知母（拉丁学名：Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge）也叫毛知母，多年生草本植物，根状茎，叶由基部丛生细长披针形，花茎自叶丛中长出，圆柱形直立，总状花絮，成簇，生在顶部成穗状；花粉红色，淡紫色至白色；果实长椭圆形，内有多数黑色种子，花果期6～9月。
⑴治伤寒脉浮滑 表有热 里有寒；或三阳合病 腹满 身重 难以转侧 口不仁 面垢 谵语 遗尿 发汗则谵语甚 下之则额上生汗 手足逆冷 若自汗出者；或伤寒脉滑而厥 里有热：知母300克 石膏500克 （碎） 甘草（炙）100克 粳米六合．上四味 以水一斗 煮米熟 汤成去滓 温服一升 日三服．（《伤寒论》白虎汤）
⑵治伤寒狐惑 咽喉涩痛 口唇破 吐脓血：知母 （焙）50克 石膏50克黄芩（去黑心）、甘草（炙、锉）各三分．上四味 粗捣筛．每服15克 水一盏半 糯米一匙 煎至八分 去滓．食前温服．（《圣济总录》知母汤）
⑶治久近痰嗽 自胸膈下塞停饮 至于脏腑：知母、贝母各一两为末巴豆三十枚去油 研匀．每服一字 用姜三片 二面蘸药 细嚼咽下 便睡 次早必泻一行 其嗽立止．壮人乃用之．一方不用巴豆．（《医学集成》）
⑷治久嗽气急：知母（去毛 切）25克（隔纸炒）杏仁（姜水泡 去皮尖 焙）25克．以水一钟半 煎一钟 食远温服．次以萝卜子、杏仁等分 为末 米糊丸 服五十丸 姜汤下 以绝病根．（《卫生杂兴》）
⑹治伤寒胃中有热 心觉懊恼 六脉洪数 或大便下血：知母10克 黄芩10克 甘草5克．水煎热服． （《扁鹊心书》知母黄芩汤）
生物碱类的胆碱（Choline），尼克酰胺（Nicotinamide）；有机酸类的鞣酸（Tannic acid）， 烟酸（Nicotinic acid）以及四种知母多糖（Anemarn A,B,C,D）。另外尚含铁、锌、锰、铜、铬、镍等多种金属元素以及黏液质、还原糖等．根茎中含总皂甙约6%，其中有知母皂甙（Timosaponin）A-Ⅰ、A-Ⅱ、A-Ⅲ、A-Ⅳ， B-Ⅰ和B-Ⅱ．其中知母皂甙A-Ⅰ是萨尔萨皂甙元β-D-吡喃半乳糖甙，知母皂甙A-Ⅲ是萨尔萨皂甙元与知母双糖（Timobiose）结合而成的双糖甙．知母根茎中的皂甙元有萨尔萨皂甙元（Sarsasapogenin）、吗尔考皂甙元（Markogenin）、新芰脱皂甙元（Neogitogenin）．以前从知母中分离出来的皂甙知母宁（Asphonin）是吗尔考皂甙、知母皂甙A-Ⅲ、A-Ⅳ、B等的混合物．亦分离出异菝葜皂甙元（Smilagenin）等皂甙类成分． 尚含有黄酮类的芒果甙（Mangiferin,Chi- monin）， 异芒果甙（Isomangiferin）；
枯草杆菌、霍乱弧菌、变形杆菌、白喉杆菌、肺炎双球菌、β-溶血性链球菌、白色念珠菌等也有不同程度的抑制作用．知母乙醇浸膏、乙醚浸膏及乙醚浸膏加丙酮处理后所得之粗结晶，对在普、拜培养基上培养的 H37RV 人型结核杆菌亚种有较强的抑制作用，其中乙醚浸膏的抗结核杆菌的抑菌效价最高．而皂甙则无作用．但有报道从知母中提得一种水溶性皂甙，对结核杆菌， 尤其对白色念珠菌有较强的抑制作用；而另一种黄酮结晶，对结核杆菌也有抑制作用．对豚鼠实验性结核病以3%知母药饵治疗3～4个月， 有较好疗效；也可减轻实验性结核小鼠的肺部病变，但死亡率并不降低；如将药物浓度提高到5%，则肺结核指数（反映肺脏大体病变的情况）可接近异烟肼， 但死亡率却较对照组更高，可能系因药物本身毒性较大所致．⑴抗病原微生物作用 体外实验表明：知母煎剂对葡萄球菌、伤寒杆菌有较强的抑制作用， 对痢疾杆菌、副伤寒杆菌、大肠杆菌、
⑵解热作用 知母浸膏4g/kg皮下注射，能防止和治疗大肠杆菌所致兔高热， 且作用持久．知母根茎中所含皂甙具有明显降低由甲状腺素造成的耗氧率增高及抑制 Na+,K+-ATP 酶活性的作用．
⑶对皮质激素作用的影响 大鼠服用滋阴降火中药生地知母甘草汤或其中的单味药， 均能使受地塞米松抑制的血浆皮质醇浓度升高，并有防止肾上腺萎缩的作用．生地知母甘草汤和激素同时服用， 能减少激素的副作用．知母皂甙元（菝葜皂甙元）与知母水煎剂相似，能明显降低高甲状腺激素状态小鼠脑β-受体RT 值， 但对亲和力无影响，还能显著地改善该状态小鼠的体重下降．
⑷ 对血糖的影响 给正常家兔注射知母干浸膏（6g/kg）后， 对血糖无影响，醇提取物可引起暂时性的血糖升高．知母水浸提取物， 能降低正常兔的血糖水平，特别是对四氧密啶性糖尿病兔作用更为显著．白虎加人参汤（知母、人参、甘草）的提取物0.5～1g/kg腹腔注射，对实验性糖尿病小鼠亦有降低血糖的作用， 给药后6小时下降120mg%．对正常大鼠，知母不能增进葡萄糖的氧化， 虽可促进横膈、脂肪组织对葡萄糖的摄取，使横膈中糖元含量轻度增加， 但肝糖元含量却有所降低．对实验性（四氧嘧啶）糖尿病的小鼠，腹腔注射知母水性提取物0.15g/kg,5小时血糖下降200mg%，尿中酮体减少．
⑸ 其他作用 知母浸膏对妊娠兔离体子宫无显著影响．从西陵知母根茎中分得β-谷甾醇治疗皮肤鳞癌、宫颈癌有较好疗效且无副作用．知母皂甙抗肿瘤的作用机制同其对细胞膜的泵的强烈抑制作用有关．知母中所含的烟酸， 有维持皮肤与神经健康及促进消化道功能的作用．从知母叶中提得的芒果甙有明显的利胆作用；亦能抑制血小板聚集．
⑴ 取该品粉末2g，加乙醇10ml，振摇后放置20分钟，吸取上清液1ml，蒸干，残渣加硫酸1 滴，初显黄色，继变红色、紫堇色，最后显棕色。
⑵取该品粉末2g，加乙醇20ml，加热回流40分钟，取上清液10ml，加盐酸1ml，加热回流1 小时后浓缩至约5ml ，加水10ml，用苯20ml振摇提取，提取液蒸干，残渣加苯2ml使溶解，作为供试品溶液。另取菝葜皂苷元对照品，加苯制成每1ml 含5mg 的溶液，作为对照品溶液。照薄层色谱法试验，吸取上述两种溶液各7μl，分别点于同一硅胶G薄层板上，以苯－丙酮（9:1） 为展开剂，展开，取出，晾干，喷以8% 香草醛无水乙醇溶液与硫酸溶液（7→10） 的混合液（0.5:5） ，在100℃ 加热至斑点显色清晰。供试品色谱中，在与对照品色谱相应的位置上，显相同颜色的斑点。
取该品粉末（过三号筛）约1g同时另取该品粉末测定水分，精密称定，置锥形瓶中，精密加乙醇25ml，称定重量，浸泡过夜，超声处理40分钟，放冷，再称定重量，用乙醇补足减失的重量，摇匀，滤过，精密量取续滤液10ml，加盐酸1ml，置水浴上用蒸气缓慢回流1小时，放冷，倾入小烧杯中，边振摇边滴加40%氢氧化钠溶液至中性（溶液颜色由橙黄突变为橙红），用乙醇洗涤容器，洗液并入烧杯中。用乙醇移至50ml量瓶中，并稀释至刻度，摇匀，滤过，精密量取续滤液10ml置蒸发皿中，蒸干，残渣用苯溶解，转移至2ml 量瓶中，并稀释至刻度，摇匀，作为供试品溶液。另取菝葜皂苷元对照品适量，精密称定，加苯制成每1ml含0.5mg 的溶液，作为对照品溶液。照薄层色谱法试验，精密吸取供试品溶液4μl、对照品溶液2μl与6μl，分别交叉点于同一以羧甲基纤维素钠为黏合剂的硅胶G薄层板上，以苯－丙酮（9:1） 为展开剂，展至7cm，取出，晾干，再用同一展开剂进行二次展开，取出，晾干，喷以显色剂[甲液：取水25ml，缓慢加硫酸50ml，放冷后，再加乙醇25ml，摇匀；乙液：8% 香草醛无水乙醇溶液。用时将甲液5份与乙液1份混合]后，在70℃加热7～10
