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知母 Anemarrhena (Anemarrhenae Rhizoma) Zhi Mu

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知母

 

(百合科植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
知母(拉丁学名:Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge)也叫毛知母,多年生草本植物,根状茎,叶由基部丛生细长披针形,花茎自叶丛中长出,圆柱形直立,总状花絮,成簇,生在顶部成穗状;花粉红色,淡紫色至白色;果实长椭圆形,内有多数黑色种子,花果期6~9月。
知母中国各地都有栽培,抗旱抗寒能力强,干旱少雨的荒山、荒漠、荒地中都能生长,是绿化山区和荒原的首选品种,全年各季节都能播种,主要是春播或夏播。
该种干燥根状茎为著名中药,性苦寒,有滋阴降火、润燥滑肠、利大小便之效。属清热下火药,主治:温热病、高热烦渴、咳嗽气喘、燥咳、便秘、骨蒸潮热、虚烦不眠、消渴淋浊。有“毛知母”与“知母肉”之分。最主要产区在河北。中药别名:兔子油草、大芦水、妈妈草、蒜瓣子草、羊胡子根、地参等。
中文学名
知母
拉丁学名
Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge
别    称
蚳母,连母,野蓼,地参
植物界
被子植物门
单子叶植物纲
百合目
亚    目
百合亚目
百合科
吊兰族
知母属
知母

形状特征编辑

多年生草本,根状茎粗0.5-1.5厘米,为残存的叶鞘所覆盖。叶长15-60厘米,宽1.5-11毫米,向先端渐尖而成近丝状,基部渐宽而成鞘状,具多条平行脉,没有明显的中脉。花葶比叶长得多;总状花序通常较长,可达20-50厘米;苞片小,卵形或卵圆形,先端长渐尖;花粉红色、淡紫色至白色;花被片条形,长5-10毫米,中央具3脉,宿存。蒴果狭椭圆形,长8-13毫米,宽5-6产毫米,顶端有短喙。种子长7-10毫米。花果期6-9月。[1] 

植物形态

  •  
    知母全株
    知母全株(2张)
  •  
  •  
    知母花果
    知母花果(3张)

生长环境编辑

适应性很强,野生于向阳山坡地边。草原和杂草丛中。土壤多为黄土及腐殖质壤上。性耐寒,北方可在田间越冬,喜温暖,耐干旱,陈幼苗期须适当浇水外,生长期间不宜过多浇水,特别在高温期间,如土壤水分过多,生长不良,且根状茎容易腐烂。土壤以疏松的腐殖质壤上为宜,低洼积水和过劲的土壤均不宜栽种。
生于海拔1450米以下的山坡、草地或路旁较干燥或向阳的地方。[1] 

地理分布编辑

产河北、山西、山东(山东半岛)、陕西(北部)、甘肃(东部)、内蒙古(南部)、辽宁(西南部)、吉林(西部)和黑龙江(南部)。(湖北荆州地区有一份标本,尚待研究。)也分布于朝鲜。[1] 
栽培:知母主产河北省安国市(安国市和博野县两个种植基地迅速向周边县扩散,定州、深泽、安平、里县,其中河北博野的杜各庄、徐营、屯庄三个自然村最为集中。)、安徽省亳州市(亳州知母主要种植在谯城区十九里镇马老家一带,赵桥、十八里、五马、谯东等乡镇也有种植。),形成了中国知名的两个种植基地。
野生:毛知母主产地河北张北、易县、赤城、来源、阜平;山西榆社、五台、代县、寿阳;内蒙古扎鲁特旗、西乌珠穆、东台珠穆、林西、科尔左中旗、阿荣旗;辽宁铁岭、阜新等地亦有分布。

栽培技术编辑

选地整地

选择排水良好的砂质壤土和富含腐殖质的中性土壤为好1500千克,深耕25~30厘米,耙细整平,做宽1.2米的畦,挖排水沟。每亩施厩肥。[2] 

繁殖方法

种子繁殖:
知母栽培知母栽培
①采种。7月下旬至9月下旬采收成熟的果实,放到通风干燥处晾干,将种子搓出,簸净杂质,贮存待用。
②浸种。将种子置30~40℃的温水中浸泡24小时,捞出稍晾干后,即可进行播种。
⑧播种。秋播或春播均可,秋播在上冻前,春播于4月份。当年种子发芽率80~90%,隔年种子发芽率仅40一50%。一般采用条播,按行距15~20厘米开沟,深1-2厘米,将种子均匀撒入沟内,覆土,保持土壤湿润,20天左右出苗。亩播种量约3千克。
根茎繁殖:春秋均可进行。地上茎叶枯萎后,春季萌芽前,将地下根茎刨出,剪去须根,切成3~5厘米的长段,每段带芽1~2个,按行距15-20厘米开沟,株距10~12厘米栽种,覆土后浇水。亩用种秧150千克左右。[2] 
秧苗繁殖
家种知母一般用秧苗繁殖,移栽后生长期为2年。生长周期相对较长,行情也随着生长的周期性呈现出明显的周期变化。知母家种区域集中在河北安国、安徽亳州两地,生产情况较易调查,行情波动也较为频繁。知母适应性很强,生育期喜温暖、耐干旱,具有一定的耐寒性,忌高温、积水。对土壤要求不严。以肥沃疏松、土层深厚的沙质壤土最为适宜。整个生长过程相对较为省工省力,一般的自然灾害对其影响不大,管理相对较为简单。毛知母产新在春秋两季,一般春季比秋季的产新量大。产新时间分别是10月下旬至11月上旬,及次年的3~4月份。该品种子繁殖第二年亩产100~120公斤,第三年亩产300~360公斤,每亩用种量1.5~2公斤。从播种到成品起挖需要四年时间。折干率,刮皮晒干(4.5:1)加工知母个片(3.5:1)。总体来说影响知母生产的主要因素就是价位,价位的高低直接刺激生产量。知母受潮易发霉、变色,偶有虫蛀。高温多湿季节注意仓储保管。[3] 

田间管理

间苗:当幼苗高2~3厘米时间去弱苗和密苗,苗高6厘米左右时按株距10厘米左右定苗。
中耕除草:幼苗生长很慢,3厘米左右时及时拔除杂草、松土,生长期保持地内土壤疏松无杂草,以利幼苗生长。
追肥:苗期以追氮肥为主,每亩追施人畜粪水1500千克,或尿素6千克,施后浇一遍水。后期追肥以氮、钾肥为好,每亩施尿素10千克,氯化钾7千克,或施复合肥20千克。
打薹:知母抽薹开花后,消耗很多养分,影响地下茎的生长。因此,除留种地之外,及时剪去花薹,促进地下茎增粗生长,是知母增产的重要措施之一。[2] 

病虫防治

虫害有蛴螬,以幼虫为害,咬断知母苗或咬食根茎,造成断苗或根茎部空洞。可浇施50%马拉松乳剂800~1000倍液防治。

药用价值编辑

药源相关

知母知母
出处:神农本草经[4] 
别名:蒜辫子草、羊胡子根、地参、[5]  连母、水须、穿地龙、虫氏母。
类别:清热泻火药
来源:该品为单子叶植物百合科知母的干燥根茎[5] 
采收:春、秋二季采挖,除去须及泥沙,晒干,习称“毛知母”。或除去外皮,晒干。[5]  切片入药,生用,或盐水炙用。置通风干燥处,防潮,以备切片入药,生用,或盐水炙用。
知母栽种2-3年开始收获。春秋两季可采挖,以秋季采收较佳,除掉茎苗及须根,保留黄绒毛和浅黄色的叶痕及根茎,晒干为“毛知母”。趁鲜剥去外皮,晒干为“知母肉”。[2] 
炮制盐知母,取知母片,照盐水炙法炒干(每100斤加盐2斤半用开水化开)。该品照上述(含量测定)项下的方法测定,含菝葜皂苷元(C27H44O3)不得少于 0.90%。[5] 
根据炮制方法的不同分为知母、盐知母、炒知母、酒知母,炮制后贮干燥容器内,盐知母、炒知母、酒知母密闭,置通风干燥处,防潮。

