山坡草丛、林边、山路旁、灌木丛中。主产于辽宁、吉林、黑龙江,河北、山西、陕西、四川,青海等省亦产。
中文学名
升麻
别    称
龙眼根、窟窿牙根
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
毛茛目
毛茛科
升麻属
大三叶升麻、兴安升麻或升麻
分布区域
西藏、云南、四川、青海、甘肃、陕西、河南西部、山西、蒙古等
采收时间
秋季
用    量
一般为3-10g
毒    性
无毒

药用部位

毛莨科植物大三叶升麻、兴安升麻或升麻的干燥根茎。

植物形态

  •  
    升麻枝叶
    升麻枝叶(1张)
  •  
  •  
    升麻花果
    升麻花果(4张)

性味

辛、甘,微寒。

归经

归肺、脾、大肠、胃经。

功效

发表透疹,清热解毒,升阳举陷。

主治

时气疫疠,头痛寒热,喉痛,口疮,斑疹不透;中气下陷,久泻久痢,脱肛,妇女崩、带,子宫下坠;痈肿疮毒。

用法用量

内服:煎汤,用于升阳,3-6g,宜蜜炙、酒炒;用于清热解毒,可用至15g,宜生用;或入丸、散。外用:适量,研末调敷或煎汤含漱或淋洗。

使用注意

脾胃虚寒者慎用。

炮制方法

1.拣去杂质,略泡洗净,捞出,润透,切片,晒干。
2.蜜制:取炼蜜用适量开水稀释后,加入升麻片,拌匀,闷透,置锅内,用文火加热,炒至不粘手时,取出放凉,每100kg升麻,用炼蜜25kg。
3.制炭:取升麻片置锅内,用武火加热,炒至表面焦黑色,内部棕褐色,喷淋清水少许,灭尽火星,取出晒干。
4.炒制:取升麻片,用文火炒至微焦或焦黄。
5.麸制:先将锅烧热,加入麦麸与升麻片,炒至微黄色,筛去麦麸,每升麻10kg,用麦麸1.5kg。

生理特性

升麻根状茎粗壮,坚实,表面黑色,有许多内陷的圆洞状老茎残迹。茎高1-2米,基部粗达1.4厘米,微具槽,分枝,被短柔毛。叶为二至三回三出状羽状复叶;茎下部叶的叶片三角形,宽达30厘米;顶生小叶具长柄,菱形,长7-10厘米,宽4-7厘米,常浅裂,边缘有锯齿,侧生小叶具短柄或无柄,斜卵形,比顶生小叶略小,表面无毛,背面沿脉疏被白色柔毛;叶柄长达15厘米。7-9月开花,8-10月结果。生海拔1700-2300米间的山地林缘、林中或路旁草丛中。升麻喜温暖湿润气候。耐寒,当年幼苗在-25℃低温下能安全越冬。幼苗期怕强光直射,开花结果期需要充足光照,怕涝,忌土壤干旱,喜微酸性或中性的腐殖质土,在碱性或重粘土中栽培生长不良。

产地

分布于西藏、云南、四川、青海、甘肃、陕西、河南西部和山西。在蒙古和苏联西伯利亚地区也有分布。

相关论述

1.《神农本草经》:“主解百毒,辟温疾、障邪(一作瘴气邪气)。”
2.《别录》:“主中恶腹痛,时气毒疠,头痛寒热,风肿诸毒,喉痛,口疮。”
3.《药性论》:“治小儿风,惊痫,时气热疾。能治口齿风肿疼,牙根浮烂恶臭,热毒脓血。除心肺风毒热壅闭不通,口疮,烦闷。疗痈肿,豌豆疮;水煎绵沾拭疮上。”
4.《日华子本草》:“安魂定魄,游风肿毒,口气疳。”
5.《汤液本草》:“《主治秘诀》,主肺痿咳唾脓血,能发浮汗。”
6.《滇南本草》:“表小儿痘疹,解疮毒,咽喉(肿);喘咳音哑,肺热,止齿痛。”
7.《本草纲目》:“消斑疹,行瘀血,治阳陷眩运,胸胁虚痛,久泄下痢后重,遗浊,带下,崩中,血淋,下血,阴痿足寒。”[1] 
[2-3] 