Anemarrhena (Liliaceae) Edit
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Anemarrhena (Latin name: Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge), also known as hair altogether, perennial herb, rhizomes, leaves from the base of the tufted slender lanceolate, stems grow from the foliage, upright cylindrical, racemose footage, clusters, born in the top of the spike-like; pink, lilac to white; fruit oblong, there are majority black seeds, fruit period from June to September.
Anemarrhena has cultivated throughout China, drought and strong cold, drought barren hills, desert, wasteland can grow, is the preferred varieties of green mountains and wilderness, can be sown each season of the year, mainly spring or summer sowing ʱ??
This kind of dried rhizomes of famous traditional Chinese medicine, bitter cold, there is nourishing yin, moistening Hua Chang, Lee urine effect. The case under heat powder, Indications: febrile disease, fever, thirst, cough, asthma, dry cough, constipation, Gu Zheng hot flashes, virtual trouble, insomnia, diabetes pouring muddy. There are "Mao altogether" and "altogether meat" of the points. The main producing areas in Hebei. Chinese medicine alias: Rabbit oil grass, large reed water, mother grass, garlic sub grass, sheep beard root, ground and other parameters.
Chinese scientific name Anemarrhena Latin name Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge nickname mother ant eggs, even the mother, wild Polygonum, to participate circles Flora door Door Gang angiosperms monocotyledons Suborder outline Lily lily family Liliaceae families suborder Chlorophytum Belong Anemarrhena species altogether
Contents 1 shape features 2 habitat 3 4 cultivation techniques geographic distribution ▪ ▪ breeding methods to site preparation, field management ▪ pest control ▪ 5 medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ drug source-related clinical applications discussed ▪ ▪ ▪ Prescription selection of medicines commonly used prescription ▪ Compatibility ▪ identification of medication ▪ ▪ Diet treatise produced 6 modern research chemical constituents ▪ ▪ ▪ identification of the pharmacological effects of medicines ▪ Determination ▪ Picking on 7 Plant Culture
Shape features editor
Herbs perennial, rhizomatous 0.5-1.5 cm thick, covered the remnants of leaf sheaths. Leaves 15-60 cm long, 1.5-11 mm wide, from near the apex acuminate filamentous, base width from sheath-like, with multiple parallel veins, there is no obvious midrib. Scape longer than leaves; racemes usually longer, up to 20-50 cm; bracteoles, ovate or oval, apex long acuminate; pink, lilac to white; tepals Article shaped, 5-10 mm long, with 3 central veins, persistent. Capsule narrowly elliptic, 8-13 mm, width 5-6 mm production, top with a short beak. Seeds 7-10 mm long. Fruit period from June to September. 