药性论述

知母
知母 (2张)
性味:苦,寒。
①《本经》:味苦,寒。
②《药性论》:性平。
③《日华子本草》:味苦甘。
④《药品化义》:味微苦略辛。
归经:入肺、胃、肾经。
①《珍珠囊》:肾经。
②《汤液本草》:入足阳明经、手太阴经。
③《本草经解》:入足少阴肾经、手少阴心经。[6] 
功能主治:滋阴降火,润燥滑肠。治烦热消渴,骨蒸劳热,肺热咳嗽,大便燥结,小便不利。
  用于温热病,邪热亢盛、壮热、烦渴、脉洪大等肺胃实热证。知母有清热泻火除烦的作用。与石膏配伍有协同之效,如白虎汤。
用于肺热咳嗽或阴虚燥咳、痰稠等证。本品有清泻肺火,滋阴润肺之效,常与贝母同用以清肺化痰止咳,即二母散。
用于阴虚火旺,肺肾亏所致的骨节蒸潮热、盗汗、心烦等症。知母有滋阴降火的作用。常同黄柏相须为用,配入养阴药中,如知柏地黄丸。
可用于阴虚消渴,症见口渴、饮多、尿多者。本品有滋阴润澡、生津止渴功效。同天花粉、五味子等配合使用可增强疗效,如玉液汤。
清热泻火:用于高热烦渴,常配生石膏;用于肺热咳嗽,常配贝母。
滋阴降火:用于阴虚之发热、盗汗,常配黄柏、地黄。[6] 
①《本经》:主消渴热中,除邪气肢体浮肿,下水,补不足,益气。
②《别录》:疗伤寒久疟烦热,胁下邪气,膈中恶及风汗内疸。
③陶弘景:甚疗热结,亦主疟热烦。
④《药性论》:主治心烦躁闷,骨热劳往来,生产后蓐劳,肾气劳,憎寒虚损,患人虚而口干,加而用之。
⑤《日华子本草》:通小肠,消痰止嗽,润心肺,补虚乏,安心止惊悸。
⑥张元素:凉心去热,治阳明火热,泻膀胱肾经火,热厥头痛,下痢腰痛,喉中腥臭。
⑦王好古:泻肺火,滋肾水,治命门相火有余。
⑧《纲目》:安胎,止子烦,辟射工溪毒。
⑨《本草求原》:治嗽血,喘,淋,口病,尿血,呃逆,盗汗,遗精,痹痿,瘈疭。[6] 
用法用量:内服:煎汤,6~12g;或入丸、散。[4] 
用药禁忌:脾胃虚寒,大便溏泄者忌服。
①《别录》:多服令人泄。
②《医学入门》:凡肺中寒嗽,肾气虚脱,无火症而尺脉微弱者禁用。
③《本草经疏》:阳痿及易举易痿,泄泻脾弱,饮食不消化,胃虚不思食,肾虚溏泄等证,法并禁用。
④《本经逢原》:外感表证未除、泻痢燥渴忌之。脾胃虚热人误服,令人作泻减食,故虚损大忌。[6] 

临床应用

白虎汤白虎汤
1. 用于热病烦渴
该品甘寒质润,善清肺胃气分实热,而除烦止渴。用于温热病邪热亢盛,壮热、烦渴、脉洪大等肺胃实热证。常与石膏相须为用,如白虎汤
2. 用于肺热咳嗽,阴虚燥咳
该品功能清泻肺火,滋阴润肺。用于肺热咳嗽、痰黄粘稠,常配瓜蒌、大贝母、胆南星同用;或阴虚燥咳、干咳少痰者,多与贝母同用,如二母散
3. 用于骨蒸潮热
该品又能滋肾阴、润肾燥而退骨蒸,故有滋阴降火之功。用于阴虚火旺,骨蒸潮热、盗汗、心烦等症,常与黄柏同用,配入养阴药中,以加强滋阴降火之效,如知柏地黄丸
4. 用于阴虚消渴,肠燥便秘
该品有滋阴润燥,生津止渴之效。用于内热伤津,口渴引饮之消渴病,常与天花粉葛根等配用,如玉液汤。用于肠燥便秘,常与生首乌当归麻仁同用,又有润肠通便之效。

药方选录

⑴治伤寒脉浮滑 表有热 里有寒;或三阳合病 腹满 身重 难以转侧 口不仁 面垢 谵语 遗尿 发汗则谵语甚 下之则额上生汗 手足逆冷 若自汗出者;或伤寒脉滑而厥 里有热:知母300克 石膏500克 (碎) 甘草(炙)100克 粳米六合.上四味 以水一斗 煮米熟 汤成去滓 温服一升 日三服.(《伤寒论》白虎汤)
⑵治伤寒狐惑 咽喉涩痛 口唇破 吐脓血:知母 (焙)50克 石膏50克黄芩(去黑心)、甘草(炙、锉)各三分.上四味 粗捣筛.每服15克 水一盏半 糯米一匙 煎至八分 去滓.食前温服.(《圣济总录》知母汤)
⑶治久近痰嗽 自胸膈下塞停饮 至于脏腑:知母、贝母各一两为末巴豆三十枚去油 研匀.每服一字 用姜三片 二面蘸药 细嚼咽下 便睡 次早必泻一行 其嗽立止.壮人乃用之.一方不用巴豆.(《医学集成》)
⑷治久嗽气急:知母(去毛 切)25克(隔纸炒)杏仁(姜水泡 去皮尖 焙)25克.以水一钟半 煎一钟 食远温服.次以萝卜子、杏仁等分 为末 米糊丸 服五十丸 姜汤下 以绝病根.(《卫生杂兴》)
⑸治肺家受燥 咳嗽气逆:知母、石膏、桔梗、甘草、地骨皮.水煎服.(《症因脉治》知母甘桔汤)
⑹治伤寒胃中有热 心觉懊恼 六脉洪数 或大便下血:知母10克 黄芩10克 甘草5克.水煎热服. (《扁鹊心书》知母黄芩汤)
⑺治肺劳有热 不能服补气之剂者:知母(炒)、贝母(炒)等分.为末服.(《医方集解》二母散)
⑻治气虚劳伤面黄肌瘦气怯神离 动作倦怠 上半日咳嗽烦热 下午身凉气爽 脉数有热者:知母15克 黄柏15克 人参10克麦冬25克 广皮5克 甘草3克.水煎服.(《症因脉治》知柏参冬饮)

成药方剂

白虎汤《伤寒论》;白虎加人参汤《伤寒论》;白虎加桂枝汤《金匮要略》。[4] 

常用配伍

知柏地黄丸知柏地黄丸
⑴用于温热病、高热烦燥、口渴、脉洪大等肺胃实热之症及肺热喘咳、痰黄而稠。知母苦寒,上能清肺热,中能清胃火,故适用于肺胃有实热的病症。本品常和石膏同用,可以增强石膏的清热泻火作用。[5] 
⑵用于阴虚发热、虚劳咳嗽及消渴等症。知母能泻肺火而滋肾,故不仅能清实热,且可清虚热。在临床上多与黄柏同用,配入滋阴药中,如知柏地黄丸,治阴虚火旺、潮热骨蒸等症。又本品配养阴润肺药如沙参、麦冬、川贝等品,可用于肺虚燥咳;配清热生津药如天花粉、麦冬、粉葛根等品,可用治消渴。
⑶知母性味苦寒而不燥,上能清肺,中能凉胃,下能泻肾火。配以黄芩,则泻肺火;配石膏,则清胃热;配黄柏,则泻肾火。知母既能清实热,又可退虚热,但它滋阴生津的功效较弱,用于阴虚内热、肺虚燥咳及消渴等症,须与滋阴药配伍,始能发挥它的作用。本品能润燥滑肠,故脾虚便溏者不宜使用。[5] 

鉴别用药

知母知母
⑴用于温病,邪在气分,高热、烦渴的气分实热证,有泻火除烦的作用,与石膏、竹叶配伍有协同之效。
⑵.用于治疗肺热咳嗽或阴虚燥咳,有清泄肺火,滋阴润肺之效。常与贝母同用以增强清肺润燥之功,如《医方集解》二母散。
⑶.用于阴虚火旺,骨蒸潮热,盗汗者,有滋阴降火的作用,常与黄柏相须为用。
⑷.既能清泄肺胃之火,又能滋养肺肾之阴,故宜用于阴虚消渴,症见口渴、饮多、尿多者,同山药、五味子等配合使用可增强疗效,如玉液汤。
⑸.石膏、知母均能清热泻火,可用治温热病气分热盛及肺热咳嗽等证。但石膏泻火之中长于清热,重在清泻肺胃实火,肺热喘咳、胃火头痛牙痛多用石膏;知母泻火之中长于清润,肺热燥咳、内热骨蒸、消渴多选知母。