药用植物

 胶冷杉 糖枫 海红豆 猴面包树 欧洲七叶树 石栗 凹叶赤杨
 腰果 刺果番荔枝 杨梅 槟榔 砂糖椰子 波罗蜜 杨桃
 白桦坚桦木 胭脂树 香水树 爪哇橄榄 螃蟹木 番木瓜 阿勃勒
 欧洲栗 大叶栗子 栗豆树 黎巴嫩雪松 木棉 长角豆 柠檬
 香柠檬 马蜂橙 苦橙 橘椪柑 流苏树 油棕榈 锡兰肉桂
 樟树 龙脑树  可乐果 苏丹可乐果 黄牛木 粉色黄牛木
 意大利柏木 榅桲 第伦桃 金色第伦桃 低株第伦桃 榴莲 古柯
 桉树 柠檬桉 干果桉 棉芝老桉 蓝桉 加宁桉 杜仲
 欧洲山毛榉 香灰莉 菩提树 欧纳白蜡树 银杏 买麻藤 南美弯叶豆
 八角 日本大茴香 普通胡桃 欧洲刺柏 铅笔柏 腊肠树 美洲落叶松
 欧洲落叶松 月桂 窄叶月桂 金月桂 尖叶女贞 普通女贞 东方枫香树
 木兰 芒果 茶树 白千层 互叶白千层 绿花白千层 印度楝树
 铁刀木 黄玉兰 含笑花 乳油木 葫芦肉豆蔻 兰花树 辣木
 桑树 黑桑 肉豆蔻 豆胶树 欧洲橄榄 香橄榄 露兜树
 维奇露兜树 阔叶露兜树 马来亚大风子 球花豆 非洲球花豆 树酪梨 海枣
 意大利石松 欧洲赤松 牙买加胡椒 多果香椒 乳香树 鸡蛋花 酸橙
  杏仁 扁桃 野黑樱 黑刺李 苦樱桃 欧洲李
 胶杨 杨树 银白杨 花旗松 番石榴草 草莓番石榴 小叶紫檀
 紫檀 石榴 苏里南苦木 牙买加苦木 夏栎 洋槐 白柳
 垂柳 黄花柳 接骨木 檀香 印度檀香 洋擦木 槐树侧花槐树
 欧洲花楸 安息香 药用安息香 丁香 蒲桃 罗望子 浆果红豆杉
 短叶红豆杉 可可树 东方侧柏 美西侧柏 欧椴 美洲椴 宽叶椴树
 小叶椴 英国榆 加州月桂 牡荆 安古牡荆  美洲花椒
 石灰山花椒 胡椒花椒 释迦 毒鱼豆 檫木 苦楝 木蝴蝶
 侧柏 非洲李 皂荚 白桦 墨水树 黄樟

灌木

草本植物

水生植物

多肉植物

其他植物

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
  • 1.  李时珍.《本草纲目》:中国言实出版社,2012年版
  • 2.  国家药典委员会.《中华人民共和国药典》:中国医药出版社,2010版
  • 3.  高学敏.《中药学》:中国中医药出版社,2012年5月
http://baike.baidu.com/view/97425.htm

Cohosh 
This entry transformation and standardization to promote the project by the pharmaceutical terminology outcome State Administration of Traditional Chinese / Chinese Medical Science and Technology Development Center offers.
Cohosh, Chinese name. Alias: longan root, Zhou Ma, root hole, Ranunculaceae Cimicifuga spp big trefoil cohosh, or Cimicifuga Larix cohosh rhizome. Perennial herb, 1 ~ 2m. Rhizome irregular massive, multi-branched, nodular, a hole-shaped stem scars, surface dark brown, fibrous roots and thin. Stems erect, sparsely pubescent. Leaves alternate, basal leaves and lower stem leaves two to three bipinnate; small leaves ovate or lanceolate, margin coarsely toothed, leaf green, dorsal gray-green, both sides are pubescent hair. Flowers small, yellow-white, arranged in panicles up 112.5px, born in Acremonium; sepals 5, margin hairy; staminodes 2, apex 2-lobed; stamens numerous development; September result, fruit densely pubescent , oblong slightly flat, autumn excavation is better to remove sediment, when the sun to dry fibrous roots, burn out or remove the fibrous roots, dry spare. Born in the hillside grass, forest edges, mountain roadside bushes. Mainly produced in Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Qinghai and other provinces also produced.
Chinese scientific name cohosh root nickname longan, root hole circles Flora door Door Gang angiosperms dicotyledons outline Ranunculales Ranunculaceae families genera Cimicifuga species big trefoil cohosh, black cohosh, or Cimicifuga Larix distribution area Tibet, Yunnan Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, western Henan, Shanxi, Mongolia and other fall harvest time, non-toxic dosage is generally 3-10g toxicity
Contents 1 Medicinal parts 2 Taste 3 Meridian 4 Dosage efficacy 5 6 7 Indications Note 8 processing methods Origin 9 10 11 physiological characteristics related discussion
Medicinal parts
Ranunculaceae plant big trefoil cohosh, Cimicifuga Larix cohosh or dried rhizome.
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Cohosh leaves
Cohosh foliage (1)
 