China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
Anemarrhena whole plant
Anemarrhena whole plant (2)
Anemarrhena fruit (3)
Growth Environment Editor
Adaptable, wild side in sunny hillside. Grassland and weeds. Mostly on loess soil and humus soil. Of cold, northern winter can be in the field, hi warm, drought-resistant, 陈幼 seedling must be properly watered, but not too much watering during the growing season, especially during the high temperature, such as too much soil moisture, poor growth, and rhizomes perishable. On loose soil with humus soil is appropriate, low-lying water and had fresh soil are not planted.
Born in elevation of 1450 meters below the hillside, meadow or roadside drier or sunny place. 
Geographical Distribution Edit
Production of Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong (Shandong Peninsula), Shaanxi (north), Gansu (east), Inner Mongolia (south), Liaoning (southwest), Jilin (west) and Heilongjiang (south). (Hubei Jingzhou region have a sample for further study.) Are also distributed in North Korea. 
Cultivation: Anemarrhena main producing Anguo City in Hebei Province (Anguo City and Boye two plantations spread rapidly to neighboring counties, Dingzhou, Fukasawa, Anping, Lane County, including Hebei Boye Du Coal, Xu camp, Tuen village three villages most concentrated.), Bozhou City (Bozhou altogether grown in Qiaocheng nineteen horses home town area, Zhao bridge, eighteen years, five horses, Qiao East and other towns have grown.) to form China's well-known two planting bases.
Wild: hair altogether the main origin of Zhangbei, Yixian, Akagi, source, Fuping; Shanxi Yushe, five, on behalf of the county, Shouyang; Inner Mongolia Zhaluteqi, Sioux Everest, Dongtai Everest, Lindsey, Branch Dole left the flag, Arong; Tieling, Liaoning, Fuxin and other places also distributed.
Cultivation Technical Editor
Choose well-drained sandy loam soil rich in humus and neutral for good 1500 kg, 25 to 30 cm deep plowing, leveling rake thin, do furrow width 1.2 m, digging drainage ditches. Manure applied per acre. 
① seed. In late July to late September harvest ripe fruit into dry and ventilated place to dry, the seeds Cuochu, toss the net impurity, stored for later use.
② soaking. Soak the seeds will be set 30 ~ 40 ℃ warm water for 24 hours, remove and after a little dry, you can be sown.
⑧ sowing. Available autumn or spring, before the autumn cold, spring in April. When the seed germination rate of 80 to 90%, the next year the germination rate 40 to 50%. Commonly used drilling, spaced 15 to 20 cm by ditching, 1-2 cm deep, will be thrown into the seed trench uniform, casing, keep the soil moist, about 20 days emergence. Acres planted about three kilograms.
Rhizome propagation: Spring can be carried out. After ground stems and leaves wither, before the spring bud, will dig underground rhizomes, cut fibrous roots, cut into 3 to 5 cm long segments, each with buds from 1 to 2, row spacing 15-20 cm ditching, spacing 10 ~ 12 cm planting, watering after casing. Mu seed seedling about 150 kg. 
Anemarrhena general use home-grown seedlings propagation, growing 2 years after transplanting. Relatively long growth cycle, with the growth of the market is also showing a significant cyclical cycle. Anemarrhena home-grown regional focus in Hebeianguo, Bozhou in Anhui two places, easier production survey, market volatility is also more frequent. Anemarrhena adaptable, likes the warm growing period, drought-resistant, has a cold, avoid hot, water. Strict requirements on the soil. Fertile loose, deep soil, sandy loam is most appropriate. The whole growth process is relatively labor-saving, natural disasters generally has little effect, management is relatively simple. Gross production altogether new in spring and autumn, generally in the spring than autumn new large capacity. Production of the new time were late October to early November, and 3 to April next year. The sub-species breeding next year from 100 to 120 kg per mu, the third annual yield of 300 to 360 kilograms per acre seed quantity of 1.5 to 2 kg. From seed to finished product takes four years from the dig. Drying rate, frying dried (4.5: 1) processing altogether a sheet (3.5: 1). Overall, the main factors affecting production altogether is the price, the price will directly stimulate production. Anemarrhena damp easy to mold, discoloration, occasional insects. Hot and humid season attention warehousing. 
Thinning: When the seedlings 2 to 3 cm high time to close weak seedling and seedlings, height 6 cm by 10 cm spacing Dingmiao.
Weeding: Seedlings grow very slowly, about 3 cm when timely removal of weeds, tillage, growing inside to keep the loose soil without weeds, to facilitate seedling growth.
Dressing: seedling to recover nitrogen-based, water 1500 kg per acre topdressing Ren Chufen, or urea 6 kilograms, applied after pouring water again. Late top dressing with nitrogen and potassium as well, urea 10 kg per mu, potassium chloride 7 kg, 20 kg or compound fertilizer.
Fight sprouts: bolting altogether after flowering, consume a lot of nutrients, affecting underground stem growth. Therefore, in addition to remain outside the farming, promptly cut the flower stalk, and promote the growth of the underground stem thickening, it is one of the important measures to increase production altogether. 
Pests are white grubs, the larvae infestation, seedlings or bite biting altogether roots, causing broken seedlings or rhizomes section empty. Marathon can watering 50% emulsion 800 to 1000 times control.
Medicinal value edit
Drug source Related
Source: "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" 
Alias: garlic braids grass, sheep beard roots, to the Senate,  and even the mother, the water must wear earthworm, worm's mother.
Category: heat diarrhea gunpowder
Source: the goods for monocots Liliaceae Zhimu dry roots. 
Harvest: spring and autumn excavation, removal and sediment shall, dried, commonly known as "hair altogether." Or remove the skin and dried.  medicine sliced, raw use, or broiled with salt. Ventilated and dry place to prepare for slicing medicine, raw use, or broiled with salt.