各家论述

⑴《神农本草经》:主消渴热中,除邪气肢体浮肿,下水,补不足,益气[4] 
⑵《名医别录》:疗伤寒久疟烦热,胁下邪气,膈中恶及风汗内疸。[4] 
⑶《医学启源》:知母,《主治秘要》云作利小便之佐使,肾中本药。上头、引经皆酒炒。刮去毛,里白者佳。[4] 
⑷李杲:知母,其用有四:泻无根之肾火,疗有汗之骨蒸,止虚劳之热,滋化源之阴。仲景用此入白虎汤治不得眠者,烦躁也。烦出于肺,躁出于肾,君以石膏,佐以知母之苦寒,以清肾之源,缓以甘草、粳米,使不速下也。又凡病小便闭塞而渴者,热在上焦气分,肺中伏热,不能生水,膀胱绝其化源,宜用气薄味薄淡渗之药,以泻肺火、清肺金而滋水之化源。若热在下焦血分而不渴者,乃真水不足,膀胱干涸,乃无阴则阳无以化,法当用黄柏、知母大苦大寒之药,以补肾与膀胱,使阴气行而阳自化,小便自通[4] 
⑸《本草纲目》:肾苦燥,宜食辛以润之;肺苦逆,宜食苦以泻之。知母之辛苦寒凉,下则润肾燥而滋阴,上则清肺金泻火,乃二经气分药也;黄柏则是肾经血分药,故二药必相须而行,昔人譬之虾与水母,必相依附。
⑹《本草通玄》:知母苦寒,气味俱厚,沉而下降,为肾经本药。兼能清肺者,为其肃清龙雷,勿使僭上,则手太阴无销烁之虞也。泻有余之相火,理消渴之烦蒸,凡止咳安胎,莫非清火之用。多服令人泄泻,亦令人减食,此惟实火燔灼者,方可暂用。若施之于虚损之人,如水益深矣。盖苦寒之味,行天地肃杀之令,非长养万物者也。
⑺《本草正》:古书言知母佐黄柏滋阴降火,有金水相生之义。盖谓黄柏能制膀胱、命门阴中之火,知母能消肺金,制肾水化源之火,去火可以保阴,是即所谓滋阴也。故洁古、东垣皆以为滋阴降火之要药。继自丹溪而后,则皆用以为补阴,诚大谬矣。夫知母以沉寒之性,本无生气,用以清火则可,用以补阴,则何补之有?。
⑻《药品化义》:知母与黄柏并用,非为降火,实能助水;与贝母同行,非为清痰,专为滋阴。
⑼《本草新编》:知母,味苦、辛,气大寒,沉而降,阴也,无毒。入足少阴、阳明,又入手太阴。最善泻胃、肾二经之火,解渴止热,亦治久疟。此物只可暂用,而不可久服。丹溪加入六味丸中,亦教人暂服,以泻肾中浮游之火,非教人长服也。黄柏未尝不入气分,而知母未尝不入血分也。黄柏清肾中之火,亦能清肺中之火,知母泻肾中之热,而亦泻胃中之热,胃为多气多血之腑,岂止入于气分,而不入于血分耶?是二药不必兼用。[4] 
⑽《本经逢原》:知母,《本经》言除邪气肢体浮肿,是指湿热水气而言。故下文云下水,补不足,益气,乃湿热相火有余,烁灼精气之候,故用此清热养阴,邪热去则正气复矣。[4] 
⑾《重庆堂随笔》:知母,清肺胃气分之热,则津液不耗而阴自潜滋暗长矣。然仲圣云,胃气生热,其阳则绝。盖胃热太盛,则阴不足以和阳,津液渐干,而成枯燥不能杀谷之病,其阳则绝者,即津液涸竭也,清其热,俾阳不绝,则救津液之药,虽谓之补阳也可。乃后人以为寒凉之品,非胃家所喜,谆谆戒勿轻用,辄从事于香燥温补之药者何哉!。[4] 
⑿《本经疏证》:知母能益阴清热止渴,人所共知,其能下水,则以古人用者甚罕,后学多不明其故。《千金》、外台》两书用知母治水气各一方。《千金》曰,有人患水肿腹大,其坚如石,四肢细,少劳苦足胫即肿,少饮食便气急,此终身之疾,服利下药不瘥者,宜服此药,微除风湿,利小便,消水谷,岁久服之,乃可得力,瘥后可常服。其所用药,则加知母于五苓散中,更增鬼箭羽、丹参独活秦艽海藻也。《外台》曰,《古今录验》泽漆汤,疗寒热当风,饮多暴肿,身如吹,脉浮数者。其所用药,则泽泻、知母、海藻、茯苓、丹参、秦艽、防己猪苓大黄、通草、木香也。其曰,除风湿,利小便,曰疗寒热当风,饮多暴肿。可见《本经》所著下水之效,见于除肢体浮肿,而知母所治之肢体浮肿,乃邪气肢体浮肿,非泛常肢体浮肿比矣。正以寒热外盛,邪火内著,渴而引饮,火气不能化水,水遂泛滥四射,治以知母,是泄其火,使不作渴引饮,水遂无继,蓄者旋消,由此言之,仍是治渴,非治水也。于此,见凡肿在一处,他处反消瘦者,多是邪气勾留,水火相阻之候,不特《千金方》水肿腹大四肢细,即《金匮要略》中桂枝芍药知母汤,脚肿如脱,亦其一也。《金匮方》邪气水火交阻于下,《千金方》邪气水火交阻于中,阻于下者,非发散不为功,阻于中者,非渗利何由泄,此《千金方》所以用五苓散,《金匮方》所以用麻黄附子、防风,然其本质均为水火交阻,故其用桂、术、知母则同也,桂、术治水 之阻,知母治火之阻,于此遂可见矣。[4] 
茯苓-药用部分茯苓-药用部分
⒀《医学衷中参西录》:知母原不甚寒,亦不甚苦,尝以之与黄芪等分并用,则分毫不觉凉热,其性非大寒可知。又以知母一两加甘草二钱煮饮之,即甘胜于苦,其味非大苦可知。寒、苦皆非甚大,而又多液,是以能滋阴也。有谓知母但能退热,不能滋阴者,犹浅之乎视知母也。是以愚治热实脉数之证,必用知母,若用黄芪补气之方,恐其有热不受者,亦恒辅以知母。[4] 
⒁《本草正义》:知母寒润,止治实火,泻肺以泄壅热,肺痈燥咳宜之,而虚热咳嗽大忌。清胃以救津液,消中瘅热宜之,而脾气不旺亦忌。通膀胱水道,疗淋浊初起之结热,伐相火之邪,主强阳不痿之标剂。热病之在阳明,烦渴大汗,脉洪里热,佐石膏以扫炎症;疟证之在太阴,湿浊熏蒸,汗多热甚,佐草果以泄脾热。统详主治,不外实热有余四字之范围。[4] 

药膳制作

知母食疗作用:知母味苦、微甘,性寒;归肺、胃、肾经;质润气和,降而能升具有清热泻火,化痰止咳,滋阴润燥
主治热病壮热烦渴,肺热咳嗽,咽喉肿痛,骨蒸潮热,虚烦不眠,消渴淋浊,大便秘结。
知母根茎知母根茎
知母做法指导:
1. 清热泻火、滋阴润燥宜生用;入肾降火宜盐水炒。
2. 勿用铁器煎熬或盛置该品。
3. 凡温热病热在气分,高热汗出,烦渴引饮,脉洪大有力者,每与生石膏相须为用,并入甘草等,以清气泄热。
4. 凡痰抽刀断水壅肺,喘嗽不止者,可与贝母、葶苈子配伍。
5. 凡阴虚火旺,骨蒸潮热,遗精盗汗者,多与黄柏相须为用,以泻肾火而坚阴。

现代研究编辑

化学成分

知母皂甙A-III知母皂甙A-III
根茎中含总皂甙约6%,其中有知母皂甙(Timosaponin)A-Ⅰ、A-Ⅱ、A-Ⅲ、A-Ⅳ, B-Ⅰ和B-Ⅱ.其中知母皂甙A-Ⅰ是萨尔萨皂甙元β-D-吡喃半乳糖甙,知母皂甙A-Ⅲ是萨尔萨皂甙元与知母双糖(Timobiose)结合而成的双糖甙.知母根茎中的皂甙元有萨尔萨皂甙元(Sarsasapogenin)、吗尔考皂甙元(Markogenin)、新芰脱皂甙元(Neogitogenin).以前从知母中分离出来的皂甙知母宁(Asphonin)是吗尔考皂甙、知母皂甙A-Ⅲ、A-Ⅳ、B等的混合物.亦分离出异菝葜皂甙元(Smilagenin)等皂甙类成分. 尚含有黄酮类的芒果甙(Mangiferin,Chi- monin), 异芒果甙(Isomangiferin);生物碱类的胆碱(Choline),尼克酰胺(Nicotinamide);有机酸类的鞣酸(Tannic acid), 烟酸(Nicotinic acid)以及四种知母多糖(Anemarn A,B,C,D)。另外尚含铁、锌、锰、铜、铬、镍等多种金属元素以及黏液质、还原糖等.[6] 

药理作用

知母制品知母制品
⑴抗病原微生物作用 体外实验表明:知母煎剂对葡萄球菌、伤寒杆菌有较强的抑制作用, 对痢疾杆菌、副伤寒杆菌、大肠杆菌、枯草杆菌、霍乱弧菌、变形杆菌、白喉杆菌、肺炎双球菌、β-溶血性链球菌、白色念珠菌等也有不同程度的抑制作用.知母乙醇浸膏、乙醚浸膏及乙醚浸膏加丙酮处理后所得之粗结晶,对在普、拜培养基上培养的 H37RV 人型结核杆菌亚种有较强的抑制作用,其中乙醚浸膏的抗结核杆菌的抑菌效价最高.而皂甙则无作用.但有报道从知母中提得一种水溶性皂甙,对结核杆菌, 尤其对白色念珠菌有较强的抑制作用;而另一种黄酮结晶,对结核杆菌也有抑制作用.对豚鼠实验性结核病以3%知母药饵治疗3~4个月, 有较好疗效;也可减轻实验性结核小鼠的肺部病变,但死亡率并不降低;如将药物浓度提高到5%,则肺结核指数(反映肺脏大体病变的情况)可接近异烟肼, 但死亡率却较对照组更高,可能系因药物本身毒性较大所致.
此外, 8%~20%浓度的知母煎剂在沙伯培养基上对许兰毛癣菌、共心性毛癣菌、堇色毛癣菌等常见的致病性皮肤癣菌也有抑菌作用.亦有报道指出,知母皂甙有灭螺作用.
⑵解热作用 知母浸膏4g/kg皮下注射,能防止和治疗大肠杆菌所致兔高热, 且作用持久.知母根茎中所含皂甙具有明显降低由甲状腺素造成的耗氧率增高及抑制 Na+,K+-ATP 酶活性的作用.
⑶对皮质激素作用的影响 大鼠服用滋阴降火中药生地知母甘草汤或其中的单味药, 均能使受地塞米松抑制的血浆皮质醇浓度升高,并有防止肾上腺萎缩的作用.生地知母甘草汤和激素同时服用, 能减少激素的副作用.知母皂甙元(菝葜皂甙元)与知母水煎剂相似,能明显降低高甲状腺激素状态小鼠脑β-受体RT 值, 但对亲和力无影响,还能显著地改善该状态小鼠的体重下降.
⑷ 对血糖的影响 给正常家兔注射知母干浸膏(6g/kg)后, 对血糖无影响,醇提取物可引起暂时性的血糖升高.知母水浸提取物, 能降低正常兔的血糖水平,特别是对四氧密啶性糖尿病兔作用更为显著.白虎加人参汤(知母、人参、甘草)的提取物0.5~1g/kg腹腔注射,对实验性糖尿病小鼠亦有降低血糖的作用, 给药后6小时下降120mg%.对正常大鼠,知母不能增进葡萄糖的氧化, 虽可促进横膈脂肪组织对葡萄糖的摄取,使横膈中糖元含量轻度增加, 但肝糖元含量却有所降低.对实验性(四氧嘧啶)糖尿病的小鼠,腹腔注射知母水性提取物0.15g/kg,5小时血糖下降200mg%,尿中酮体减少.
⑸ 其他作用 知母浸膏对妊娠兔离体子宫无显著影响.从西陵知母根茎中分得β-谷甾醇治疗皮肤鳞癌、宫颈癌有较好疗效且无副作用.知母皂甙抗肿瘤的作用机制同其对细胞膜的泵的强烈抑制作用有关.知母中所含的烟酸, 有维持皮肤与神经健康及促进消化道功能的作用.从知母叶中提得的芒果甙有明显的利胆作用;亦能抑制血小板聚集.