 
Cohosh fruit
Cohosh fruit (4)
Taste
Acrid, sweet, slightly cold.
Meridian
In the lungs, spleen, large intestine, stomach.
Effect
Published Touzhen, detoxification, Sun lift depression.
Indications
When gas pestilence, chills and fever, headache, sore throat, mouth sores, rash impermeable; subsidence in the air, Jiuxie dysentery, prolapse, women collapse with uterine fall; carbuncle swollen sore.
Dosage
Oral: Jiantang, for Sun, 3-6g, should Mizhi, Jiuchao; for detoxification, available to 15g, should students use; or into pills, powder. Topical: amount transfer deposited into powder or decoction mouthwash or rinse.
Caution
Spleen and stomach with caution.
Processing Methods
1. pick impurities, a little bubble wash, remove, run through, sliced, dried.
2. honey: Take refining honey diluted with the amount of water added cohosh tablets, mix well, bored, set the pot, simmer heating, stir-fry until sticky, remove and let cool, every 100kg cohosh, with refining honey 25kg.
3. charcoal: Take cohosh tablets set the pot, heating with Wu Huo, fry surface coke black, tan interior, spray a little water, and utterly destroy Mars dried out.
4. frying: Take cohosh tablets, with a slow fire fry microJoule or brown.
5. Bran system: first boil hot, Jia Rumai bran and cohosh tablets, fry slightly yellow, weed out the wheat bran, every cohosh 10kg, with wheat bran 1.5kg.
Physiological characteristics
Cohosh rhizome stout, solid, surface black, round hole like many retraction remnants of old stems. 1-2 meters tall stems, up to 1.4 cm thick base, micro sulcate, branched, pubescent. Leaves two to three back to three pinnate shape; blade triangular lower stem leaves, 30 cm wide; apical leaflets with a long handle, diamond, 7-10 cm long, 4-7 cm wide, often lobed , margin serrate, lateral leaflets with short stalk or sessile, obliquely ovate, slightly smaller than the terminal leaflet, surface hairless back along veins sparsely white pubescent; petiole up to 15 cm. July-September flowering from August to October results. Health 1700-2300 meters altitude mountain forest edge between the forest or roadside grass. Cohosh Hi warm and humid climate. Cold, when the seedlings at -25 ℃ low temperatures winter. Seedlings of fear direct sunlight, flowering need plenty of light, the fear of floods, avoid soil drought, like slightly acidic or neutral humus soil, cultivation poor growth in alkaline or heavy clay.
Place of origin
Distributed in Tibet, Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Henan and Shanxi west. In Siberia, Mongolia and the Soviet Union also have distribution.
Related discussion
1. "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic": "Lord detoxification, the provision of warm disease, impaired evil (one for malaria evil)."
2. "Do not record": "Lord of the evil abdominal pain, gas poisoning when Pandora, chills and fever, headache, swollen wind various drugs, sore throat, mouth sores."
3. "medicinal theory":. "Treating Children wind, epilepsy, when gas heat illness can cure articulate wind swelling and pain, root floating rotten stench, toxic heat pus except cardiopulmonary wind toxic heat obstruct closed barrier, mouth sores, boredom. treatment carbuncles, sore peas; cook cotton swab dipped sore. "
4. "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": "requiem given soul, the wind, swollen poison, tone rickets."
5. "soup liquid Materia Medica": "" Indications secret ", the main consumptive cough spit pus and blood, sweat float can be made."
6. "Southern Yunnan Materia Medica": "Table pediatric smallpox, solution sore throat (swelling); cough, hoarseness, Hyperactivity, stop tooth pain."
7. "Compendium of Materia Medica": "Consumers rash, line congestion, cure depression dizzy Yang Yun, chest imaginary pain, diarrhea and weight after long time to vent, leaving muddy, vaginal discharge, collapse, and discredited, blood, vaginal atrophy cold feet. "[1]
[twenty three] 
Atlas Atlas more
Entry pictures
Entry pictures (1)
Cohosh Atlas
Cohosh Atlas (6)
Cohosh leaves
Cohosh foliage (1)
Cohosh fruit
Cohosh flowers and fruits (4)
North cohosh
North cohosh (6)
Cohosh grass
Cohosh grass (5)
Wide cohosh
Wide cohosh (9)
Picture
Related Pictures (4)
False cohosh
False cohosh (10)
Cohosh grass plant morphology ...
Cohosh grass plant morphology ... (6)
Bitter beet plant morphology ...
Bitter beet plant morphology ... (6)
Given woody plant morphology ...
Given woody plant morphology ... (6)
Wide cohosh
Wide cohosh (5)
1/4
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Bush
Herb
Aquatic plants
Succulent plants
Other plants
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Cimicifuga
▪ small fruit cohosh cohosh ▪ short ▪ ▪ Larix cohosh cohosh
▪ large trefoil cohosh cohosh nanchuanensis ▪ ▪ ▪ single spike cohosh cohosh Yunnan
Reference material
1. Li. "Compendium of Materia Medica": China Yanshi Press, 2012 edition
2. National Pharmacopoeia Commission. "People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia": Chinese Medicine Press, 2010 edition
3. Gao Min. "Pharmacy": Chinese Medicine Press, May 2012













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