Anemarrhena planted 2--3 years harvest. Spring and autumn can be excavation, with autumn harvest better, remove stems and fibrous roots seedling, retaining the yellow hair and pale yellow leaf scars and rhizomes, dried as "hair altogether." While fresh stripped of skin, dried as "meat altogether." 
Processing: Saline, take Anemarrhena sheet, according to law stem speculation Sunburn brine (salt per 100 pounds with the water of the open 2 half kilogram). The product according to (determination) under the method of the measurement, including sarsasapogenine (C27H44O3) not less than 0.90%. 
According to the different processing methods is divided into altogether, Saline, fry altogether, wine altogether, after processing Dry storage container, Saline, fry altogether, wine altogether sealed, dry air, and moisture.
Properties: bitter, cold.
① "The Classic": bitter, cold.
② "medicinal theory": sexual level.
③ "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": bitter Gan.
④ "Drugs of justice": slightly bitter taste slightly acrid.
Meridian: lung, stomach, kidney.
① "pearl sac": kidney.
② "Herbal Decoction": the Meridian, hand Taiyin.
③ "Materia Medica by the solution": the kidney meridian, hand Shao Yin Heart Sutra. 
Indications: nourishing yin, moistening Hua Chang. Treatment Fanre Diabetes, Gu Zheng labor hot, Hyperactivity cough, dry stool, urine negative.
For warm disease, Excess Heat, strong heat, thirst, pulse and other lung and stomach heat syndrome loud. Anemarrhena role Chufan heat purging fire. Compatibility with gypsum have a synergistic effect, such as white tiger soup.
For Hyperactivity cough or Yin dry cough, thick sputum and other evidence. This product has clear Xiefei fire, Yin lungs effect, often with mother of pearl for clearing the lungs with lung, namely two female loose.
Beck used wang, lung kidney deficiency caused by steam, hot flashes, night sweats, irritability embolism. Anemarrhena have nourishing yin role. Often the same Cork shall be used, with the nourishing yin drugs, such as ZDP.
Diabetes can be used for deficiency, Zheng Jian, thirst, polydipsia, urine person. This product has Yin Jun bath, thirst effect. With TCS, with the use of Schisandra can enhance the effect, such as Yuye soup.
Heat purging fire: for high fever, thirst, often with gypsum; For Hyperactivity cough, often with mother of pearl.
Nourishing Yin: Yin for the fever, night sweats, often with cork, to yellow. 
① "The Classic": the main Diabetes enthusiastic, in addition to evil limb edema, water, fill the gap, Qi.
② "Do not record": healing cold long malaria Fanre, sash evil, the evil and the inner diaphragm wind sweat jaundice.
③ Hongjing: very therapeutic hot junction, also the main malaria hot trouble.
④ "resistance" Indications: heart irritability, nausea, bone hot labor exchanges, after the production of mat workers, kidney labor, Zenghan deficiency, people suffering from empty and dry mouth, plus and used.
⑤ "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": through the small intestine, Phlegm Cough, Run cardiopulmonary, lack of tonic, reassuring only fright.
⑥ Zhang elements: cold heart to heat, cure Yangming hot, diarrhea bladder kidney fire, heat Jue headache, diarrhea, back pain, throat stench.
⑦ Wang Hao Gu: Xiefei fire, Kidney water, more than a treatment Vital-fire.
⑧ "outline": miscarriage, stop annoying child, the provision of the radio station Creek poison.
⑨ "Materia Medica seeking original": governance cough blood, asthma, leaching, and mouth disease, hematuria, hiccups, night sweats, nocturnal emission, Bi atrophy, Zhizong. 
Dosage: Oral: Jiantang, 6 ~ 12g; or into pills, powder. 
Drug contraindications: spleen and stomach, loose stool Jifu.
① "Do not record": multi-service cause leakage.
② "Medicine": Where lung cold cough, kidney collapse, no fire, disease and foot weak pulse disabled.
③ "Ben Cao Jing Shu": impotence and easy to move and easy atrophy, weak spleen diarrhea, indigestion diet, do not think of eating empty stomach, kidney pond leaks and other evidence, law and disabled.
④ "This by every original": exogenous facie evidence is not eliminated, dysentery Zaoke bogey. Hot people wrongly stomach, it is less food for diarrhea, wasting so taboo. 
1. for fever, polydipsia
The goods Ganhan quality-run, good Qingfei Stomach sub excess heat, while arrests restless thirst. For warm Evils heat hyperactivity, strong heat, thirst, pulse and other lung and stomach heat syndrome loud. Often associated with gypsum phase must be used, such as white tiger soup.
2. For Hyperactivity cough, Yin dry cough
The product features clear Xiefei fire, Yin and lungs. For Hyperactivity cough, thick yellow sputum, often with Trichosanthes, large mother of pearl, with the use of bile Southern Star; or Yin dry cough, dry cough with little phlegm, mostly with mother of pearl with the use, as two female loose.
3. For the bone steaming hot flashes
The product can nourishing yin, kidney dry-run retreat Gu Zheng, it is nourishing yin power. For wang, Gu Zheng hot flashes, night sweats, irritability embolism, often with the use of cork with the nourishing yin drugs to enhance the effect of nourishing yin, such as ZDP.
4. For Yin diabetes, constipation, dry bowel
The goods are nourishing yin, thirst effect. Disability allowance for heat, thirst cited drink Diabetes, often with TCS, Pueraria equipped with such Yuye soup. For intestinal dry constipation, often with raw Radix, Angelica, with the use of hemp seed, have laxative effect.