药材鉴别

⑴ 取该品粉末2g,加乙醇10ml,振摇后放置20分钟,吸取上清液1ml,蒸干,残渣加硫酸1 滴,初显黄色,继变红色、紫堇色,最后显棕色。
⑵取该品粉末2g,加乙醇20ml,加热回流40分钟,取上清液10ml,加盐酸1ml,加热回流1 小时后浓缩至约5ml ,加水10ml,用苯20ml振摇提取,提取液蒸干,残渣加苯2ml使溶解,作为供试品溶液。另取菝葜皂苷元对照品,加苯制成每1ml 含5mg 的溶液,作为对照品溶液。照薄层色谱法试验,吸取上述两种溶液各7μl,分别点于同一硅胶G薄层板上,以苯-丙酮(9:1) 为展开剂,展开,取出,晾干,喷以8% 香草醛无水乙醇溶液与硫酸溶液(7→10) 的混合液(0.5:5) ,在100℃ 加热至斑点显色清晰。供试品色谱中,在与对照品色谱相应的位置上,显相同颜色的斑点。[5] 

含量测定

贝母-中药材形状贝母-中药材形状
取该品粉末(过三号筛)约1g同时另取该品粉末测定水分,精密称定,置锥形瓶中,精密加乙醇25ml,称定重量,浸泡过夜,超声处理40分钟,放冷,再称定重量,用乙醇补足减失的重量,摇匀,滤过,精密量取续滤液10ml,加盐酸1ml,置水浴上用蒸气缓慢回流1小时,放冷,倾入小烧杯中,边振摇边滴加40%氢氧化钠溶液至中性(溶液颜色由橙黄突变为橙红),用乙醇洗涤容器,洗液并入烧杯中。用乙醇移至50ml量瓶中,并稀释至刻度,摇匀,滤过,精密量取续滤液10ml置蒸发皿中,蒸干,残渣用苯溶解,转移至2ml 量瓶中,并稀释至刻度,摇匀,作为供试品溶液。另取菝葜皂苷元对照品适量,精密称定,加苯制成每1ml含0.5mg 的溶液,作为对照品溶液。照薄层色谱法试验,精密吸取供试品溶液4μl、对照品溶液2μl与6μl,分别交叉点于同一以羧甲基纤维素钠为黏合剂的硅胶G薄层板上,以苯-丙酮(9:1) 为展开剂,展至7cm,取出,晾干,再用同一展开剂进行二次展开,取出,晾干,喷以显色剂[甲液:取水25ml,缓慢加硫酸50ml,放冷后,再加乙醇25ml,摇匀;乙液:8% 香草醛无水乙醇溶液。用时将甲液5份与乙液1份混合]后,在70℃加热7~10
分钟,至斑点显色清晰,取出,在薄层板上覆盖同样大小的玻璃板,周围用胶布固定,照薄层色谱法进行扫描,波长λS=443nm,测量供试品吸收度积分值与对照品吸收度积分值,计算,即得。
该品按干燥品计算,含菝葜皂苷元(C27H44O3)不得少于1.0%。[5] 

采摘影响

传统认为宜春秋采收。现代研究证明:知母根茎中芒果苷的含量随不同采集月份而变化,呈现一定规律性,1年中,以3月份刚萌芽不久时含量最低,仅0.12%,而4月份达到最高点为1.26%,此系知母开花期亦为其营养期。开花后,芒果苷含量下降,至10月份以后又升到较高水平。芒果采收季节以4~5月份和10月份以后采集为佳。[3] 

植物文化编辑

传说
从前有个孤寡老太婆,无儿无女,年轻时靠挖药为生。因她不图钱财,把采来的药草都送给了有病的穷人,所以年老了却毫无积蓄。这苦日子倒能熬,但老人有块心病就是自己的认药本事无人可传,想来想去,她决定沿街讨饭,希望能遇上个可靠的后生,认作干儿子,了却自己的心病。一天,老人讨饭来到一片村落,向围观的众人诉说了自己的心事。一时间,讨饭老太要认干儿子传授采药本事的消息便传开了。不久,有一个富家公子找到了她。这公子有自己的小算盘:“学会了认药治病,岂不多条巴结官宦的路子。”于是便把老太婆接到家里,好衣好饭伺候着。但过了十几天,却一直不见老太婆提药草之事,这天,他假惺惺叫了老人一声“妈”,问起传药之事,老太婆答道:“等上几年再说吧。”这下子把公子气得暴跳如雷,他叫嚣起来:“白养你几年,你想骗吃骗喝呀,滚你的吧!”老人也不愠怒,冷笑一声,换上自己的破衣裳,离开了公子的家门。她又开始沿街讨饭。没多久,又有个商人找到他,愿认她当干妈。这商人心里盘算的是卖药材,赚大钱。他把老太婆接到家,先是好吃好喝招待,可过了一个多月,仍不见老人谈传药之事,心里就忍不住了,便又像公子一样,把老人赶出了家门。
一晃两年过去了,老人仍不停地沿街乞讨,说着心事,竟被
很多人当成疯子、骗子。这年冬天,她蹒跚着来到一个偏远山村,因身心憔悴,摔倒在一家门外。
响声惊动了这家的主人。主人是个年轻樵夫,他把老太婆搀进屋里,嘘寒问暖,得知老人饿着肚子,急忙让妻子做了饭菜端上。老人吃过饭就要走,两口子拦住了:“这大冷的天,您上哪儿去呀?”当老人说还要去讨饭时,善良的两口子十分同情,劝她说:“您这把年纪了,讨饭多不容易,要是不嫌我们穷,就在这儿住下吧!”老人迟疑了一下,最后点了点头。
日子过得挺快,转眼春暖花开。一天,老人试探着说:“老这样住你家我心里过意不去,还是让我走吧。”樵夫急了:“您老没儿女,我们又没了老人,咱们凑成一家子过日子,我们认您当妈,这不挺好吗?”老人落泪了,终于道出了详情。而樵夫夫妇却没有介意:“都是受苦人,图啥报答呀,您老能舒心就行了。”从此,樵夫夫妇忙着活计,很孝顺老人,老人就这样过了3年多的幸福时光,到了80岁的高龄。这年夏天,她突然对樵夫说:“孩子,你背我到山上看看吧。”樵夫不明就里,但还是愉快地答应了老人。他背着老人上坡下沟,跑东串西,累得汗流如雨,但还不时和老人逗趣,老人始终很开心。当他们来到一片野草丛生的山坡时,老人下地,坐在一块石头上,指着一丛线型叶子、开有白中带紫条纹状花朵的野草说:“把它的根挖来。”樵夫挖出一截黄褐色的草根问:“妈,这是什么?”老人说:“这是一种药草,能治肺热咳嗽、身虚发烧之类的病,用途可大啦。孩子,你知道为什么直到今天我才教你认药么?”樵夫想了想说:“妈是想找个老实厚道的人传他认药,怕居心不良的人拿这本事去发财,去坑害百姓!”老太婆点了点头:“孩子,你真懂得妈的心思。这种药还没有名字,你就叫它‘知母’吧。”后来,老太婆又教樵夫认识了许多种药草。老人故去后,樵夫改行采药,但他一直牢记老人的话,真心实意为穷人送药治病。