⑴ cure typhoid veins aquaplaning table hot, there are cold; or abdominal disease Sanyang difficult Zhuance mouth covered with heavy dirt delirium enuresis heartless face sweating the delirium of hand, foot against the cold sweat if born from sweating on the forehead and even those under; or typhoid slippery pulse and dedication, there are hot: altogether 300 g of gypsum 500 grams (broken) licorice (Sunburn) 100 grams of rice Kuni. The four flavor to a bucket of water to cook rice cooked soup into one liter of warm clothes to the dregs day three. ("Treatise on" White Tiger soup)
⑵ cure typhoid Fox puzzled throat astringent pain broken lips spit pus: Anemarrhena (baking) 50 grams of gypsum 50 grams skullcap (to sinister), licorice (Sunburn, filing) all three. Pound on the four flavor coarse sieve. Per serving, 15 grams of water a half a spoonful of rice simmer till eight to the dregs. Before eating warm clothes. ("San Franciscans overall record," Zhimu soup)
⑶ Haruhisa near Tansou from mediastinoscopy under Cypriot stop drinking As organs: altogether, mother of pearl for the end of each twelve thirty to croton oil grinds evenly. Per serving, ponder swallow word to sleep the next morning it will cough diarrhea row stand only three pieces of two faces with ginger dipped in medicine. But by the Zhuang people. One need not Croton. ("Medicine Integration")
⑷ shortness of breath cure Jiusou: altogether (to the hair cut) 25 g (separator paper fried) almonds (roasted ginger blisters peeled tip) 25 g. A bell and a half of water a bell fried food away warm clothes. Times radish son, almonds into service at the end of the cereal pills to 50 pills absolutely ginger root cause. ("Health Miscellaneous Xing")
⑸ Zhifei home by dry cough inverse gas: altogether, gypsum, bellflower, licorice, Digupi. Decoction. ("Disease because pulse governance" Zhimu Gan Jie Tang)
⑹ cure typhoid feel upset stomach enthusiastic six the number of flood pulse or blood stool: altogether 10 grams skullcap 10 grams 5 grams of licorice. Decoction hot clothes. ("Que heart book" Zhimu HQT)
⑺ Zhifei labor have not served hot qi agent by: Anemarrhena (fried), Fritillaria (fried) decile. For the end of service. ("The medical Annals" two mother powder)
⑻ rule Qi and workers injured on the pale and thin air of confidence from God burnout half-cough action Fanre body cool breath pulse a few afternoon heat by: altogether 15 grams Treats 15 grams 25 grams of ginseng 10 wide leather winter oats 5 g licorice 3 grams. Decoction. ("Disease because pulse governance" Zhibai Senate winter drink)
White Tiger Soup "Treatise on"; White Tiger plus Ginseng "Treatise on"; White Tiger Guizhi soup "Golden Chamber." 
⑴ for febrile disease, fever irritability, thirst, pulse loud disease and other lung and stomach excess heat and Hyperactivity cough, phlegm yellow and thick. Anemarrhena bitter cold, can Qingfei heat, the middle can clear stomach fire, it applies to the real heat of lung and stomach disorders. This product is often and plaster with the use, can enhance the role of gypsum heat purging fire. 
⑵ for Yin fever, coughing and Diabetes embolism. Anemarrhena can Xiefei fire and ney, so not only can clear excess heat, and can be Qingxudong heat. More with the cork with the use in clinical practice, with the yin drugs, such as ZDP, cure wang, hot flashes Gu Zheng embolism. This product is equipped Yin lungs and drugs such as Radix, fritillary and other products, can be used for lung deficiency dry cough; heat fluid with drugs such as TCS, Radix, Kudzu powder and other goods, can cure diabetes.
⑶ Anemarrhena taste bitter cold not dry, the energy lung, the stomach can be cool under fire can diarrhea kidney. With skullcap, then Xiefei fire; with plaster, then Qingwei heat; with cork, then diarrhea kidney fire. Anemarrhena both clear excess heat, Hot and retreat, but it is weak Yin Sheng Jin effect, for deficiency heat, dry cough and lung deficiency Diabetes embolism, shall be compatible with the yin drugs, before they can play its role. This product can moistening Hua Chang, spleen, loose stools and therefore should not be used. 
Identification of medication
⑴ for febrile disease, the evil in the gas separation, high fever, thirst for gas separation heat syndrome, the role Xiehuo Chufan, gypsum, bamboo compatibility of a synergistic effect.
⑵. For the treatment of Yin Hyperactivity cough or dry cough, we have Qingxie lung fire, Yin and lungs effect. Often with mother of pearl with the power to enhance Qingfei moistening, such as "The medical Annals" second mother scattered.
⑶. For wang, Gu Zheng hot flashes, night sweats, there is nourishing yin role, often with cork phase must be used.
⑷. Qingxie both lung and stomach fire, but also nourish the kidney yin, it should be used for diabetes deficiency, Zheng Jian, thirst, polydipsia, urine and more, with yam, Schisandra can enhance the efficacy with the use of as Yuye soup.
⑸. Gypsum, Anemarrhena can heat purging fire, can cure the disease of warm air and excessive heat Hyperactivity cough and other evidence. But being longer than gypsum heat purging fire, focusing on clear Xiefei stomach real fire, Hyperactivity cough, stomach fire headache, toothache multi-use plaster; Zhimu Xiehuo being longer than the moist, Hyperactivity dry cough, heat Gu Zheng, Diabetes multiple choice altogether.
⑴ "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic": the main Diabetes enthusiastic, in addition to evil limb edema, water, fill the gap, Qi. 
⑵ "doctors do not record": healing cold long malaria Fanre, sash evil, the evil and the inner diaphragm wind sweat jaundice. 
⑶ "Medical Kai source": altogether, "Indications Miyao," clouds and diuresis of Satsukai, kidney drug. Top, cited by all Jiuchao. Scrape off the hair, in white plus. 