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%9F%A5%E6%AF%8D/519720

Anemarrhena (Liliaceae) Edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Anemarrhena (Latin name: Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge), also known as hair altogether, perennial herb, rhizomes, leaves from the base of the tufted slender lanceolate, stems grow from the foliage, upright cylindrical, racemose footage, clusters, born in the top of the spike-like; pink, lilac to white; fruit oblong, there are majority black seeds, fruit period from June to September.
Anemarrhena has cultivated throughout China, drought and strong cold, drought barren hills, desert, wasteland can grow, is the preferred varieties of green mountains and wilderness, can be sown each season of the year, mainly spring or summer sowing ʱ??
This kind of dried rhizomes of famous traditional Chinese medicine, bitter cold, there is nourishing yin, moistening Hua Chang, Lee urine effect. The case under heat powder, Indications: febrile disease, fever, thirst, cough, asthma, dry cough, constipation, Gu Zheng hot flashes, virtual trouble, insomnia, diabetes pouring muddy. There are "Mao altogether" and "altogether meat" of the points. The main producing areas in Hebei. Chinese medicine alias: Rabbit oil grass, large reed water, mother grass, garlic sub grass, sheep beard root, ground and other parameters.
Chinese scientific name Anemarrhena Latin name Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge nickname mother ant eggs, even the mother, wild Polygonum, to participate circles Flora door Door Gang angiosperms monocotyledons Suborder outline Lily lily family Liliaceae families suborder Chlorophytum Belong Anemarrhena species altogether
Contents 1 shape features 2 habitat 3 4 cultivation techniques geographic distribution ▪ ▪ breeding methods to site preparation, field management ▪ pest control ▪ 5 medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ drug source-related clinical applications discussed ▪ ▪ ▪ Prescription selection of medicines commonly used prescription ▪ Compatibility ▪ identification of medication ▪ ▪ Diet treatise produced 6 modern research chemical constituents ▪ ▪ ▪ identification of the pharmacological effects of medicines ▪ Determination ▪ Picking on 7 Plant Culture
Shape features editor
Herbs perennial, rhizomatous 0.5-1.5 cm thick, covered the remnants of leaf sheaths. Leaves 15-60 cm long, 1.5-11 mm wide, from near the apex acuminate filamentous, base width from sheath-like, with multiple parallel veins, there is no obvious midrib. Scape longer than leaves; racemes usually longer, up to 20-50 cm; bracteoles, ovate or oval, apex long acuminate; pink, lilac to white; tepals Article shaped, 5-10 mm long, with 3 central veins, persistent. Capsule narrowly elliptic, 8-13 mm, width 5-6 mm production, top with a short beak. Seeds 7-10 mm long. Fruit period from June to September. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Anemarrhena whole plant
Anemarrhena whole plant (2)
 
 
Anemarrhena fruit
Anemarrhena fruit (3)
Growth Environment Editor
Adaptable, wild side in sunny hillside. Grassland and weeds. Mostly on loess soil and humus soil. Of cold, northern winter can be in the field, hi warm, drought-resistant, 陈幼 seedling must be properly watered, but not too much watering during the growing season, especially during the high temperature, such as too much soil moisture, poor growth, and rhizomes perishable. On loose soil with humus soil is appropriate, low-lying water and had fresh soil are not planted.
Born in elevation of 1450 meters below the hillside, meadow or roadside drier or sunny place. [1] 
Geographical Distribution Edit
Production of Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong (Shandong Peninsula), Shaanxi (north), Gansu (east), Inner Mongolia (south), Liaoning (southwest), Jilin (west) and Heilongjiang (south). (Hubei Jingzhou region have a sample for further study.) Are also distributed in North Korea. [1] 
Cultivation: Anemarrhena main producing Anguo City in Hebei Province (Anguo City and Boye two plantations spread rapidly to neighboring counties, Dingzhou, Fukasawa, Anping, Lane County, including Hebei Boye Du Coal, Xu camp, Tuen village three villages most concentrated.), Bozhou City (Bozhou altogether grown in Qiaocheng nineteen horses home town area, Zhao bridge, eighteen years, five horses, Qiao East and other towns have grown.) to form China's well-known two planting bases.
Wild: hair altogether the main origin of Zhangbei, Yixian, Akagi, source, Fuping; Shanxi Yushe, five, on behalf of the county, Shouyang; Inner Mongolia Zhaluteqi, Sioux Everest, Dongtai Everest, Lindsey, Branch Dole left the flag, Arong; Tieling, Liaoning, Fuxin and other places also distributed.
Cultivation Technical Editor
Site preparation

Choose well-drained sandy loam soil rich in humus and neutral for good 1500 kg, 25 to 30 cm deep plowing, leveling rake thin, do furrow width 1.2 m, digging drainage ditches. Manure applied per acre. [2] 
Breeding methods

Seed propagation:
Anemarrhena cultivation
Anemarrhena cultivation
① seed. In late July to late September harvest ripe fruit into dry and ventilated place to dry, the seeds Cuochu, toss the net impurity, stored for later use.
② soaking. Soak the seeds will be set 30 ~ 40 ℃ warm water for 24 hours, remove and after a little dry, you can be sown.
⑧ sowing. Available autumn or spring, before the autumn cold, spring in April. When the seed germination rate of 80 to 90%, the next year the germination rate 40 to 50%. Commonly used drilling, spaced 15 to 20 cm by ditching, 1-2 cm deep, will be thrown into the seed trench uniform, casing, keep the soil moist, about 20 days emergence. Acres planted about three kilograms.
Rhizome propagation: Spring can be carried out. After ground stems and leaves wither, before the spring bud, will dig underground rhizomes, cut fibrous roots, cut into 3 to 5 cm long segments, each with buds from 1 to 2, row spacing 15-20 cm ditching, spacing 10 ~ 12 cm planting, watering after casing. Mu seed seedling about 150 kg. [2] 
Seedling breeding
Anemarrhena general use home-grown seedlings propagation, growing 2 years after transplanting. Relatively long growth cycle, with the growth of the market is also showing a significant cyclical cycle. Anemarrhena home-grown regional focus in Hebeianguo, Bozhou in Anhui two places, easier production survey, market volatility is also more frequent. Anemarrhena adaptable, likes the warm growing period, drought-resistant, has a cold, avoid hot, water. Strict requirements on the soil. Fertile loose, deep soil, sandy loam is most appropriate. The whole growth process is relatively labor-saving, natural disasters generally has little effect, management is relatively simple. Gross production altogether new in spring and autumn, generally in the spring than autumn new large capacity. Production of the new time were late October to early November, and 3 to April next year. The sub-species breeding next year from 100 to 120 kg per mu, the third annual yield of 300 to 360 kilograms per acre seed quantity of 1.5 to 2 kg. From seed to finished product takes four years from the dig. Drying rate, frying dried (4.5: 1) processing altogether a sheet (3.5: 1). Overall, the main factors affecting production altogether is the price, the price will directly stimulate production. Anemarrhena damp easy to mold, discoloration, occasional insects. Hot and humid season attention warehousing. [3]
Field management

Thinning: When the seedlings 2 to 3 cm high time to close weak seedling and seedlings, height 6 cm by 10 cm spacing Dingmiao.
Weeding: Seedlings grow very slowly, about 3 cm when timely removal of weeds, tillage, growing inside to keep the loose soil without weeds, to facilitate seedling growth.
Dressing: seedling to recover nitrogen-based, water 1500 kg per acre topdressing Ren Chufen, or urea 6 kilograms, applied after pouring water again. Late top dressing with nitrogen and potassium as well, urea 10 kg per mu, potassium chloride 7 kg, 20 kg or compound fertilizer.
Fight sprouts: bolting altogether after flowering, consume a lot of nutrients, affecting underground stem growth. Therefore, in addition to remain outside the farming, promptly cut the flower stalk, and promote the growth of the underground stem thickening, it is one of the important measures to increase production altogether. [2] 
Pest control

Pests are white grubs, the larvae infestation, seedlings or bite biting altogether roots, causing broken seedlings or rhizomes section empty. Marathon can watering 50% emulsion 800 to 1000 times control.
Medicinal value edit
Drug source Related

Anemarrhena
Anemarrhena
Source: "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" [4]
Alias: garlic braids grass, sheep beard roots, to the Senate, [5] and even the mother, the water must wear earthworm, worm's mother.
Category: heat diarrhea gunpowder
Source: the goods for monocots Liliaceae Zhimu dry roots. [5]
Harvest: spring and autumn excavation, removal and sediment shall, dried, commonly known as "hair altogether." Or remove the skin and dried. [5] medicine sliced, raw use, or broiled with salt. Ventilated and dry place to prepare for slicing medicine, raw use, or broiled with salt.
Anemarrhena planted 2--3 years harvest. Spring and autumn can be excavation, with autumn harvest better, remove stems and fibrous roots seedling, retaining the yellow hair and pale yellow leaf scars and rhizomes, dried as "hair altogether." While fresh stripped of skin, dried as "meat altogether." [2] 
Processing: Saline, take Anemarrhena sheet, according to law stem speculation Sunburn brine (salt per 100 pounds with the water of the open 2 half kilogram). The product according to (determination) under the method of the measurement, including sarsasapogenine (C27H44O3) not less than 0.90%. [5]
According to the different processing methods is divided into altogether, Saline, fry altogether, wine altogether, after processing Dry storage container, Saline, fry altogether, wine altogether sealed, dry air, and moisture.
Discusses herbs

Anemarrhena
Anemarrhena (2)
Properties: bitter, cold.
① "The Classic": bitter, cold.
② "medicinal theory": sexual level.
③ "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": bitter Gan.
④ "Drugs of justice": slightly bitter taste slightly acrid.
Meridian: lung, stomach, kidney.
① "pearl sac": kidney.
② "Herbal Decoction": the Meridian, hand Taiyin.
③ "Materia Medica by the solution": the kidney meridian, hand Shao Yin Heart Sutra. [6]
Indications: nourishing yin, moistening Hua Chang. Treatment Fanre Diabetes, Gu Zheng labor hot, Hyperactivity cough, dry stool, urine negative.
For warm disease, Excess Heat, strong heat, thirst, pulse and other lung and stomach heat syndrome loud. Anemarrhena role Chufan heat purging fire. Compatibility with gypsum have a synergistic effect, such as white tiger soup.
For Hyperactivity cough or Yin dry cough, thick sputum and other evidence. This product has clear Xiefei fire, Yin lungs effect, often with mother of pearl for clearing the lungs with lung, namely two female loose.
Beck used wang, lung kidney deficiency caused by steam, hot flashes, night sweats, irritability embolism. Anemarrhena have nourishing yin role. Often the same Cork shall be used, with the nourishing yin drugs, such as ZDP.
Diabetes can be used for deficiency, Zheng Jian, thirst, polydipsia, urine person. This product has Yin Jun bath, thirst effect. With TCS, with the use of Schisandra can enhance the effect, such as Yuye soup.
Heat purging fire: for high fever, thirst, often with gypsum; For Hyperactivity cough, often with mother of pearl.
Nourishing Yin: Yin for the fever, night sweats, often with cork, to yellow. [6]
① "The Classic": the main Diabetes enthusiastic, in addition to evil limb edema, water, fill the gap, Qi.
② "Do not record": healing cold long malaria Fanre, sash evil, the evil and the inner diaphragm wind sweat jaundice.
③ Hongjing: very therapeutic hot junction, also the main malaria hot trouble.
④ "resistance" Indications: heart irritability, nausea, bone hot labor exchanges, after the production of mat workers, kidney labor, Zenghan deficiency, people suffering from empty and dry mouth, plus and used.
⑤ "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": through the small intestine, Phlegm Cough, Run cardiopulmonary, lack of tonic, reassuring only fright.
⑥ Zhang elements: cold heart to heat, cure Yangming hot, diarrhea bladder kidney fire, heat Jue headache, diarrhea, back pain, throat stench.
⑦ Wang Hao Gu: Xiefei fire, Kidney water, more than a treatment Vital-fire.
⑧ "outline": miscarriage, stop annoying child, the provision of the radio station Creek poison.
⑨ "Materia Medica seeking original": governance cough blood, asthma, leaching, and mouth disease, hematuria, hiccups, night sweats, nocturnal emission, Bi atrophy, Zhizong. [6]
Dosage: Oral: Jiantang, 6 ~ 12g; or into pills, powder. [4]
Drug contraindications: spleen and stomach, loose stool Jifu.
① "Do not record": multi-service cause leakage.
② "Medicine": Where lung cold cough, kidney collapse, no fire, disease and foot weak pulse disabled.
③ "Ben Cao Jing Shu": impotence and easy to move and easy atrophy, weak spleen diarrhea, indigestion diet, do not think of eating empty stomach, kidney pond leaks and other evidence, law and disabled.
④ "This by every original": exogenous facie evidence is not eliminated, dysentery Zaoke bogey. Hot people wrongly stomach, it is less food for diarrhea, wasting so taboo. [6]
Clinical application

BHT
BHT
1. for fever, polydipsia
The goods Ganhan quality-run, good Qingfei Stomach sub excess heat, while arrests restless thirst. For warm Evils heat hyperactivity, strong heat, thirst, pulse and other lung and stomach heat syndrome loud. Often associated with gypsum phase must be used, such as white tiger soup.
2. For Hyperactivity cough, Yin dry cough
The product features clear Xiefei fire, Yin and lungs. For Hyperactivity cough, thick yellow sputum, often with Trichosanthes, large mother of pearl, with the use of bile Southern Star; or Yin dry cough, dry cough with little phlegm, mostly with mother of pearl with the use, as two female loose.
3. For the bone steaming hot flashes
The product can nourishing yin, kidney dry-run retreat Gu Zheng, it is nourishing yin power. For wang, Gu Zheng hot flashes, night sweats, irritability embolism, often with the use of cork with the nourishing yin drugs to enhance the effect of nourishing yin, such as ZDP.
4. For Yin diabetes, constipation, dry bowel
The goods are nourishing yin, thirst effect. Disability allowance for heat, thirst cited drink Diabetes, often with TCS, Pueraria equipped with such Yuye soup. For intestinal dry constipation, often with raw Radix, Angelica, with the use of hemp seed, have laxative effect.
Prescription selection

⑴ cure typhoid veins aquaplaning table hot, there are cold; or abdominal disease Sanyang difficult Zhuance mouth covered with heavy dirt delirium enuresis heartless face sweating the delirium of hand, foot against the cold sweat if born from sweating on the forehead and even those under; or typhoid slippery pulse and dedication, there are hot: altogether 300 g of gypsum 500 grams (broken) licorice (Sunburn) 100 grams of rice Kuni. The four flavor to a bucket of water to cook rice cooked soup into one liter of warm clothes to the dregs day three. ("Treatise on" White Tiger soup)
⑵ cure typhoid Fox puzzled throat astringent pain broken lips spit pus: Anemarrhena (baking) 50 grams of gypsum 50 grams skullcap (to sinister), licorice (Sunburn, filing) all three. Pound on the four flavor coarse sieve. Per serving, 15 grams of water a half a spoonful of rice simmer till eight to the dregs. Before eating warm clothes. ("San Franciscans overall record," Zhimu soup)
⑶ Haruhisa near Tansou from mediastinoscopy under Cypriot stop drinking As organs: altogether, mother of pearl for the end of each twelve thirty to croton oil grinds evenly. Per serving, ponder swallow word to sleep the next morning it will cough diarrhea row stand only three pieces of two faces with ginger dipped in medicine. But by the Zhuang people. One need not Croton. ("Medicine Integration")
⑷ shortness of breath cure Jiusou: altogether (to the hair cut) 25 g (separator paper fried) almonds (roasted ginger blisters peeled tip) 25 g. A bell and a half of water a bell fried food away warm clothes. Times radish son, almonds into service at the end of the cereal pills to 50 pills absolutely ginger root cause. ("Health Miscellaneous Xing")
⑸ Zhifei home by dry cough inverse gas: altogether, gypsum, bellflower, licorice, Digupi. Decoction. ("Disease because pulse governance" Zhimu Gan Jie Tang)
⑹ cure typhoid feel upset stomach enthusiastic six the number of flood pulse or blood stool: altogether 10 grams skullcap 10 grams 5 grams of licorice. Decoction hot clothes. ("Que heart book" Zhimu HQT)
⑺ Zhifei labor have not served hot qi agent by: Anemarrhena (fried), Fritillaria (fried) decile. For the end of service. ("The medical Annals" two mother powder)
⑻ rule Qi and workers injured on the pale and thin air of confidence from God burnout half-cough action Fanre body cool breath pulse a few afternoon heat by: altogether 15 grams Treats 15 grams 25 grams of ginseng 10 wide leather winter oats 5 g licorice 3 grams. Decoction. ("Disease because pulse governance" Zhibai Senate winter drink)
Prescription medicines

White Tiger Soup "Treatise on"; White Tiger plus Ginseng "Treatise on"; White Tiger Guizhi soup "Golden Chamber." [4]
Common Compatibility

ZDP
ZDP
⑴ for febrile disease, fever irritability, thirst, pulse loud disease and other lung and stomach excess heat and Hyperactivity cough, phlegm yellow and thick. Anemarrhena bitter cold, can Qingfei heat, the middle can clear stomach fire, it applies to the real heat of lung and stomach disorders. This product is often and plaster with the use, can enhance the role of gypsum heat purging fire. [5]
⑵ for Yin fever, coughing and Diabetes embolism. Anemarrhena can Xiefei fire and ney, so not only can clear excess heat, and can be Qingxudong heat. More with the cork with the use in clinical practice, with the yin drugs, such as ZDP, cure wang, hot flashes Gu Zheng embolism. This product is equipped Yin lungs and drugs such as Radix, fritillary and other products, can be used for lung deficiency dry cough; heat fluid with drugs such as TCS, Radix, Kudzu powder and other goods, can cure diabetes.
⑶ Anemarrhena taste bitter cold not dry, the energy lung, the stomach can be cool under fire can diarrhea kidney. With skullcap, then Xiefei fire; with plaster, then Qingwei heat; with cork, then diarrhea kidney fire. Anemarrhena both clear excess heat, Hot and retreat, but it is weak Yin Sheng Jin effect, for deficiency heat, dry cough and lung deficiency Diabetes embolism, shall be compatible with the yin drugs, before they can play its role. This product can moistening Hua Chang, spleen, loose stools and therefore should not be used. [5]
Identification of medication

Anemarrhena
Anemarrhena
⑴ for febrile disease, the evil in the gas separation, high fever, thirst for gas separation heat syndrome, the role Xiehuo Chufan, gypsum, bamboo compatibility of a synergistic effect.
⑵. For the treatment of Yin Hyperactivity cough or dry cough, we have Qingxie lung fire, Yin and lungs effect. Often with mother of pearl with the power to enhance Qingfei moistening, such as "The medical Annals" second mother scattered.
⑶. For wang, Gu Zheng hot flashes, night sweats, there is nourishing yin role, often with cork phase must be used.
⑷. Qingxie both lung and stomach fire, but also nourish the kidney yin, it should be used for diabetes deficiency, Zheng Jian, thirst, polydipsia, urine and more, with yam, Schisandra can enhance the efficacy with the use of as Yuye soup.
⑸. Gypsum, Anemarrhena can heat purging fire, can cure the disease of warm air and excessive heat Hyperactivity cough and other evidence. But being longer than gypsum heat purging fire, focusing on clear Xiefei stomach real fire, Hyperactivity cough, stomach fire headache, toothache multi-use plaster; Zhimu Xiehuo being longer than the moist, Hyperactivity dry cough, heat Gu Zheng, Diabetes multiple choice altogether.
Various theories