⑷ Li Gao: altogether, its use has four: diarrhea kidney fire rootless, treatment has Gu Zheng Khan, Consumption of heat only, source of Yin Zi. Zhongjing into the white tiger soup with this rule shall not sleep who also irritability. For lung trouble, impatient for kidney, Jun gypsum, accompanied by the bitter cold altogether, in order to clear the source of kidney, slow to licorice, rice, so as not to speed down too. And where the urine occlusive disease Erke who heat in the coke gas separation, lung ambush heat, not raw, bladder never its chemical source, it is appropriate thin air taste thin light penetration of the drug, in order to Xiefei fire, clearing the lungs gold The AIDS of water sources. If the hot blood of the next focal points and thirsty person, is really not enough water, dried bladder, is no 阴则阳 no to technology, law when using cork, altogether big hard Big Chill of the drug to the kidney and bladder, so chi rows positive self-oriented, self-taught urine. 
⑸ "Compendium of Materia Medica": kidney bitter dry, Yi Shi Sheen to run it; lung bitter inverse, Yi Shi bitter with diarrhea. Altogether the hard cold, dry and under the lip kidney Yin, Qingfei gold on the purging fire, is the second by the gas separation drug also; renal blood points Cork is medicine, so the two drugs must phase to be the line, Xi people give an example of shrimp and jellyfish, will phase dependent.
⑹ "Tong Xuan Materia Medica": altogether bitter cold, smell all thick, heavy and fall, for the kidney drug. And who can Qingfei, its clear thunder dragon, without rendering the tyrant, the hands-free sales sparkle lunar danger also. Surplus of diarrhea-fire, the rationale of trouble Diabetes steam, where the cough miscarriage, is it clear fire purposes. More clothes cause diarrhea, also cause less food, but real fire burnt burning this person, for temporary use only. If Shi in wasting the people, carry on deep water benefits. Taste bitter cold cover, chill-line world order, non-long support all those who are.
⑺ "Materia Medica is": ancient words altogether Junior Treats nourishing yin, there Jinshui Aioi meaning. Cork lid that can be prepared bladder, Vital yin fire, can eliminate altogether the lungs, kidneys hydration system the source of fire, a goal can protect the female, is the so-called Yin also. Therefore Jie ancient, Higashigaki all that nourishing yin to the drug. Following from Dan then, with all that is yin, Cheng big fallacy carry on. Fu Shen cold of sex altogether, this lethargy to clear fire can be used to yin, then what make it there? ʱ??
⑻ "Drugs of justice": altogether with cork and use, not for pathogenic fire, in fact, be able to help the water; and Fritillaria peers, not for phlegm, designed for Yin.
⑼ "New Materia Medica": altogether, bitter, acrid, gas Dahan, heavy sky, Yin is also non-toxic. The foot Shao, Yangming, and start with lunar. Most good diarrhea stomach, kidney two classics of the fire, thirst hot stop, also Haruhisa malaria. This was only for temporary use, and not Jiufu. Dan added Pill of Six Ingredients in temporary service also teach people to float diarrhea kidney fire, non-teaching people long service also. Treats something that does not go into the gas separation, but altogether a bad idea does not enter the blood points also. Huang Boqing kidney fire, also clearing the lungs of the fire, the heat altogether diarrhea kidney, but also diarrhea fever stomach, the stomach is more gas and more blood of the internal organs, is more than the in the gas separation, and not inserted Blood yeah? Are two drugs do not have to use either. 
⑽ "this by every original": altogether, "by" evil words except limb edema, refers to the hot and humid water vapor is concerned. It is below cloud water, fill the gap, Qi, is more than a hot and humid with fire, burning bright essence of candidates, so with this heat Yin, evil heat to carry the righteousness complex. 
⑾ "Chongqing Hall Essay": altogether, clearing the lungs Stomach per heat, the fluid does not consume the female self in darkness carry on. However Zhongsheng Yun, Stomach heat, which is absolutely positive. Cover stomach too quickly, insufficient yin and yang, fluid getting dry, dry from the Valley of the disease does not kill, it is absolutely positive, that is too fluid dried up, clearing the heat, serve not absolutely positive, then save fluid of the drug, although that of the Yang also available. Later that cold of the goods is non stomach home hi, do not quit earnestly with light, fragrant dry warming Noir engaged in the drug's what zai! ʱ?? 
⑿ "Sutra card": altogether can Yin heat and thirst quencher, is well known, it can be water, places the ancients were very rare, so it is unknown after learning more. "Daughter", outside the station, "two books by each party to flood the air altogether. "Daughter," said, was suffering from edema big belly, its hard as stone, thin limbs, laboring hind tibia that is less swelling, less diet then shortness of breath, this life-long disease, the service does not recover from illness prescription benefit are advised to taking this drug, in addition to micro rheumatism, Lee urine, eliminate Mizutani, aged Jiufu it, is be effective, can recover from illness after uniforms. Their medication, then add altogether in Wulingsan in, but also by Euonymus alatus, Salvia, independent living, Gentiana, seaweed too. "Taiwan," said, "ancient record inspection" Ze paint soup, cold and heat therapy when the wind, drink more violent swollen body, such as blowing, floating pulse number of persons. Their medication, then Alisma, altogether, seaweed, Poria, Salvia, Gentiana, Menispermaceae, Polyporus, rhubarb, through the grass, wood also. It said, in addition to rheumatism, diuresis, said treatment of cold and heat when the wind, drink more violent swollen. Visible "by" book launching effect, seen in addition to limb edema, and altogether the rule limb edema, is evil limb edema, non-pan-limb edema often than men. Being filled with cold and heat outside, inside Xiehuo with, Keer cited drinking, anger is not of water, then spread radiance, treatment with altogether, is to vent their fire, so will not be thirsty cited drinking water then no following, build by Rotary elimination, whereby words, the rule is still thirsty, non-flood also. This, see where the swelling in one, anti-wasting his office, the more is evil Gouliu, water and fire resistance of waiting, irrelevant "Qian" big belly limb edema fine, that is, "Golden Chamber" in the Guizhi peony know mother soup, such as swollen feet off, also one also. "Golden square" cross-resistance to evil under fire and water, "Qian" fire and water cross-resistance to evil, and resistance at, non-divergence is not power, resistance in the middle, non-profit where seepage from the vent, this "Qian "So with Wulingsan," Golden square "So with ephedra, aconite, wind, fire and water are then cross-resistance by its very nature, so its use Gui, surgery, altogether the same also, Gui, art flood of resistance, known Mother cure fire resistance, then this can be seen carry on. 