⑴ "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic": the main Diabetes enthusiastic, in addition to evil limb edema, water, fill the gap, Qi. [4]
⑵ "doctors do not record": healing cold long malaria Fanre, sash evil, the evil and the inner diaphragm wind sweat jaundice. [4]
⑶ "Medical Kai source": altogether, "Indications Miyao," clouds and diuresis of Satsukai, kidney drug. Top, cited by all Jiuchao. Scrape off the hair, in white plus. [4]
⑷ Li Gao: altogether, its use has four: diarrhea kidney fire rootless, treatment has Gu Zheng Khan, Consumption of heat only, source of Yin Zi. Zhongjing into the white tiger soup with this rule shall not sleep who also irritability. For lung trouble, impatient for kidney, Jun gypsum, accompanied by the bitter cold altogether, in order to clear the source of kidney, slow to licorice, rice, so as not to speed down too. And where the urine occlusive disease Erke who heat in the coke gas separation, lung ambush heat, not raw, bladder never its chemical source, it is appropriate thin air taste thin light penetration of the drug, in order to Xiefei fire, clearing the lungs gold The AIDS of water sources. If the hot blood of the next focal points and thirsty person, is really not enough water, dried bladder, is no 阴则阳 no to technology, law when using cork, altogether big hard Big Chill of the drug to the kidney and bladder, so chi rows positive self-oriented, self-taught urine. [4]
⑸ "Compendium of Materia Medica": kidney bitter dry, Yi Shi Sheen to run it; lung bitter inverse, Yi Shi bitter with diarrhea. Altogether the hard cold, dry and under the lip kidney Yin, Qingfei gold on the purging fire, is the second by the gas separation drug also; renal blood points Cork is medicine, so the two drugs must phase to be the line, Xi people give an example of shrimp and jellyfish, will phase dependent.
⑹ "Tong Xuan Materia Medica": altogether bitter cold, smell all thick, heavy and fall, for the kidney drug. And who can Qingfei, its clear thunder dragon, without rendering the tyrant, the hands-free sales sparkle lunar danger also. Surplus of diarrhea-fire, the rationale of trouble Diabetes steam, where the cough miscarriage, is it clear fire purposes. More clothes cause diarrhea, also cause less food, but real fire burnt burning this person, for temporary use only. If Shi in wasting the people, carry on deep water benefits. Taste bitter cold cover, chill-line world order, non-long support all those who are.
⑺ "Materia Medica is": ancient words altogether Junior Treats nourishing yin, there Jinshui Aioi meaning. Cork lid that can be prepared bladder, Vital yin fire, can eliminate altogether the lungs, kidneys hydration system the source of fire, a goal can protect the female, is the so-called Yin also. Therefore Jie ancient, Higashigaki all that nourishing yin to the drug. Following from Dan then, with all that is yin, Cheng big fallacy carry on. Fu Shen cold of sex altogether, this lethargy to clear fire can be used to yin, then what make it there? ʱ??
⑻ "Drugs of justice": altogether with cork and use, not for pathogenic fire, in fact, be able to help the water; and Fritillaria peers, not for phlegm, designed for Yin.
⑼ "New Materia Medica": altogether, bitter, acrid, gas Dahan, heavy sky, Yin is also non-toxic. The foot Shao, Yangming, and start with lunar. Most good diarrhea stomach, kidney two classics of the fire, thirst hot stop, also Haruhisa malaria. This was only for temporary use, and not Jiufu. Dan added Pill of Six Ingredients in temporary service also teach people to float diarrhea kidney fire, non-teaching people long service also. Treats something that does not go into the gas separation, but altogether a bad idea does not enter the blood points also. Huang Boqing kidney fire, also clearing the lungs of the fire, the heat altogether diarrhea kidney, but also diarrhea fever stomach, the stomach is more gas and more blood of the internal organs, is more than the in the gas separation, and not inserted Blood yeah? Are two drugs do not have to use either. [4]
⑽ "this by every original": altogether, "by" evil words except limb edema, refers to the hot and humid water vapor is concerned. It is below cloud water, fill the gap, Qi, is more than a hot and humid with fire, burning bright essence of candidates, so with this heat Yin, evil heat to carry the righteousness complex. [4]
⑾ "Chongqing Hall Essay": altogether, clearing the lungs Stomach per heat, the fluid does not consume the female self in darkness carry on. However Zhongsheng Yun, Stomach heat, which is absolutely positive. Cover stomach too quickly, insufficient yin and yang, fluid getting dry, dry from the Valley of the disease does not kill, it is absolutely positive, that is too fluid dried up, clearing the heat, serve not absolutely positive, then save fluid of the drug, although that of the Yang also available. Later that cold of the goods is non stomach home hi, do not quit earnestly with light, fragrant dry warming Noir engaged in the drug's what zai! ʱ?? [4]
⑿ "Sutra card": altogether can Yin heat and thirst quencher, is well known, it can be water, places the ancients were very rare, so it is unknown after learning more. "Daughter", outside the station, "two books by each party to flood the air altogether. "Daughter," said, was suffering from edema big belly, its hard as stone, thin limbs, laboring hind tibia that is less swelling, less diet then shortness of breath, this life-long disease, the service does not recover from illness prescription benefit are advised to taking this drug, in addition to micro rheumatism, Lee urine, eliminate Mizutani, aged Jiufu it, is be effective, can recover from illness after uniforms. Their medication, then add altogether in Wulingsan in, but also by Euonymus alatus, Salvia, independent living, Gentiana, seaweed too. "Taiwan," said, "ancient record inspection" Ze paint soup, cold and heat therapy when the wind, drink more violent swollen body, such as blowing, floating pulse number of persons. Their medication, then Alisma, altogether, seaweed, Poria, Salvia, Gentiana, Menispermaceae, Polyporus, rhubarb, through the grass, wood also. It said, in addition to rheumatism, diuresis, said treatment of cold and heat when the wind, drink more violent swollen. Visible "by" book launching effect, seen in addition to limb edema, and altogether the rule limb edema, is evil limb edema, non-pan-limb edema often than men. Being filled with cold and heat outside, inside Xiehuo with, Keer cited drinking, anger is not of water, then spread radiance, treatment with altogether, is to vent their fire, so will not be thirsty cited drinking water then no following, build by Rotary elimination, whereby words, the rule is still thirsty, non-flood also. This, see where the swelling in one, anti-wasting his office, the more is evil Gouliu, water and fire resistance of waiting, irrelevant "Qian" big belly limb edema fine, that is, "Golden Chamber" in the Guizhi peony know mother soup, such as swollen feet off, also one also. "Golden square" cross-resistance to evil under fire and water, "Qian" fire and water cross-resistance to evil, and resistance at, non-divergence is not power, resistance in the middle, non-profit where seepage from the vent, this "Qian "So with Wulingsan," Golden square "So with ephedra, aconite, wind, fire and water are then cross-resistance by its very nature, so its use Gui, surgery, altogether the same also, Gui, art flood of resistance, known Mother cure fire resistance, then this can be seen carry on. [4]
Poria - medicinal parts
Poria - medicinal parts
⒀ "medical wholehearted participation in the West recorded": altogether original less cold, but also less bitter taste to it and astragalus aliquots and used to heat the cold feel nothing, their non-Big Chill known. Youyi altogether twelve plus licorice two money boil drink, namely Gan bitter than its big bitter taste of non-apparent. Cold, bitter None of the great, but more fluid, is also able to Yin. There are altogether but that can be fever, can Yin who still light the peace also depends altogether. Governance is stupid hot real number of pulse card, will use altogether, if the party Astragalus qi, fear of the heat from those who also constant supplemented altogether. [4]
⒁ "Herbal justice": altogether cold run, cure real fire stop, obstruct Xiefei to vent hot, dry cough lung abscess advised of, and Hot cough taboo. Qingwei to save fluid, the heat should be the elimination of hate, but also avoid temper is not busy. Waterway through the bladder, colorectal thermal spa splashing muddy the beginning, the cutting-fire of the evil, not atrophy of the main strong positive mark agent. The fever in Yangming, thirst sweat, pulse flood in the heat, Junior plaster Esau inflammation; certificate of malaria in the moon, dampness fumigation, heat and even sweat more, Zuo strawberry to vent spleen heat. System Details attending, more than a range of no more than four words of the excess heat. [4]
Diet Country

Anemarrhena therapeutic effect: altogether bitter, slightly sweet, cold; the lung, stomach, kidney; quality-run gas and, down and can go up with the heat and purging fire, lung, nourishing yin
Attending fever strong heat polydipsia, Hyperactivity cough, sore throat, Gu Zheng hot flashes, virtual trouble, insomnia, diabetes pouring muddy, constipation.
Zhimu rhizome
Zhimu rhizome
Anemarrhena practice guidance:
1. Heat purging fire, nourishing yin should be born by; fry brine should send a fire into the kidney.
2. Do not use iron or suffering Sheng home the goods.
3. Where febrile disease heat in the gas separation, high fever, sweating, thirst cited drinking, loud pulse strong person, each phase must be used with gypsum, licorice incorporated so as to clear air Xiere.
4. Where Choudao obstruct the lung sputum, Asthma than those who, with mother of pearl, Tinglizi compatibility.
5. Where wang, Gu Zheng hot flashes, night sweats, nocturnal emission, the more the cork phase shall be used to fire diarrhea and kidney Yin Jian.
Modern research editor
chemical composition

Timosaponin A-III
Timosaponin A-III
Rhizome contains saponins about 6%, which has timosaponin (Timosaponin) A-Ⅰ, A-Ⅱ, A-Ⅲ, A-Ⅳ, B-Ⅰ and B-Ⅱ. Wherein timosaponin A-Ⅰ is salsa Sapogenin β-D- galactopyranose glycosides, timosaponin A-Ⅲ is salsa sapogenin and altogether disaccharide (Timobiose) bonded disaccharide glycosides ʱ?? Zhimu rhizomes sapogenin have salsa sapogenin (Sarsasapogenin), you Falcao sapogenin (Markogenin), new water chestnut removal sapogenin (Neogitogenin). Previously isolated from altogether out of saponin chimonin (Asphonin) right Falcao saponins mixture timosaponin A-Ⅲ, A-Ⅳ, B and so on. Also isolated different Smilax sapogenin (Smilagenin) and other saponins ingredients. Still contains flavonoids mangiferin (Mangiferin, Chi- monin), iso mangiferin (Isomangiferin); alkaloids of choline (Choline), nicotinamide (Nicotinamide); tannic acid organic acids (Tannic acid), smoke Acid (Nicotinic acid) and four kinds altogether polysaccharide (Anemarn A, B, C, D). Further still iron, zinc, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel and other metal elements and myxoid stroma, sugar and so on. [6]
Pharmacological effects

Anemarrhena products
Anemarrhena products
⑴ pathogenic microorganisms in vitro experiments showed that: altogether decoction of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi has a strong inhibition of dysentery bacillus, paratyphoid bacillus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholerae, Proteus, diphtheria , pneumococcus, β- hemolytic streptococcus, Candida albicans, also have different degrees of inhibition. Anemarrhena ethanol extract, ether extract and ether extract plus acetone treatment of the resultant crude crystals, on the Cape, thanks to the culture medium of human type Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV subspecies have a strong inhibition, which ether extract The anti-TB highest inhibitory potency. And saponin had no effect. But it has been reported to have come from altogether in a water-soluble saponin, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, especially Candida albicans strong inhibition; while another flavonoid crystals of Mycobacterium tuberculosis also inhibited. Experimental tuberculosis in guinea pigs with 3% altogether bait treatment for 3 to 4 months, has a good effect; also reduce lung lesions in experimental tuberculosis in mice, but the mortality rate is not reduced; as the drug concentration increased to 5%, the tuberculosis index (reflecting lung lesions generally the case) accessible isoniazid, but the mortality rate was higher than the control group, which is probably due to the high toxicity due to the drug itself.
In addition, 8% to 20% concentration altogether decoction on Elizabeth medium for Ashland Trichophyton total concentric Trichophyton, Trichophyton violaceum other common pathogenic dermatophytes also has antibacterial effects. Also reported that there is the toxic effect timosaponin.
⑵ antipyretic effect altogether extract 4g / kg subcutaneous injection, can prevent and treat rabbit fever caused by E. coli, and the lasting effect. Zhimu rhizome contained saponins have significantly reduced the rate of oxygen consumption caused by the increased thyroxine and suppress Na +, K + -ATP activity role.
⑶ role of corticosteroids in rats taking nourishing yin medicine altogether licorice soup or habitat where a single herb, to make increased plasma cortisol concentrations were affected by dexamethasone suppression and prevent adrenal atrophy ʱ?? Habitat altogether while taking licorice soup and hormones, can reduce the side effects of hormones. Sarsasapogenin (Smilax sapogenin) and altogether similar decoction can significantly reduce high thyroid hormone receptor status of brain β- RT value mice, but had no effect on affinity, but also significantly improve the status of mice weight loss.
⑷ impact on blood sugar to normal rabbits injected altogether dry extract (6g / kg) after, had no effect on blood sugar, alcohol extract can cause a temporary increase in blood sugar. Anemarrhena flooding extract, can reduce blood sugar levels are normal rabbits, especially rabbit piperidine four oxygen density is more significant role in diabetes. White Tiger plus Ginseng (altogether, ginseng, licorice) extract 0.5 ~ 1g / kg intraperitoneal injection of experimental diabetic mice also reduce the role of blood sugar, and 6 hours after administration dropped 120mg%. Normal rats, altogether not promote the oxidation of glucose, although the diaphragm can promote fat tissue glucose uptake, glycogen content so that the diaphragm in a slight increase, but glycogen content is decreased. Experimental (alloxan) diabetic mice by intraperitoneal injection of the aqueous extract Anemarrhenae 0.15g / kg, 5-hour glucose decreased 200mg%, decrease in urine ketones.
⑸ other roles altogether extract of rabbit uterine pregnancy had no significant effect. Share β- sitosterol from Xiling anemarrhenae rhizome treatment of skin squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer has a good effect and no side effects. Timosaponin antitumor mechanisms with its strong inhibitory effect on the cell membrane pump related. Zhimu niacin contained, there is the maintenance of the skin and nerve health and promote digestive function. Leaves from Zhimu mangiferin mention was obvious choleretic effect; can also inhibit platelet aggregation.
Identification of medicinal herbs

⑴ take the product powder 2g, add ethanol 10ml, place 20 minutes after the shaking, the supernatant 1ml, evaporated and the residue add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, previews yellow, following the change in red, purple violaceum, finally was brown.
⑵ take the product powder 2g, add ethanol 20ml, was heated under reflux for 40 minutes, the supernatant 10ml, hydrochloric acid 1ml, heated under reflux for 1 hour and concentrated to about 5ml, add water 10ml, 20ml shaking extraction with benzene, the extract was evaporated to dryness the residue in benzene 2ml dissolve, as the test solution. Another Sarsasapogenin reference substance, benzene produced per 1ml 5mg solution containing, as the reference solution. Thin layer chromatography test, draw the two solutions 7μl, point in the same silica gel G plate with benzene - acetone (9: 1) as the agent, started out, dried, sprayed with 8% absolute ethanol with vanillin sulfuric acid solution (7 → 10) mixed solution (0.5: 5), was heated at 100 ℃ to spot color definition. Test products for chromatography, chromatography with reference substance corresponding position, was the same color spots. [5]
Determination

Fritillaria - medicines shape
Fritillaria - medicines shape
Take the product powder (over sieve III) approximately 1g while the other to take the product powder measuring the moisture accurately weighed, set conical flask, precision plus ethanol 25ml, said that given the weight, soaked overnight, sonication 40 minutes, let cool , then said that given the weight of ethanol to make up the weight loss, shaking, filtration, the precise amount of filtrate 10ml, hydrochloric acid 1ml, slow reflux for 1 hour on a water bath with steam, let cool, pour into a small beaker, shaking side edge dropping 40% sodium hydroxide solution to neutral (by the orange color of the solution mutation orange), washed with ethanol container, lotion incorporated into the beaker. Move with ethanol 50ml volumetric flask, and dilute to the mark, shake, filtration, the precise amount of filtrate 10ml evaporating dish, evaporated and the residue was dissolved benzene and transferred to 2ml volumetric flask and dilute to the mark , shake, as the test solution. Another Sarsasapogenin reference standard amount, accurately weighed, add benzene produced per 1ml 0.5mg containing solution as the reference solution. Thin layer chromatography test, precision absorb the test solution 4μl, reference solution 2μl and 6μl, respectively, cross at the same point of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a binder silica gel G plate with benzene - acetone ( 9: 1) as the agent, the exhibition to 7cm, removed, dried, and then the same developer for the second start out, dried, sprayed with chromogenic reagent [A liquid: water 25ml, slowly add sulfuric acid 50ml, put After cooling, plus ethanol 25ml, shake; B solution: 8% vanillin ethanol solution. The A and B was 5 parts 1 part liquid mix] After heating for 7 to 10 when used at 70 ℃
Minute, to spot the color clear, remove the thin glass plate covered with the same size, around fixed with adhesive tape, thin layer chromatography scanning, wavelength λS = 443nm, measuring the test absorbance integral value with control product absorption integral value calculation, that is, too.
The goods on dry goods, including sarsasapogenine (C27H44O3) not less than 1.0%. [5]
Picking on

The traditional view that should spring and harvest. Modern studies have shown: Content anemarrhenae rhizomes mangiferin vary collection varies month, showing a certain regularity, in one year, to March budding soon lowest content of only 0.12%, while in April reached its highest point of 1.26 %, this system also for nutrition altogether flowering period. After flowering, mangiferin decreased to October and later rose to a high level. Mango harvest season in May after 4 to collect better and October. [3]
Plant Culture Editor
Legend
Once there was a widowed old woman, no children, a young man living by digging medicine. Because she does not plan money, the herbs are taken to give the sick poor, so old and has no savings. This bitterness could stay down, but the old man a block of heart disease is their ability to recognize drug and no one can pass, much deliberation, she decided to street begging, hoping to encounter a reliable young man, recognized as the godson, the but their heart disease. One day, the old man came to a village begging to tell a crowd of onlookers on their minds. For a time, begging Granny taught to recognize godson herbs ability of news will spread. Soon, there is a wealthy son found her.




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Anemarrhena

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Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
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