Poria - medicinal parts
Poria - medicinal parts
⒀ "medical wholehearted participation in the West recorded": altogether original less cold, but also less bitter taste to it and astragalus aliquots and used to heat the cold feel nothing, their non-Big Chill known. Youyi altogether twelve plus licorice two money boil drink, namely Gan bitter than its big bitter taste of non-apparent. Cold, bitter None of the great, but more fluid, is also able to Yin. There are altogether but that can be fever, can Yin who still light the peace also depends altogether. Governance is stupid hot real number of pulse card, will use altogether, if the party Astragalus qi, fear of the heat from those who also constant supplemented altogether. 
⒁ "Herbal justice": altogether cold run, cure real fire stop, obstruct Xiefei to vent hot, dry cough lung abscess advised of, and Hot cough taboo. Qingwei to save fluid, the heat should be the elimination of hate, but also avoid temper is not busy. Waterway through the bladder, colorectal thermal spa splashing muddy the beginning, the cutting-fire of the evil, not atrophy of the main strong positive mark agent. The fever in Yangming, thirst sweat, pulse flood in the heat, Junior plaster Esau inflammation; certificate of malaria in the moon, dampness fumigation, heat and even sweat more, Zuo strawberry to vent spleen heat. System Details attending, more than a range of no more than four words of the excess heat. 
Anemarrhena therapeutic effect: altogether bitter, slightly sweet, cold; the lung, stomach, kidney; quality-run gas and, down and can go up with the heat and purging fire, lung, nourishing yin
Attending fever strong heat polydipsia, Hyperactivity cough, sore throat, Gu Zheng hot flashes, virtual trouble, insomnia, diabetes pouring muddy, constipation.
Anemarrhena practice guidance:
1. Heat purging fire, nourishing yin should be born by; fry brine should send a fire into the kidney.
2. Do not use iron or suffering Sheng home the goods.
3. Where febrile disease heat in the gas separation, high fever, sweating, thirst cited drinking, loud pulse strong person, each phase must be used with gypsum, licorice incorporated so as to clear air Xiere.
4. Where Choudao obstruct the lung sputum, Asthma than those who, with mother of pearl, Tinglizi compatibility.
5. Where wang, Gu Zheng hot flashes, night sweats, nocturnal emission, the more the cork phase shall be used to fire diarrhea and kidney Yin Jian.
Modern research editor
Rhizome contains saponins about 6%, which has timosaponin (Timosaponin) A-Ⅰ, A-Ⅱ, A-Ⅲ, A-Ⅳ, B-Ⅰ and B-Ⅱ. Wherein timosaponin A-Ⅰ is salsa Sapogenin β-D- galactopyranose glycosides, timosaponin A-Ⅲ is salsa sapogenin and altogether disaccharide (Timobiose) bonded disaccharide glycosides ʱ?? Zhimu rhizomes sapogenin have salsa sapogenin (Sarsasapogenin), you Falcao sapogenin (Markogenin), new water chestnut removal sapogenin (Neogitogenin). Previously isolated from altogether out of saponin chimonin (Asphonin) right Falcao saponins mixture timosaponin A-Ⅲ, A-Ⅳ, B and so on. Also isolated different Smilax sapogenin (Smilagenin) and other saponins ingredients. Still contains flavonoids mangiferin (Mangiferin, Chi- monin), iso mangiferin (Isomangiferin); alkaloids of choline (Choline), nicotinamide (Nicotinamide); tannic acid organic acids (Tannic acid), smoke Acid (Nicotinic acid) and four kinds altogether polysaccharide (Anemarn A, B, C, D). Further still iron, zinc, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel and other metal elements and myxoid stroma, sugar and so on. 
⑴ pathogenic microorganisms in vitro experiments showed that: altogether decoction of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi has a strong inhibition of dysentery bacillus, paratyphoid bacillus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholerae, Proteus, diphtheria , pneumococcus, β- hemolytic streptococcus, Candida albicans, also have different degrees of inhibition. Anemarrhena ethanol extract, ether extract and ether extract plus acetone treatment of the resultant crude crystals, on the Cape, thanks to the culture medium of human type Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV subspecies have a strong inhibition, which ether extract The anti-TB highest inhibitory potency. And saponin had no effect. But it has been reported to have come from altogether in a water-soluble saponin, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, especially Candida albicans strong inhibition; while another flavonoid crystals of Mycobacterium tuberculosis also inhibited. Experimental tuberculosis in guinea pigs with 3% altogether bait treatment for 3 to 4 months, has a good effect; also reduce lung lesions in experimental tuberculosis in mice, but the mortality rate is not reduced; as the drug concentration increased to 5%, the tuberculosis index (reflecting lung lesions generally the case) accessible isoniazid, but the mortality rate was higher than the control group, which is probably due to the high toxicity due to the drug itself.
In addition, 8% to 20% concentration altogether decoction on Elizabeth medium for Ashland Trichophyton total concentric Trichophyton, Trichophyton violaceum other common pathogenic dermatophytes also has antibacterial effects. Also reported that there is the toxic effect timosaponin.
⑵ antipyretic effect altogether extract 4g / kg subcutaneous injection, can prevent and treat rabbit fever caused by E. coli, and the lasting effect. Zhimu rhizome contained saponins have significantly reduced the rate of oxygen consumption caused by the increased thyroxine and suppress Na +, K + -ATP activity role.
⑶ role of corticosteroids in rats taking nourishing yin medicine altogether licorice soup or habitat where a single herb, to make increased plasma cortisol concentrations were affected by dexamethasone suppression and prevent adrenal atrophy ʱ?? Habitat altogether while taking licorice soup and hormones, can reduce the side effects of hormones. Sarsasapogenin (Smilax sapogenin) and altogether similar decoction can significantly reduce high thyroid hormone receptor status of brain β- RT value mice, but had no effect on affinity, but also significantly improve the status of mice weight loss.
⑷ impact on blood sugar to normal rabbits injected altogether dry extract (6g / kg) after, had no effect on blood sugar, alcohol extract can cause a temporary increase in blood sugar. Anemarrhena flooding extract, can reduce blood sugar levels are normal rabbits, especially rabbit piperidine four oxygen density is more significant role in diabetes. White Tiger plus Ginseng (altogether, ginseng, licorice) extract 0.5 ~ 1g / kg intraperitoneal injection of experimental diabetic mice also reduce the role of blood sugar, and 6 hours after administration dropped 120mg%. Normal rats, altogether not promote the oxidation of glucose, although the diaphragm can promote fat tissue glucose uptake, glycogen content so that the diaphragm in a slight increase, but glycogen content is decreased. Experimental (alloxan) diabetic mice by intraperitoneal injection of the aqueous extract Anemarrhenae 0.15g / kg, 5-hour glucose decreased 200mg%, decrease in urine ketones.
⑸ other roles altogether extract of rabbit uterine pregnancy had no significant effect. Share β- sitosterol from Xiling anemarrhenae rhizome treatment of skin squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer has a good effect and no side effects. Timosaponin antitumor mechanisms with its strong inhibitory effect on the cell membrane pump related. Zhimu niacin contained, there is the maintenance of the skin and nerve health and promote digestive function. Leaves from Zhimu mangiferin mention was obvious choleretic effect; can also inhibit platelet aggregation.
Identification of medicinal herbs
⑴ take the product powder 2g, add ethanol 10ml, place 20 minutes after the shaking, the supernatant 1ml, evaporated and the residue add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, previews yellow, following the change in red, purple violaceum, finally was brown.
⑵ take the product powder 2g, add ethanol 20ml, was heated under reflux for 40 minutes, the supernatant 10ml, hydrochloric acid 1ml, heated under reflux for 1 hour and concentrated to about 5ml, add water 10ml, 20ml shaking extraction with benzene, the extract was evaporated to dryness the residue in benzene 2ml dissolve, as the test solution. Another Sarsasapogenin reference substance, benzene produced per 1ml 5mg solution containing, as the reference solution. Thin layer chromatography test, draw the two solutions 7μl, point in the same silica gel G plate with benzene - acetone (9: 1) as the agent, started out, dried, sprayed with 8% absolute ethanol with vanillin sulfuric acid solution (7 → 10) mixed solution (0.5: 5), was heated at 100 ℃ to spot color definition. Test products for chromatography, chromatography with reference substance corresponding position, was the same color spots. 
Fritillaria - medicines shape
Fritillaria - medicines shape
Take the product powder (over sieve III) approximately 1g while the other to take the product powder measuring the moisture accurately weighed, set conical flask, precision plus ethanol 25ml, said that given the weight, soaked overnight, sonication 40 minutes, let cool , then said that given the weight of ethanol to make up the weight loss, shaking, filtration, the precise amount of filtrate 10ml, hydrochloric acid 1ml, slow reflux for 1 hour on a water bath with steam, let cool, pour into a small beaker, shaking side edge dropping 40% sodium hydroxide solution to neutral (by the orange color of the solution mutation orange), washed with ethanol container, lotion incorporated into the beaker. Move with ethanol 50ml volumetric flask, and dilute to the mark, shake, filtration, the precise amount of filtrate 10ml evaporating dish, evaporated and the residue was dissolved benzene and transferred to 2ml volumetric flask and dilute to the mark , shake, as the test solution. Another Sarsasapogenin reference standard amount, accurately weighed, add benzene produced per 1ml 0.5mg containing solution as the reference solution. Thin layer chromatography test, precision absorb the test solution 4μl, reference solution 2μl and 6μl, respectively, cross at the same point of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a binder silica gel G plate with benzene - acetone ( 9: 1) as the agent, the exhibition to 7cm, removed, dried, and then the same developer for the second start out, dried, sprayed with chromogenic reagent [A liquid: water 25ml, slowly add sulfuric acid 50ml, put After cooling, plus ethanol 25ml, shake; B solution: 8% vanillin ethanol solution. The A and B was 5 parts 1 part liquid mix] After heating for 7 to 10 when used at 70 ℃
Minute, to spot the color clear, remove the thin glass plate covered with the same size, around fixed with adhesive tape, thin layer chromatography scanning, wavelength λS = 443nm, measuring the test absorbance integral value with control product absorption integral value calculation, that is, too.
The goods on dry goods, including sarsasapogenine (C27H44O3) not less than 1.0%. 
The traditional view that should spring and harvest. Modern studies have shown: Content anemarrhenae rhizomes mangiferin vary collection varies month, showing a certain regularity, in one year, to March budding soon lowest content of only 0.12%, while in April reached its highest point of 1.26 %, this system also for nutrition altogether flowering period. After flowering, mangiferin decreased to October and later rose to a high level. Mango harvest season in May after 4 to collect better and October. 
Plant Culture Editor
Once there was a widowed old woman, no children, a young man living by digging medicine. Because she does not plan money, the herbs are taken to give the sick poor, so old and has no savings. This bitterness could stay down, but the old man a block of heart disease is their ability to recognize drug and no one can pass, much deliberation, she decided to street begging, hoping to encounter a reliable young man, recognized as the godson, the but their heart disease. One day, the old man came to a village begging to tell a crowd of onlookers on their minds. For a time, begging Granny taught to recognize godson herbs ability of news will spread. Soon, there is a wealthy son found her.
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Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart