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杏仁 Apricot Seed (Armeniacae Semen) Almonds - Ku Xing Ren

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杏仁

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杏仁是蔷薇科杏的种子,分为甜杏仁和苦杏仁,主要含有蛋白质、脂肪、糖、微量苦杏仁苷。脂肪的组成中主要是油酸和亚油酸。
杏仁果长在短距(short spur)上,具有未成熟的外观。当果实成熟时,它绿色的外壳会裂开,而显露出包在粗糙外壳中的核仁,核仁为黄色且有很多小洞,外壳为坚硬的木质。 杏仁果为扁平卵形,一端圆,另一端尖,覆有褐色的薄皮。核仁含有20%的蛋白质,不含淀粉,磨碎、加压后,榨出的油脂,大约是本身重量的一半,杏仁油为淡黄色,虽然没有香味,但具有软化皮肤和美容的功效
中文学名
杏仁
拉丁学名
Amygdalus Communis Vas
别    称
杏核仁、杏子、木落子、苦杏仁、杏梅仁、杏、甜梅
植物界
蔷薇
分布区域
中亚,西亚、地中海地区,在中国分布于河北、辽宁
归    经
肺;脾;大肠经
英文名
Bitter Apricot Kernel

形态特征

去壳杏仁去壳杏仁
1、落叶小乔木,高4~10m;树皮暗红棕色,纵裂。单叶互生;叶片圆卵形或宽卵形,长5~9cm,宽4~8cm。春季先叶开花,花单生枝端,着生较密,稍似总状;花几无梗,花萼基部成筒状,外面被短柔毛,上部5裂;花瓣5,白色或浅粉红色,圆形至宽倒卵形;雄蕊多数,着生萼筒边缘;雌蕊心皮,着生萼筒基部。核果圆形,稀倒卵形,直径2.5cm以上。种子1,心状卵形,浅红色。花期3-4月,果期6~7月。
2、野杏 本变种的主要特征为叶片基部楔形或宽楔形;花常2朵簇生,淡红色;果实近球形,红色;核卵球形,离肉,表面粗糙而有网纹,腹棱常锐利。
3、山杏 灌木或小乔木,高2-5m。叶卵形或近圆形,长(3-)5-10cm,宽(2.5-)4-7cm。花单生,直径1.5-2cm;萼片长圆状椭圆形,先端尖;花瓣近圆形或倒卵形,白色或粉红色。果实扁球形,直径1.5-2.5cm,两侧扁,果肉薄而干燥,熟时开裂,味酸涩,不能吃。核易与果肉分离,基部一侧不对称,平滑。花期4~5月,果期6~7月。
4、东北杏大乔木,高5~15m。幼枝无毛。叶椭圆形或卵形,长6~12cm,宽3~8cm。花粉红色或白色;雄蕊多数;子房密被柔毛。核果近球形,直径1.5~2.6cm,黄色;核近球形或宽椭圆形,长13-18mm,宽11~18mm,粗糙,边缘钝。花期4~5月,果期7月。
5、扁桃仁(俗称“美国大杏仁”)不可作为杏仁使用。

分布范围

世界分布

原产于中亚,西亚、地中海地区,引种于暖温带地区。

中国分布

在中国除广东海南等热带区外的全国各地,多系栽培。主要分布于河北辽宁东北华北甘肃等地。山杏生于海拔700-2000m的干燥向阳、丘陵、草原。东北杏生于海拔400-1000m的开阔的向阳山坡灌木林或杂木林下。野杏主产于中国北部地区,栽培或野生,尤其在河北、山西等地普遍野生,山东、江苏等地也产。杏分布于在新疆伊犁一带有野生。

品种分类

杏仁是蔷薇科的植物,包括杏树的种仁和扁桃的种仁。每到果实成熟季节,杏仁核被剥开后就看到表皮包裹着褐色外衣的略微成扁卵状的杏仁。杏仁是生长在暖温带的作物的果实,所以它性喜温暖、阳光充足的气候环境,所以一般杏仁树大部分是种植在向阳可以沐浴阳光的地方。
杏仁一般分为甜杏仁和苦杏仁之分或者被成为南杏仁和北杏仁。它二者在营养成分上都是一样的,就是一个口味的区别,一个甜一个苦。
甜杏仁有着丰富的营养价值,是市场上非常名贵的干果,它是可以生吃直接食用的。甜杏仁不仅含有丰富的不饱和脂肪、维生素E、优质蛋白、膳食纤维,还含有钙、镁、锌、铁等矿物质,容易被人体吸收,夏季食用,不但可以美容养颜,还有减肥功效。
苦杏仁可以被用来入药,苦杏仁含有苦杏仁甙,可被胃酸水解,产生剧毒物质,一般作药用。中药很早就开始使用杏仁治疗平时的疾病。杏仁中含有的苦杏仁甙成分不仅能止咳平喘,还具有抗击肿瘤的巨大作用,是对医药学上的一大贡献。

栽培技术

1.生物学特性适应性强,耐旱,耐寒,耐瘠薄,抗盐碱。夏季在43.9℃高温下,生长正常;在-40℃低温可安全越冬。可栽种于平地或坡地。对土壤要求不严。
杏树杏树
2.栽培技术 用种子或嫁接繁殖。种子繁殖:采摘成熟果实,搓去果肉,大粒每50kg出种子5-10kg,小粒每50kg出种子7.5-15kg,种子纯度为98%,发芽率为86%,以1:3湿沙混合进行冬季沙藏。春播于3月下旬,秋播于11月下旬(放于通风处阴干后即可播种)。常采用大垅播种,每垅播种1行,点播株距为10-15cm,每穴1颗种子,播后覆土厚5-6cm(约为种子直径的3倍),镇压。嫁接繁殖砧木用杏播种的实生苗或山杏苗,枝接于3月下旬,芽接于7月上旬至8月下旬进行。
3.田间管理幼苗出现3-4片叶时进行疏苗,2-3星期后进行第2次间苗,并及时灌水,防止风吹伤根,遇天气干旱酌情灌水,7-8月雨季注意排涝。苗高达45cm,可在芽接前1个月摘去嫩尖。冬季11月至翌年3月进行修剪,分3种树形;自然圆头形,疏散分层形,自然开心形。4-6月追灌肥水,在幼芽萌发前与幼果生长期间各追速效肥1次,每株成年树可施0.25kg,然后灌水。

病虫防治

病害有杏疔叶斑。发芽前喷5度石硫合剂,展叶时喷0.3度石硫合剂。虫害有杏象鼻虫,另有袋蛾天牛等。[1] 

主要价值

药用价值

南杏仁,北杏仁在中国统称之为杏仁。南杏仁也叫甜杏仁,微甜,这也是区分南杏仁和北杏仁的一个方法。首先划分南北杏仁有这么几种说法:
北杏仁
杏仁
杏仁 (15张)
 自然就是北方产的杏仁了,又叫苦杏仁。
主要特征有】:
1、甘苦,必须用清水浸泡3天才能去除苦味。
2、苦杏仁在去苦味过程中杏仁味道会大量流失,因此无杏仁香味。
3、苦杏仁有微毒性(冲泡时需高温热开水冲泡,以去毒性)。
4、食疗效果与甜杏仁相同。
5、杏仁油含量约49%,磨成粉后粉质比较湿。
6、因苦味重,食用的人不多,所以苦杏仁原料价格比较低廉。
一、化学成分
1.杏仁含苦味氰甙:苦杏仁甙(amygdalin)约4%和野樱甙(prunasin);
杏仁-形状杏仁-形状
脂肪油约50%,油中有8种脂肪酸,主要的是亚油酸(linoeic acid)占27%,油酸(oleic acid)占67%及棕榈酸(palmitic acid)占5.2%。还含绿原酸(chlorogenic acid)即是5'-咖啡酰奎宁酸(5'-caffeoylquinic acid),新绿原酸(neochlorogenic acid)即是3'-咖啡酰奎宁酸(3'-caffeoylquinic acid),3'-阿魏酰奎宁酸(3'-feruloylquinic acid),5'-阿魏酰奎宁酸(5'-feruloylquinic acid),3'-对香豆酰奎宁酸(3'-Pcoumaroylquinic acid),肌醇(inositol),豆甾醇(stigmasterol),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol),△-燕麦甾醇(△-avenasterol),胆甾醇(cholesterol)24-胆甾烯醇(△-chlestenol),雌性酮(estrone),17β-雌二醇(17β-estyadiol),甘油三油酸酯(triolein)。另含有抗炎和镇痛活性的2种蛋白质成分:KR-A和KR-B,其含量分别为4.44%和0.41%。又含与杏仁香味有关的挥发性成分:苯甲醛(benzaldehyde),芳樟醇(linalool),4-松油烯醇(4-terpinenol),α-松油醇(α-terpineol)。
2.野杏 种仁含苦杏仁甙约4.84%,还含挥发油,其中主要成分有:下已醛(n-hexanal)占4.81%,反式-2-已烯醛(2-hexenal)占11.57%下已醇(n-hexanol)占14.38%,反式-2-已烯-1-醇(2-hexen-1-ol)占8.28%,芳樟醇占12.61%,a-松油醇占5.69%。牻牛儿醇(geraniol)占2.78%和十四烷酸(teradecanoic acid)占3.6%。
3.山杏种仁含苦杏仁甙约4.84%。
4.东北杏 种仁含苦杏仁甙3.2%。
二、化学鉴定
1.取该品0.5g,置带塞试管中,加5%硫酸溶液3ml充分摇匀,在试管口放一用三硝基苯酚钠溶液湿润的滤纸条,塞紧塞子,试管置40~50℃水浴中加热10min,滤纸条由黄色变砖红色。(检查氰甙)
2.薄层色谱取该品0.5g,加等量碳酸钙共研碎,放入带塞三角瓶内,加石油醚(60~90℃)4ml,冷浸过夜后,滤过。残渣挥干石油醚,加入乙醇4ml冷浸过夜,滤过。滤液浓缩作供试品。以苦杏仁甙作对照。分别点样于同一硅胶G薄层板上,以氯仿-乙酸乙酯-乙醇(2:1:2)展开,碘蒸气显色。供试品色谱中,在与对照品色谱的相应位置上,显相同颜色的斑点。
三、性味
苦,微温;有小毒。
四、功效
止咳平喘,润肠通便。
五、用法用量
煎服,3~10克,宜打碎先煎。
六、使用注意
本品有小毒,用量不宜过大,婴儿慎用
七、副作用
杏仁苦温宣肺,润肠通便、仅适宜于风邪、肠燥等实证之患。凡阴亏、郁火者,则不宜单味药长期内服。如肺结核支气管炎、慢性肠炎、干咳无痰等症禁忌单味药久服。
八、甜杏仁
性味甘平,功能润肺止咳。主要用于虚劳咳嗽。煎服,5~10克。
九、鉴别
杏仁与麻黄,二药均归肺经,对于风寒犯肺之咳喘证,常相须为用。然麻黄偏于发散风寒以宣肺定喘,杏仁偏于降气定喘止咳,一宣一降,肺气宣降正常,则咳嗽喘息自平。且麻黄有宣肺利水通经消肿满的作用,为治风水所常用,杏仁疏导开通,为湿温证所常用。
十、南北杏仁的区别
南杏仁偏于滋润,治肺虚肺燥的咳嗽。
北杏仁善于降肺气平喘,治肺实的咳喘。
十一、营养成分与作用
杏仁分为甜杏仁及苦杏仁两种。中国南方产的杏仁属于甜杏仁(又名南杏仁),味道微甜、细腻,多用于食用,还可作为原料加入蛋糕、曲奇和菜肴中,具有润肺、止咳、滑肠等功效,对干咳无痰、肺虚久咳等症有一定的缓解作用;北方产的杏仁则属于苦杏仁(又名北杏仁),带苦味,多作药用,具有润肺、平喘的功效,对于因伤风感冒引起的多痰、咳嗽、气喘等症状疗效显著;但苦杏仁一次服用不可过多,每次以不高于9克为宜。杏仁能给你钻石般坚固的指甲,每天吃两把即可。
甜杏仁是一种健康食品,适量食用不仅可以有效控制人体内胆固醇的含量,还能显著降低心脏病和多种慢性病的发病危险。素食者食用甜杏仁可以及时补充蛋白质、微量元素维生素,例如铁、锌及维生素E。甜杏仁中所含的脂肪是健康人士所必需的,是一种对心脏有益的高不饱和脂肪
研究发现,每天吃50~100克杏仁(大约40~80粒杏仁),体重不会增加。甜杏仁中不仅蛋白质含量高,其中的大量纤维可以让人减少饥饿感,这就对保持体重有益。纤维有益肠道组织并且可降低肠癌发病率、胆固醇含量和心脏病的危险。所以,肥胖者选择甜杏仁作为零食,可以达到控制体重的效果。最近的科学研究还表明,甜杏仁能促进皮肤微循环,使皮肤红润光泽,具有美容的功效。
杏仁富含蛋白质、脂肪、糖类、胡萝卜素、B族维生素、维生素C、维生素P以及钙、磷、铁等营养成分。其中胡萝卜素的含量在果品中仅次于芒果,人们将杏仁称为抗癌之果。杏仁含有丰富的脂肪油,有降低胆固醇的作用,因此,杏仁对防治心血管系统疾病有良好的作用;中医中药理论认为,杏仁具有生津止渴、润肺定喘的功效,常用于肺燥喘咳等患者的保健与治疗。甜杏仁作为食品,可作扁桃仁的代替品。美国研究人员的一项最新研究成果显示,胆固醇水平正常或稍高的人,可以用杏仁取代其膳食中的低营养密度食品,达到降低血液胆固醇并保持心脏健康的目的。研究者认为,杏仁中所富含的多种营养素,比如维生素E,单不饱和脂肪和膳食纤维共同作用能够有效降低心脏病的发病危险。样本中85位中老年志愿者(平均年龄56岁)的总胆固醇水平降低了7.6%,低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平下降了9%。也未造成体重的增加。
1. 苦杏仁能止咳平喘,润肠通便,可治疗肺病、咳嗽等疾病。
2. 甜杏仁和日常吃的干果大杏仁()偏于滋润,有一定的补肺作用。
3. 杏仁还含有丰富的黄酮类和多酚类成分,这种成分不但能够降低人体内胆固醇的含量,还能显著降低心脏病和很多慢性病的发病危险。
4. 杏仁还有美容功效,能促进皮肤微循环,使皮肤红润光泽。
5.杏仁还有抗肿瘤作用,杏仁抗肿瘤作用主要是由于苦杏仁中含有一种生物活性物质--苦杏仁苷,可以进入血液专杀癌细胞,而对健康细胞没有作用,因此可以改善晚期癌症病人的症状,延长病人生存期。同时,由于含有丰富的胡萝卜素,因此可以抗氧化,防止自由基侵袭细胞,具有预防肿瘤的作用!
教您看懂杏仁的营养成分表,从右边表中可以看出杏仁的热量、蛋白质、脂肪、膳食纤维、钙、铁、碳水化合物、磷、钾、镁、碘、锰、锌、烟酸、铜、维生素B2与同类食物相比高于平均值,杏仁的各种营养成分含量及各营养素作用详解见图表。
表中所指的每日推荐量指的是一般的成年人在一定时期平均每天摄入的量。根据中国营养学会规定,不同人群在不同时期推荐摄入量是不同的。当然,这些数值并不意味着每种营养素每天都必须摄入这么多量,像脂溶性的维生素只要在一段时间内平均摄入量达到这值就可以。
主治疾病
1、镇咳、平喘作用
用于咳嗽气喘。本品主入肺经。味苦能降,且兼疏利开通之性,降肺气之中兼有宣肺之功而达止咳平喘,为治咳喘之要药。随证配伍可用于多种咳喘病证。如风寒咳喘,配伍麻黄、甘草,以散风寒,宣肺平喘,即三拗汤。风热咳嗽,配伍桑叶,菊花,以散风热,宣肺止咳,如桑菊饮。燥热咳嗽,配伍桑叶、贝母、沙参,以清肺润燥止咳,如桑杏汤。肺热咳喘,配伍石膏等以清肺泄热,宣肺平喘,如麻杏石甘汤。
2、对消化系统的作用
杏仁味苦下气,且富含脂肪油。脂肪油能提高肠内容物对黏膜的润滑作用,故杏仁有润肠通便之功能。
3、抗炎、镇痛作用
苦杏仁苷分解产生的苯甲醛静安息香缩合酶作用生成安息香。安息香具有镇痛作用,因此国内有人用苦杏仁治疗晚期肝癌可解除病人的痛苦,有的甚至不需服用止痛药。
4、抗肿瘤作用
有关杏仁抗肿瘤机理的研究主要有以下几方面:
①一部分学者认为癌细胞中含有大量β-葡萄糖苷酶,该酶能水解苦杏仁苷产生氢氰酸(HCN)、苯甲醛和葡萄糖。由于癌细胞缺少硫腈生成酶,该酶具有对HCN的解毒作用,使HCN变成无毒的硫腈化物,而正常细胞缺少β-葡萄糖苷酶而含有大量的硫腈生成。依据该理论,苦杏仁苷应该能够选择性杀死癌细胞,而对正常细胞几乎无害。
②苦杏仁苷能帮助体内胰蛋白酶消化癌细胞的透明样黏蛋白膜,使体内白细胞更易接近癌细胞,并吞噬癌细胞。
③有人发现苦杏仁苷类似NaSCN和NaOCN能够影响胸腺嘧啶核苷进入肝瘤细胞DNA和肿瘤细胞对磷酸盐氨基酸的吸收。
5、降血糖作用
苦杏仁苷具有防治因抗肿瘤药阿脲引起的糖尿病的作用。采用阿脲诱发小鼠高血糖法证明,预先腹腔注射3g/kg苦杏仁苷48h后测血糖,结果表明苦杏仁苷可特异性地抑制阿脲所致的血糖升高,作用强度与血液中苦杏仁苷的浓度有关。
6、降血脂作用
临床报道,大杏仁可以明显降低高血脂患者的血脂水平,Spiller(1990年)认为杏仁中的单不饱和脂肪酸有助于降低患者轻度升高的血脂,且无需严格限制饮食。
7、美容作用
根据肺合皮毛理论,在临床上对某些皮肤疾病可从宣肺法论治,配伍食用杏仁,常获捷效。现代研究证明,苦杏仁中所含的脂肪油可使皮肤角质层软化,从而达到美容的效果。
8、用于肠燥便秘
本品含有油脂而质润,味苦而下气,故能润肠通便。常配伍柏子仁、郁李仁等同用,如《世医得效方》之五仁丸。
9、其他作用
苦杏仁苷具有抗突变作用,能减少由安乃近、灭滴灵、丝裂霉素C等引起的微核多染性红细胞的数量。苦杏仁甙水解产物苯甲醛在体外以及在健康者或溃疡者体内,均能抑制胃蛋白酶的消化功能,提示其有抗溃疡作用。杏仁水溶性部分的胃蛋白酶水解产物对经过四氯化碳处理过的大鼠给药, 有抑制SGOT、SGPT水平和羟脯氨酸含量的升高,并抑制优球蛋白溶解时间的延长。
杏仁的胃蛋白酶水解产物对乙酸引起的小鼠扭体和棉球引起的大鼠肉芽肿炎症有抑制作用,但并不抑制角叉菜胶引起的大鼠脚爪急性肿胀及佐剂所致的大鼠关节炎的一期和二期损伤的发展。对佐剂引起的关节炎鼠,杏仁的胃蛋白酶水解产物给药2个月能延长优球蛋白溶解时间,并抑制腹动脉结缔组织的增殖。
苦杏仁油还有驱虫、杀菌作用,体外试验对人蛔虫蚯蚓有杀死作用,并对伤寒、副伤寒杆菌有抗菌作用。杏仁还具有抗蛲虫和滴虫感染,治疗再生障碍性贫血作用。
实验表明:苦杏仁煎剂对正常家兔有促进总磷合成的功能,治疗油酸型成年兔呼吸窘迫综合征取得了病理改善的结果。提示苦杏仁可促进肺表面活性物质的合成,可试用于临床治疗成人呼吸窘迫总综合征。
采收储藏
常规品种在6~7月果实成熟时采摘。
杏仁仍在其硬壳内有最长的保质期。如何购买杏仁,寻找壳不分裂,发霉或染色的。储存在密封容器有壳的杏仁保存的时间将长于那些出售散装箱,因为它们是较少受到高温,空气湿度。如果购买杏仁散装箱,确保储存有一个快速周转的库存,并且散装容器密封好,以确保最大限度的新鲜。购买的杏仁要统一的颜色,不要软掉的或干枯的。此外,还要闻杏仁的气味,应该气味甜和坚果味,如果他们的气味是刺鼻略苦的,说明已经坏了。保存杏仁要放在密封的盒子里,安置在干燥避免阳光的地方。
文献记载
出自《本草经集注》。
1.《名医别录》:杏核仁,五月采之。其两仁者杀人,可以毒狗。生晋山川谷。
2.孙思邈:杏仁作汤,如白沫不解者,食之令气壅身热;汤经宿者,动冷气。
3.《本草拾遗》:杏酪浓煎如膏,服之润五脏,去痰嗽
杏仁杏仁
4.《养性要钞》:治食杏仁中毒,下利烦苦,方以梅子汁解之。又方以蓝青汁服之。
5.《本草图经》:杏核仁,今处处有之。其实亦数种,黄而圆者名金杏。相传云种出济南郡之分流山,彼人谓之汉帝杏,今近都多种之,熟最早。其扁而青黄者名木杏,味酢,不及金杏。杏子入药,今以东来者为胜,仍用家园种者。山杏不堪入药。五月采,破核去双仁者。
6.《神农本草经》:主咳逆上气雷鸣,喉痹,下气,产乳金疮,寒心奔豚。
7.《本草经集注》:解锡、胡粉毒。
8.《名医别录》:主惊癎,心下烦热,风气去来,时行头痛,解肌,消心下急,杀狗毒。
9.《药性论》:治腹痹不通,发汗,主温病。治心下急满痛,除心腹烦闷,疗肺气咳嗽,上气喘促。入天门冬煎,润心肺。可和酪作汤,益润声气。宿即动冷气。
10.崔禹锡《食经》:理风噤及言吮不开。
11.《医学启源》:除肺中燥,治风燥在于胸膈。《主治秘诀》云,润肺气,消食,升滞气。
12.《滇南本草》:止咳嗽,消痰润肺,润肠胃,消面粉积,下气。治疳虫。
13.《本草纲目》:杀虫,治诸疮疥,消肿,去头面诸风气皶疱。
14.李杲:杏仁下喘,治气也。桃仁疗狂,治血也。桃、杏仁俱治大便秘,当以气血分之。昼则难便,行阳气也;夜则难便,行阴血也。故虚人大便燥秘不可过泄者,脉浮在气,用杏仁、陈皮;脉沉在血,用桃仁、陈皮;所以俱用陈皮者,以手阳明与手太阴为表里也。贲门上,主往来,魄门下,主收闭。故王氏言,肺与大肠为通道也。
15.《本草纲目》:杏仁能散能降,故解肌、散风、降气、润燥、消积,治伤损药中用之。治疮杀虫,用其毒也。治风寒肺病药中,亦有连皮尖用者,取其发散也。
16.《长沙药解》:肺主藏气,降于胸膈而行于经络,气逆则胸膈闭阻而生喘咳,藏病而不能降,因以痞塞,经病而不能行,于是肿痛。杏仁疏利开通,破壅降逆,善于开痹而止喘,消肿而润燥,调理气分之郁,无以易此。其诸主治,治咳逆,调失音,止咯血,断血崩,杀虫蚭,除ZHA刺,开耳聋,去目翳,平胬肉,消停食,润大肠,通小便,种种功效,皆其降浊消郁之能事也。
17.《本草求真》:杏仁,既有发散风寒之能,复有下气除喘之力,缘辛则散邪,苦则下气,润则通秘,温则宣滞行痰。杏仁气味俱备,故凡肺经感受风寒,而见喘嗽咳逆、胸满便秘、烦热头痛,与夫蛊毒、疮疡、狗毒、面毒、锡毒、金疮,无不可以调治。东垣论杏仁与紫菀,均属宣肺除郁开溺,而一主于肺经之血,一主于肺经之气;杏仁与桃仁,俱治便秘,而一治其脉浮气喘便秘,于昼而见;一治其脉沉狂发便秘,于夜而见。冯楚瞻论杏仁、栝萎,均属除痰,而一从腠理中发散以祛,故表虚者最忌;一从肠胃中清利以除,故里虚者切忌。诸药貌虽相同,而究实有分辨,不可不细审而详察也。但用杏仁以治便秘,须用陈皮以佐,则气始通。
18.《药征》:杏仁主治胸间停水,故治喘咳,而旁治短气结胸,心痛,形体浮肿。
19.《本经疏证》:麻黄汤、大青龙汤、麻黄杏仁甘草石膏汤、麻黄加术汤、麻黄杏仁薏苡甘草汤、厚朴麻黄汤文蛤汤,皆麻黄、杏仁并用,盖麻黄主开散,其力悉在毛窍,非借杏仁伸其血络中气,则其行反濡缓而有所伤,则可谓麻黄之于杏仁,犹桂枝之于芍药,水母之于虾矣。
20.《本草便读》:凡仁皆降,故(杏仁)功专降气,气降则痰消嗽止。能润大肠,故大肠气闭者可用之。考杏仁之性似无辛味,似乎止有润降之功,而无解散立力,但风寒外束,肺气壅逆,不得不用此苦降之品,使气顺而表方得解,故麻黄汤用之,亦此意耳。桃仁、杏仁,其性相似,一入肝经血分,一入肺经气分。至于解毒杀虫,彼此均可,在乎用者之神明耳。
21.《本草新编》:杏仁,味甘、苦,气温,可升可降,阴中阳也,有小毒。专入太阴肺经。乃利下之剂,除胸中气逆喘促,止咳嗽,坠痰,润大肠,气闭便难,逐痹散结。
药方选录
1)麻黄汤(《伤寒论》),用治外感风寒。
杏仁的图片
杏仁的图片 (20张)
2)三拗汤(《太平惠民和剂局方》),用治感受风邪,鼻塞身重,语音不出,或伤风伤冷,头痛目眩,四肢拘绻,咳嗽痰多,胸满气短。
3)大青龙汤(《伤寒论》),用治风热袭肺,或风寒郁而化火,壅遏于肺的喘咳证。
4)麻黄杏仁薏苡甘草汤(《金匮要略》),用治风湿在表的风寒表湿证。
5)治疗久病大肠燥结不利:杏仁400克 桃仁300克(俱用汤泡去皮) 蒌仁500克(去壳净)三味总捣如泥;川贝400克陈胆星200克(经三制者)同贝母研极细 拌入杏、桃、蒌三仁内.神曲200克研末打糊为丸 梧子大.每早服15克淡姜汤下.(《方脉正宗》)
6)治疗诸疮肿痛:杏仁去皮研滤取膏 入轻粉、麻油调搽不拘大人小儿.(《本草纲目》)
7)治疗鼻中生疮:捣杏仁乳敷之;亦烧核压取油敷之.(《备急千金要方》)
用药禁忌
阴虚咳嗽及大便溏泄者忌服。
1)《本草经集注》:“得火良。恶黄耆、黄芩、葛根。畏蘘草。”
2)《本草经疏》:“阴虚咳嗽,肺家有虚热、热痰者忌之。”
3)《本草正》:“元气虚陷者勿用,恐其沉降太泄。”
4)《本经逢原》:“亡血家尤为切禁。”
5)《本草从新》:“因虚而咳嗽便秘者忌之。”
炮制方法
1.杏仁:拣净杂质,置沸水中略煮,俟皮微皱起捞出,浸凉水中,脱去种皮,晒干,簸净。
2.炒杏仁:取净杏仁置锅内用文火炒至微黄色,取出放凉。
显微鉴别种子中部横切面:
1.杏仁 外种皮细胞1列,散有长圆形、卵圆形,偶有贝壳形及顶端平截呈梯形的黄色石细胞高38-95μm,宽30-57μm。埋在薄壁组织部分壁较薄,纹孔及孔沟较多;出部分壁较厚,纹孔较少或无。种皮下方为细胞皱缩的营养层,有细不维管束。内种皮细胞1列,含黄色物质。外胚乳为数列废的薄壁细胞。内胚乳为1列长方形细胞,内含糊粉粒及脂肪油。
2.野杏仁 种皮表面石细胞单个或~5个(或更多)散在于种皮薄壁细胞中,石细胞呈类、多角形、类多角形或梭形,纹孔大而密;侧面观呈贝壳形、类圆形、卵圆形、类方形、类多角形或梭形,径向27-76μm,底部宽18~60μm,突出于表皮层的部分呈半月形、弓形或圆拱形,约占高度的一半,色较淡,壁厚5-8(-10)μm,层纹及纹明显,底部壁厚3~5μm,层纹无或极少,纹孔密。
3.山杏仁石细胞表面观较宽扁,呈类圆形、卵圆形、类多角形、类方形,纹孔大而密;侧面观多为宽贝壳形、类圆形或扁梭形,少见长圆形或卵圆形,高46~84μm,宽34~68μm。
4.东北杏仁 石细胞多为较高的长贝壳形,顶端较小,向基部渐宽大,高46~95μm,宽41~91μm,纹孔及孔沟均细密。
现代药理
杏仁还含丰富的黄酮类化合物(简称类黄酮),因其分子量小,易被人体吸收,能通过血脑屏障,进入脂肪组织,所以它对人体的健康具有广泛的作用,如抗炎症、抗过敏、抑制细菌、抑制病毒、防治肝病、降血压、降血脂、防止血栓形成、降低血管脆性、增强免疫、改善心脑血管血液循环、抗肿瘤等。
药(毒)理学
过量服用苦杏仁,可发生中毒,表现为眩晕,突然晕倒、心悸、头疼、恶心呕吐、惊厥、昏迷、紫绀、瞳孔散大、对光反应消失、脉搏弱慢、呼吸急促或缓慢而不规则。若不及时抢救,可因呼吸衰竭而死亡。中毒者内服杏树皮杏树根煎剂可以解救,参见“杏树皮”、“杏树根”条。苦杏仁甙的LD50:大鼠小鼠静脉注射为25g/kg;大鼠腹腔注射为8g/kg。大鼠op为0.6g/kg。MTD:小鼠、兔、犬静脉注射和肌肉注射均为3g/kg;口服均为0.075g/kg;人静脉注射为5g(约0.07g/kg)。人口服苦杏仁55枚(约60g),含苦杏仁甙约1.8g(约0.024g/kg),可致死。苦杏仁大量口服易产生中毒。首先作用于延脑的呕吐、呼吸、迷走及血管运动等中枢,均引起兴奋,随后进入昏迷、惊厥,继而整个中枢神经系统麻痹,由于呼吸中枢麻痹而死亡。其中毒机理主要是由于杏仁所含的氢氰酸很易与线粒体中的细胞色素氧化酶的三价铁起反应,形成细胞色素氧化酶-氰复合物,从而使细胞的呼吸受抑制,形成组织窒息,导致死亡。由于肠道菌丛含有β-葡萄糖甙酶,给正常口服600mg/kg苦杏仁甙,2-5小时内导致死亡。检查血中CN-达到2.6-4.5μg/ml;而给无菌鼠服用相同剂量的苦否仁甙,小鼠无死亡;血中CN-不到0.4μg/ml。说明肠道菌丛是造成苦杏仁甙口服中毒的根源,其毒性比静注大40倍左右。用Ames法,TA100株,S-9,Mix(+),苦杏仁甙有致死作用。
药代动力学
苦杏仁甙在人体内的药代动力学符合开放二室模型。静脉注射给药的分布半衰期为6.2分钟;平均消除相的半衰期为120.3分钟;平均清除率为99.3ml/min。有人认为肾小球滤过是苦杏仁甙的主要排泄方式。加速快速静脉注射苦杏仁甙500mg/kg后,得出苦杏仁甙生物半衰期tl/2a为3.4分钟;tl/2B为4.95分钟;在48小时内家兔尿中排泄量为注入剂量的71.4%。苦杏仁甙在人体内主要以原形从尿中排泄。肌肉注射6g剂量后,血药浓度180μg/ml。

食用价值

基本信息
食物相克
杏仁不可与小米同食。
杏仁不可与黄芪、黄芩、葛根等药同用。
杏仁不可与栗子:同食会胃痛。
杏仁、猪肺:同食不利于蛋白质的吸收。
杏仁不可与狗肉同食:杏仁富含蛋白质,而且油腻;狗肉大热。二者同食,易损伤肠胃。
杏仁不可与猪肉同食:会引起腹痛。
食物相宜
杏仁与牛奶同食,可美容润肤。
食疗价值
祖国医学认为,杏仁味苷,性平。归肺、大肠经。有润肺祛痰、止咳平喘、润肠通便等功能。
现代研究发现杏仁中含有维生素B17,具有抗癌作用。[2] 
杏仁的营养价值很高。杏仁含有丰富的不饱和脂肪酸,有益于心脏健康;含有维生素E等抗氧化物质,能预防疾病和早衰。杏仁中含蛋白质27%、脂肪53%、碳水化合物11%,每百克杏仁中含钙111毫克,磷385毫克,铁70毫克,还含有一定量的胡萝卜素,抗坏血酸及苦杏仁甙等。 相传明代翰林辛士逊有一次外出,夜宿青城山道院,一位道人向他传授一长寿秘方,让他每天吃七枚杏仁,坚持食用,必获大益。这位翰林遵照此方,坚持不懈,直到老年依然身轻体健,耳聪目明,思维敏捷,长寿不衰。
1、镇咳、平喘作用:苦杏仁中含有苦杏仁苷,苦杏仁苷在体内能被肠道微生物酶或苦杏仁本身所含的苦杏仁酶水解,产生微量的氢氰酸与苯甲醛,对呼吸中枢有抑制作用,达到镇咳、平喘作用。
2、对消化系统的作用:杏仁味苦下气,且富含脂肪油。脂肪油能提高肠内容物对黏膜的润滑作用,故杏仁有润肠通便之功能。
3、抗炎、镇痛作用:苦杏仁苷分解产生的苯甲醛静安息香缩合酶作用生成安息香。安息香具有镇痛作用,因此国内有人用苦杏仁治疗晚期肝癌可解除病人的痛苦,有的甚至不需服用止痛药。
4、抗癌症肿瘤作用
5、降血糖作用
6、降血脂作用
7、美容作用
8、其他作用:苦杏仁苷具有抗突变作用,能减少由安乃近、灭滴灵、丝裂霉素C等引起的微核多染性红细胞的数量。[3] 
甜杏仁
蔷薇科木本植物杏或山杏的部分栽培种味甜的种仁。杏或山杏主要分布在中国华北、东北和山东、河南、四川、陕西等地。夏季果实成熟时采收,除去果肉(食用)及核壳,取种仁晒干用。
[性能]味甘,性平。能滋润肺燥,止咳平喘,润肠通便。
[参考]含丰富的蛋白质、脂肪油,其主要脂肪酸为油酸、亚油酸,此外尚含有糖、微量苦杏仁甙等成分。
[用途]用于虚劳咳嗽、气喘,胸腹逆闷;肠燥便秘,大便干结。
[用法]生嚼,炒食,煮粥,研末,煎汤。
[注意]痰饮咳嗽、脾虚肠滑者不宜食。
[附方]
1,双仁糊:甜杏仁、胡桃仁各15g。二者微炒,共捣碎研细,加密或白糖适量。分2次用开水冲调食。
源于《杨氏家藏方》(杏仁煎)。甜杏仁、胡桃仁能滋养肺肾、止咳平喘。用于久患喘咳,肺肾两虚,干咳无痰,少气乏力等。亦可用于阴血虚亏,肠燥便秘或老人大便秘结。
2、杏仁粥
  原料:甜杏仁(去皮、尖)10克,大米50克。
  制法:将甜杏仁研成泥状,大米淘洗干净,两味相和加适量水煮开,再用慢火煮烂即成。
  用法:可作早餐,温热食用。
  功效:止咳平喘。适用于咳嗽、气喘。健康人经常食用能防病强身。
巴旦杏仁
蔷薇科木本植物巴旦杏味甜的种仁。又称八担杏巴达杏仁、叭哒杏仁。其树又名偏桃匾桃、京杏。中国新疆、甘肃、陕西等地有栽培。夏季果实成熟时采收,除去果肉及核壳,取种仁晒干用。
本草纲目》说:“巴旦杏出回回旧地,今关西诸土亦有……壳薄而仁甘美,点茶食之,味如榛子,西人以充方物”。《饮膳正要》说:“味甘,无毒,止咳下气,消心腹逆闷”。故性能、主治等与甜杏仁相似。
相关知识
杏仁有苦杏仁和甜杏仁两类。苦杏仁含有苦杏仁甙,可被胃酸水解,产生剧毒物质,一般作药用。甜杏仁不仅含有丰富的不饱和脂肪、维生素E、优质蛋白、膳食纤维,还含有钙、镁、锌、铁等矿物质,容易被人体吸收,夏季食用,不但可以美容养颜,还有减肥功效。
杏仁中所含的维生素E居于各类坚果之首,能够帮助肌肤抵御氧化侵害、延缓皱纹产生、预防并改善皮肤色素沉积。它富含的不饱和脂肪酸可以保护心脏,而且不含胆固醇,是相当安全健康食品。下面介绍以杏仁为原料的普通菜肴。
美容功效
杏仁味苦下气,富含脂肪油,有润肠通便之功,可使皮肤角质层软化,润燥护肤,有保护神经末梢血管和组织器官的作用,并可抑杀细菌。此外,被酶水解所生成的HCN能够抑制体内的活性酪氨酸酶,消除色素沉着、雀斑、黑斑等,从而达到能促进皮肤微循环,使皮肤红润光泽的美容作用。
杏仁中含有20%的蛋白质,不含淀粉,磨碎、加压后,榨出的油脂为淡黄色,虽然没有香味,但具有软化皮肤的功效。
杏仁精油能调理面疱皮肤、滋润及软化肤质、对于舒缓痘痘带来的红肿不适有很好的功效。适合干性、皱纹、粉刺、及敏感性肌肤。

食用指南

食用方法

甜杏仁可以直接食用,就可以直接吸收杏仁的丰富的营养。杏仁可以被做成很多的不同的形式,比如杏仁饮料、杏仁饼干等。杏仁还可以用来做菜煲汤等很多的食用方法。不可生食,宜炒熟或蒸熟或温油炸制为宜。
杏仁茶
原料:
杏仁200克、糯米100克、冰糖10克
做法:
1、杏仁用清水浸泡10分钟,撕去外面的果皮。糯米淘洗干净后浸泡5-8小时;
2、将泡好的糯米、杏仁一起放入搅拌机内,加入200ml左右的清水,用低速搅打,直到颜色变得奶白
3、将打好的杏仁茶倒在漏网,过滤好的汁留在汤锅中,加入冰糖,用小火慢慢搅拌至冰糖溶化即可;
香煎杏仁南瓜饼
原料:
南瓜100克、面粉、糯米粉适量,杏仁。
配料:
黑芝麻、香菜叶子若干。
做法:
1、南瓜切薄片蒸熟;;
2、杏仁、香菜叶、黑芝麻洗干净沥干水分;
3、把南瓜压成泥,加入糯米粉和面粉,两种粉的比例是1:1;
5、揉成面团;
6、分成小团,搓圆再压扁成南瓜饼,压上杏仁、香菜叶、黑芝麻;
7、放入锅内煎至金黄即可;
杏仁草莓奶昔
原料:
草莓5-6颗、牛奶一包、杏仁几颗。
做法:
把牛奶和草莓放进搅拌机里打几秒钟,倒进杯子里,加入捣碎的杏仁即可。
西芹杏仁炒虾仁
原料:
虾仁100克、西芹100克、熟杏仁20个、蒜、葱若干、料酒1汤匙(15ML)、适量盐、糖、生抽、白胡椒粉、糖、水芡粉。
做法:
1、虾仁开背去黑线,洗净,适量盐、白胡椒粉腌5分钟;
2、西芹撕去老筋洗净,斜切成段,在开水中焯一下,捞出浸入凉水备用;
3、将调料倒入小碗中和匀;
4、热锅,7分热的油,入拌过芡粉的虾仁迅速滑炒,虾仁变色、弯曲后就盛出来;
5、热锅,入少量油,爆香蒜、葱后倒入调料,依次倒入西芹、虾仁和杏仁,翻炒匀,既可出锅。
杏仁豆腐
主料:
杏仁150克、冻粉100克
辅料:山楂糕20克、黄瓜皮25克、西红柿25克;淀粉50克、白糖20克;
做法:
1、杏仁放入水中浸泡片刻,剥去皮,砸成细泥,然后用细纱布拧出汁,放入碗内;
2、汤锅洗净放火上,加清水,浸泡的冻粉,用小火熬煮化后,加入淀粉、杏仁汁、白糖、煮沸后倒入盘内,冷却后切成块;
3、将山楂糕、黄瓜皮、西红柿均匀成细丝,摆在杏仁豆腐上;
红薯杏仁
原料:
杏仁 100克,红薯干20克,糖200克
做法:
1、锅中放入少许水,放入糖用中高火加热6-7分钟,把糖炒成粘稠状;
2、放入杏仁,再炒1-2分钟,将糖完全裹在杏仁上,出锅;
3、将出锅的杏仁倒入盘中冷却。
4、待杏仁完全冷却后与红薯干拌起来即可食用。
麻辣杏仁
原料:
杏仁200克、干辣椒、花椒、生姜4片、八角、盐、白糖、植物油200ml
做法:
1、温水浸泡大杏仁,加入花椒、生姜、八角一起浸泡约半小时;
2、浸泡好的杏仁剥去外皮,控干水分;
3、取锅加入植物油,油温5成热时,倒入大杏仁炸至微黄
4、另取锅,将切丝的干辣椒和花椒放入锅中干炒出香味,倒入炸好的杏仁翻炒3分钟,调入白糖和盐翻炒均匀后出锅晾凉即可食用。
草莓杏仁茶
原料:
草莓10粒、杏仁20粒、香蕉一根、蜂蜜适量、纯净水10ml。
做法:
1、草莓洗净,对半切开。
2、香蕉切成小段。
3、把草莓和香蕉统一放到搅拌机里。
4、倒入大杏仁。
5、兑上适量蜂蜜,约20ml。
6、加入水
7、搅拌机打碎搅拌均匀即可。
杏仁营养丰富,香甜可口,所以在菜肴中的应用很值得推广和介绍。杏仁怎么吃好吃 杏仁烹饪
杏黄扒旗参
将水发旗参800 g,用冷水滚烧2至3次(每次均需换水)。烧热锅,加入猪油25 g、葱姜、料酒,待煸透后,加入汤250 g和旗参滚烧片刻捞起,装入碗内。加进汤和味精,上笼蒸酥。
烧热锅,放入猪油25 g,把切碎的小葱头25 g下锅煸至金黄色时,再加入料酒、顶汤250 g、精盐、茄汁25g、黄姜粉5 g、椰子汁40g玉果粉3g、鸡油25 g、黄油5g滚烧5分钟,待汤滚至金黄色时,用纱布滤清倒入净锅内。然后将蒸酥的旗参滗干水,放入锅内,加入味精,用文火滚烧三至四分钟,再用水淀粉40 g勾芡,加入牛奶50 g,搅匀装盆,撒上炸杏仁末10 g,一盆杏黄色的扒旗参制成了。
雏母鸡1只(重1000 g左右),开膛洗净后剁成5 cm见方的块。杏仁100 g用温水泡透,去掉外皮。将鸡块下入热花生油(500 g,实耗75 g)中炸呈金黄色。
坐勺上火,放入香油25 g,投入大料2粒、葱段、姜片25 g炒出香味,烹入料酒,加入白汤、酱油50 g,白糖25 g,放入鸡块烧开,撇去浮沫,加入杏仁,用微火煨煸至透(在煨煸中要翻动几次)。将勺移入旺火,拣出佐料,收汁至浓,加入味精,淋入香油,盛入盘中即成。
杏仁银耳山楂汤
材料:水发银耳50克,杏仁25克,山楂30克,枸杞子20颗。
调料:盐、白砂糖蜜枣各适量。
做法:
1)银耳洗净,撕成小朵,杏仁、枸杞子分别洗净;山楂洗净,去子,切片。
3)沙锅倒入适量冷水,放入银耳枸杞子、中火烧开。
4)加入杏仁、山楂片、盐、白砂糖,大火煮2分钟,盛入碗中,加入蜂蜜调味即可。
山楂、银耳搭配成汤,在夏季能清润消暑,冰冻之后吃更加美味。
杏仁提子麦片粥
材料:(2人份):2杯水、1/4茶匙盐、1杯麦片、1杯牛奶、3茶匙蜂蜜、6茶匙烤杏仁片或杏仁块、3茶匙提子干。
作法:将放入盐的水煮沸,调小火,边搅拌边倒入麦片。然后一边搅拌一边煮1分钟。将容器盖上盖子从火上撤下,冷却2~3分钟。配以牛奶(以自己的喜好适量加入),提子,杏仁片/块和蜂蜜一起享用。

适宜人群

宜食:
癌症患者以及术后放疗、化疗的人宜食用,宜将杏仁制成饮料或浸泡水中数次后再吃。杏仁温油炸制为佳。
忌食:
产妇、幼儿、糖尿病患者不宜食用。

食用注意

正确食用杏仁,能够达到生津止渴,润肺定喘,滑肠通便,减少肠道癌的功效。杏仁烹调的方法很多,可以用来做粥、饼、面包等多种类型的食品,还能搭配其他佐料制成美味菜肴。
虽然杏仁有许多的药用、食用价值,但不可以大量食用。杏仁含有毒物质氢氰酸(100克苦杏仁分解释放氢氰酸100~250毫克。氢氰酸致死剂量为60毫克。甜杏仁的氢氰酸含量约为苦杏仁的三分之一),过量服用可致中毒。所以,食用前必须先在水中浸泡多次,并加热煮沸,减少以至消除其中的有毒物质;产妇、幼儿、湿热体质的人和糖尿病患者,不宜吃杏及其制品。
不经过某种形式加热的话,杏仁是剧毒的,而要去除毒性的主要是苦味杏仁,它富含氰化物,在许多国家,出售没有经过加工去除其毒素的杏仁是非法的。

药用植物

 胶冷杉 糖枫 海红豆 猴面包树 欧洲七叶树 石栗 凹叶赤杨
 腰果 刺果番荔枝 杨梅 槟榔 砂糖椰子 波罗蜜 杨桃
 白桦坚桦木 胭脂树 香水树 爪哇橄榄 螃蟹木 番木瓜 阿勃勒
 欧洲栗 大叶栗子 栗豆树 黎巴嫩雪松 木棉 长角豆 柠檬
 香柠檬 马蜂橙 苦橙 橘椪柑 流苏树 油棕榈 锡兰肉桂
 樟树 龙脑树  可乐果 苏丹可乐果 黄牛木 粉色黄牛木
 意大利柏木 榅桲 第伦桃 金色第伦桃 低株第伦桃 榴莲 古柯
 桉树 柠檬桉 干果桉 棉芝老桉 蓝桉 加宁桉 杜仲
 欧洲山毛榉 香灰莉 菩提树 欧纳白蜡树 银杏 买麻藤 南美弯叶豆
 八角 日本大茴香 普通胡桃 欧洲刺柏 铅笔柏 腊肠树 美洲落叶松
 欧洲落叶松 月桂 窄叶月桂 金月桂 尖叶女贞 普通女贞 东方枫香树
 木兰 芒果 茶树 白千层 互叶白千层 绿花白千层 印度楝树
 铁刀木 黄玉兰 含笑花 乳油木 葫芦肉豆蔻 兰花树 辣木
 桑树 黑桑 肉豆蔻 豆胶树 欧洲橄榄 香橄榄 露兜树
 维奇露兜树 阔叶露兜树 马来亚大风子 球花豆 非洲球花豆 树酪梨 海枣
 意大利石松 欧洲赤松 牙买加胡椒 多果香椒 乳香树 鸡蛋花 酸橙
  杏仁 扁桃 野黑樱 黑刺李 苦樱桃 欧洲李
 胶杨 杨树 银白杨 花旗松 番石榴草 草莓番石榴 小叶紫檀
 紫檀 石榴 苏里南苦木 牙买加苦木 夏栎 洋槐 白柳
 垂柳 黄花柳 接骨木 檀香 印度檀香 洋擦木 槐树侧花槐树
 欧洲花楸 安息香 药用安息香 丁香 蒲桃 罗望子 浆果红豆杉
 短叶红豆杉 可可树 东方侧柏 美西侧柏 欧椴 美洲椴 宽叶椴树
 小叶椴 英国榆 加州月桂 牡荆 安古牡荆  美洲花椒
 石灰山花椒 胡椒花椒 释迦 毒鱼豆 檫木 苦楝 木蝴蝶
 侧柏 非洲李 皂荚 白桦 墨水树 黄樟

灌木

草本植物

水生植物

多肉植物

其他植物

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
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中国食品科学技术学会  食品  植物
http://baike.baidu.com/view/31027.htm

Almond locking
The entry from the "Chinese science" Encyclopedia entry write scientific work and application project review.
Almonds are Rosaceae apricot seeds, divided into sweet almond and bitter almond, mainly contains protein, fat, sugar, trace amygdalin. Fat composition is mainly oleic and linoleic acid.
Almonds long short (short spur) on, with immature appearance. When the fruit is ripe, it will be split green shell, while revealing the package in the rough housing nucleolus, nucleolus in yellow and there are many holes in the shell of hard wood. Almonds flat oval, round one end, the other end of the tip, covered with brown skinned. Nucleolus containing 20% ​​protein, excluding starch, grinding, pressurized, squeeze oil, about half the weight of its own, as a pale yellow almond oil, although no fragrance, but has a softening of the skin and cosmetic effect.
Chinese scientific name Latin name almond Amygdalus Communis Vas nickname apricot, apricots, wood Lazi, bitter almond, plum kernels, apricot, sweet plum sector rose plant kingdom Branch distribution area in Central Asia, West Asia, the Mediterranean region, located in Hebei in China Liaoning Meridian lung; spleen; intestine by English name Bitter Apricot Kernel
Contents 1 Morphology 2 cosmopolitan distribution ▪ ▪ China distributed species classification 3 4 5 cultivation techniques pest control 6 main medicinal value ▪ ▪ food value Cooking Guide 7 ▪ Consumption ▪ ▪ The crowd edible attention
Morphological characteristics
Shelled almonds
Shelled almonds
1, apricot small deciduous trees, 4 ~ 10m; bark dark brown, diastema. Leaves alternate; leaf blade ovate or broadly ovate round, long 5 ~ 9cm, width 4 ~ 8cm. Spring flowering before leaves, flowers solitary branch end, the Health dense, slightly like racemose; flowers almost sessile, calyx base into a cylindrical shape, outside pubescent, the upper 5-lobed; petals 5, white or light pink, rounded to broadly obovate; stamens majority, the raw edge of calyx tube; pistil single carpel, the raw base of calyx tube. Drupe round, thin obovate, more than 2.5cm in diameter. Seed 1, heart-shaped oval, light red. Flowering from March to April, fruiting from June to July.
2, the main features of this variant of wild apricot leaf base cuneate or broadly cuneate; often two clusters of flowers, pale red; fruit nearly spherical, red; nuclear ovoid, from meat, rough and textured surface, often abdominal sharp edge.
3, apricot shrubs or small trees, high 2-5m. Leaves ovate or nearly circular, long (3-) 5-10cm, width (2.5-) 4-7cm. Flowers solitary, diameter 1.5-2cm; sepals oblong-elliptic, apex acute; petals nearly round or obovate, white or pink. Fruits flat spherical diameter 1.5-2.5cm, both sides of the flat, flesh thin and dry, cracked when ripe, sour taste, can not eat. Nuclear easy separation and pulp, the base side of the asymmetry, smooth. Flowering from April to May, fruiting from June to July.
4, northeast apricot big trees, 5 ~ 15m. Young shoots glabrous. Leaves elliptic or ovate, long 6 ~ 12cm, width 3 ~ 8cm. Pink or white; stamens many; ovary densely pubescent. Drupe nearly spherical, diameter 1.5 ~ 2.6cm, yellow; nuclear subglobose or broadly elliptic, 13-18mm, width 11 ~ 18mm, the rough edges blunt. Flowering from April to May, the fruit of July.
5, flat peach (commonly known as "American almonds") can not use as almonds.
Distribution
World Distribution

Native to Central Asia, West Asia, the Mediterranean region, naturalized in warm temperate regions.
China Distribution

Except in China, Guangdong, Hainan and other tropical areas around the country, mostly the cultivation. Mainly distributed in Hebei, Liaoning, northeast, north, and Gansu. Born in 700-2000m altitude wild apricot dry sunny, hills, grassland. Born in northeast apricot altitude 400-1000m under the open sunny hillside shrubbery or weed. Wild Apricot is mainly produced in northern China, cultivated or wild, especially prevalent wild, Shandong, Jiangsu and other places also produced in Hebei, Shanxi and other places. Apricot distributed in Ili in Xinjiang, with a wild.
Variety Classification
Almond plant Rosaceae, including apricot kernel and almond kernel. Every fruit ripening season, the amygdala was stripped after seeing the skin wrapped in brown coat slightly into flat ovate almonds. Almonds are grown in warm temperate fruit crops, so it likes the warm, sunny climate, it is generally most are planted almond trees can soak up the sun in sunny places.
Almonds are generally divided into sweet almond and bitter almond points or known as South and North almond almonds. It is both in the nutrients are the same, is the difference between a taste, a bitter sweet one.
Sweet almond rich in nutritional value, is the dried fruit market is very expensive, it is can be eaten directly edible. Sweet almond is not only rich in unsaturated fats, vitamin E, high-quality protein, dietary fiber, also contains calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and other minerals, easily absorbed, summer food, not only can beauty, as well as obesity.
Bitter almonds can be used as medicine, bitter almonds contain amygdalin, which may be acid hydrolysis, produce toxic substances, usually for medicinal purposes. Chinese medicine long used the usual almond treat disease. Amygdalin Almonds contain ingredients not only can cough and asthma, but also has a huge role to fight cancer, it is a major contribution to the science of medicine.
Cultivation techniques
1. Biological characteristics of adaptability, drought, cold resistance, barren, salt tolerance. Summer temperature at 43.9 ℃, the growth of normal; safe winter at -40 ℃ low temperature. It can be planted in the ground or slopes. Strict requirements on the soil.
Apricot
Apricot
2. Cultivation techniques breeding seed or grafting. Seed propagation: picking ripe fruit, twist to pulp, a large grain per 50kg of seed 5-10kg, pellets per 50kg of seed 7.5-15kg, seed purity of 98%, the germination rate of 86%, with a 1: 3 mix of wet sand for winter Sand. Spring in late March, autumn in late November (can be planted in well-ventilated place to dry after discharge). Often using a large ridge sowing, planting a row every ridge, inhouse spacing of 10-15cm, one seed per hole, after sowing casing thickness 5-6cm (about 3 times the diameter of the seed), repression. Grafting: rootstock seedlings planted with apricot or wild apricot seedlings, grafted in late March, budding in late July to early August.
3. Conduct field management seedlings emerge 3-4 leaves when thinning seedlings, for the first 2-3 weeks after the second thinning, and timely irrigation, prevent wind and root injury, the case of dry weather, as appropriate, irrigation, July-August rainy season Note drainage. Seedlings up to 45cm, can be a month before budding pluck tender tip. Winter November to next March to trim, divide three kinds of tree; natural round shape, evacuation layered shape, nature fun shape. April-June chase irrigation fertilizer, each chasing young fruit growth period and available fertilizer 1 times before germination bud per plant adult trees can be applied to 0.25kg, and irrigation.
Pest control
Leaf spot diseases are apricot boil. 5 degrees lime sulfur spray before germination, 0.3 degrees lime sulfur spray when leaf. Weevil pest apricot, otherwise the bag moths, beetles and so on. [1] 
The main value
Medicinal Value

South almonds, North almonds in the Chinese system called the amygdala. South almonds, also known as sweet almond, slightly sweet, this is a method to distinguish between the South and North almond almonds. First division South almonds have so several theories:
North almonds
Almonds
Almond (15)
 Northern Natural is produced almonds, almond and crying.
[There are] the main features:
1, joys, must be soaked in water for three days in order to remove the bitter taste.
2, bitter almond almond taste will be a huge loss to the bitterness in the process, so there is no almond flavor.
3, bitter almond micro toxicity (brew need high temperature hot water to brew, to go toxicity).
4, the same therapeutic effect and sweet almond.
5, almond oil content of about 49%, ground into powder after a relatively wet silt.
6, because of bitter taste, many people eat, so bitter almond relatively low raw material prices.
First, the chemical composition
1. Almond bitterness containing cyanogenic glycosides: amygdalin (amygdalin) about 4%, and wild cherry glycosides (prunasin);
Almond - Shape
Almond - Shape
About 50% fatty oil, oil has eight kinds of fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid (linoeic acid) accounted for 27% oleic acid (oleic acid) accounted for 67% and palmitic acid (palmitic acid) accounted for 5.2%. Also contains chlorogenic acid (chlorogenic acid) that is 5'caffeoylquinic acid (5'-caffeoylquinic acid), new chlorogenic acid (neochlorogenic acid) that is 3'-caffeoylquinic acid (3'-caffeoylquinic acid ), 3'Ferulylquinic acid (3'-feruloylquinic acid), 5'- Ferulylquinic acid (5'-feruloylquinic acid), 3'- coumaric acid quinine acid (3'-Pcoumaroylquinic acid), inositol (inositol), stigmasterol (stigmasterol), β- sitosterol (β-sitosterol), △ - oat sterols (△ -avenasterol), cholesterol (cholesterol) 24- cholesteric alcohol (△ -chlestenol), female one (estrone), 17β- estradiol (17β-estyadiol), triolein (triolein). Two kinds of protein composition containing another anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity: KR-A and KR-B, its contents were 4.44% and 0.41%. And containing almonds aroma and volatile components related to: benzaldehyde (benzaldehyde), linalool (linalool), 4- pine oil alcohol (4-terpinenol), α- terpineol (α-terpineol).
2. Wild Apricot seeds contain amygdalin about 4.84%, also contains volatile oil, the main ingredients are: under aldohexoses (n-hexanal) accounted for 4.81%, trans-2-hexenal (2-hexenal) accounted for 11.57% lower hexanol (n-hexanol) accounted for 14.38%, trans-2-hexene-1-ol (2-hexen-1-ol) accounted for 8.28%, linalool accounting 12.61%, a- terpineol accounted for 5.69% ʱ?? Geraniol (geraniol) accounted for 2.78 percent and myristic acid (teradecanoic acid) accounted for 3.6%.
3. Wild apricot seeds contain amygdalin approximately 4.84%.
4. Northeastern apricot seeds contain amygdalin 3.2%.
Second, the chemical identification
1. Take this product 0.5g, set stoppered test tube, add 5% sulfuric acid solution 3ml fully shaken, they put in a test tube with a three-nitro phenol solution of sodium wet filter paper, plugged plugs, tube set 40 ~ 50 ℃ water bath 10min, filter paper strip from yellow brick red. (Check cyanogenic glycosides)
2. TLC take the goods 0.5g, add the same amount of calcium carbonate co pestle, placed inside stoppered flask, petroleum ether (60 ~ 90 ℃) 4ml, cold soak overnight, filtration. The residue was evaporated to dryness petroleum ether, ethanol was added 4ml cold soak overnight, filtration. The filtrate was concentrated to make the test. In Amygdalin as a control. They were spotted on the same silica gel G plate with chloroform - ethyl acetate - ethanol (2: 1: 2) to start color of iodine vapor. Test products for chromatography, chromatography with reference substance corresponding position, was the same color spots.
Third, sexual taste
Bitter, tepid; a small drug.
Fourth, the effectiveness of
Cough and asthma, laxative.
V. Dosage
Decoction, 3 to 10 g, should break fry.
Sixth, the use of attention
This product is a small drug, the dosage should not be too large, baby caution.
Seven, side effects
Demonstration of bitter almonds suffering temperature Xuanfei, laxative, only suitable for Feng Xie, and other intestinal dryness. Where yin, Yu fire who are not long-term oral administration of single herbs. Such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, chronic enteritis, dry cough without phlegm embolism taboo single herb Jiufu.
Eight, sweet almond
Sweet flat, functional lungs and cough. Mainly used for consumptive cough. Decoction, 5 to 10 grams.
Nine, identification
Almonds and ephedra, the two drugs are owned by lung, for cold Fanfei of cough syndrome, often phase shall be used. However, ephedra somewhat divergent cold Xuanfei Dingchuan, almonds are somewhat lower gas Dingchuan cough, a declared a drop, lung declared down properly, the self-balancing, wheezing cough. Ephedra has Xuanfei diuresis and pass through the full effect of swelling, commonly used for the treatment of feng shui, almonds grooming opened, commonly used for the wet warm license.
Ten, the difference between the north and south of almonds
South almonds somewhat moist, cure lung deficiency Dryness cough.
North almonds good at lower lung asthma, cough Zhifei real.
XI, and the role of nutrients
Almond sweet almond and bitter almond into two kinds. China Southern belong sweet almond almond production (aka south almonds), taste slightly sweet, delicate, used for food, but also as a raw material added to cakes, cookies and dishes, with lungs, cough, Hua Chang and other effects of dry cough without phlegm, lung deficiency chronic cough embolism have a certain role in mitigation; northern almond production belongs bitter almonds (aka North almonds), with a bitter taste, more for medicinal purposes, with the lungs, asthma effect, for cause phlegmatic colds caused by coughing, wheezing and other symptoms of a significant effect; however, should not take too much time bitter almonds, each time not more than 9 grams is appropriate. Almond give you a diamond-like solid nails, eat two can be.
Sweet almonds are a healthy food, eaten in moderation can not only effectively control cholesterol levels in the human body, but also significantly reduce the risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases. Vegetarians can replenish sweet almond protein, trace elements and vitamins, such as iron, zinc and vitamin E. Sweet almond contained fats are necessary for healthy people, is a heart-healthy high unsaturated fat.
The study found that eating 50 to 100 grams of almonds (about 40 to 80 almonds) every day, does not increase body weight. Sweet Almond not only high protein content, which makes a lot of fiber can reduce hunger, which is useful for maintaining weight. Fiber beneficial intestinal tissue and reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer, the risk of cholesterol and heart disease. Therefore, obesity select sweet almonds as a snack, you can achieve the effect of weight control. Recent scientific studies have also shown that, sweet almond can promote skin microcirculation, skin rosy gloss, has a cosmetic effect.
Almonds are rich in nutrients protein, fat, carbohydrates, carotene, B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin P and calcium, phosphorus, iron and so on. After which the carotene content in fruits of mango, people called cancer of the almond fruit. Almond oil is rich in fat, cholesterol-lowering effect, therefore, almond prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease have a good effect; Chinese medicine theory holds that the almond has a thirst, lungs Dingchuan effect, commonly used in asthma Dryness cough and other health and treatment of patients. Sweet almond as food, can be used as a substitute flat peach. The results of a new study by US researchers shows that cholesterol levels were normal or slightly higher in people, you can use almond replace its diet of low nutrient density foods, to lower blood cholesterol and maintain heart health. Researchers believe that almonds are rich in nutrients, such as vitamin E, monounsaturated fat and dietary fiber interaction can effectively reduce the risk of heart disease. Sample 85 middle-aged volunteers (mean age 56 years) reduced total cholesterol levels by 7.6%, LDL cholesterol levels fell by 9%. Also did not cause weight gain.
1. Bitter almonds can cough and asthma, laxative, to treat lung disease, cough and other diseases.
2. Sweet almonds and dried fruit daily eating almonds () somewhat moist, lungs have a certain effect.
3. Almonds are also rich in flavonoids and polyphenols composition which not only reduce cholesterol levels in the human body, but also significantly reduce the risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases.
4. Almond also a cosmetic effect, can promote skin microcirculation, skin rosy sheen.
5. Almonds have anti-tumor effect, almonds antitumor effect was mainly due to the bitter almond contains a biologically active substance - amygdalin, designed to kill cancer cells can enter the bloodstream, while no effect on healthy cells, thus improving the patients with advanced cancer The symptoms and prolong patient survival. Meanwhile, the rich in carotene, it can antioxidant against free radicals attack cells that have the effect of preventing tumor!
Teach you to read the Nutrition Facts almonds from the right side of the table can be seen almond calories, protein, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, iron, carbohydrates, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iodine, manganese, zinc, niacin, copper, vitamin B2 above average compared with the same food, the nutrient content of various nutrients in almonds and various role Comments see chart.
The daily recommended amount indicated in the table refers to the amount of the average adult in the average daily intake of a certain period. According to the provisions of the Chinese Nutrition Society, the recommended intake of different groups of people in different periods are different. Of course, these values ​​must not mean that each nutrient daily intake of such a large amount, as long as the fat-soluble vitamins average intake over a period of time to reach this value can be.
Indications Diseases
1, cough, asthma action
For cough, asthma. This product is the primary human lung. Bitter or down, and the opening of the nature and Shu-li, lower lung function among both Xuanfei of Erda cough and asthma, cough medicine for the cure to it. Compatibility with the card can be used for a variety of cough syndromes. As cold cough, compatibility ephedra, licorice, with scattered cold, Xuanfei asthma, that is, three bend soup. Wind-heat cough, compatibility mulberry leaf, chrysanthemum, with scattered wind heat, Xuanfei cough, such as Sang Ju drink. Hot cough, compatibility mulberry, Fritillaria, Radix, moistening Qingfei cough, such as mulberry apricot soup. Hyperactivity cough, compatibility with gypsum Qingfei Xiere, Xuanfei asthma, such as Maxinshigan soup.
2, the role of the digestive system
Under bitter almond gas and oil rich in fat. Fat oil can improve lubrication of the intestinal contents of mucosa, so almonds have laxative functionality.
3, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects
Benzaldehyde static amygdalin decomposition generates benzoin benzoin condensing enzyme action. Benzoin has analgesic effect, so someone with bitter almond domestic treatment of advanced liver cancer can relieve the patient's pain, and some even do not need to take painkillers.
4, anti-tumor effect
Studies on the antitumor mechanism of almonds are mainly the following aspects:
① some scholars believe that cancer cells contain a large number β- glucosidase enzyme capable of hydrolyzing amygdalin produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN), benzaldehyde, and glucose. Due to the lack of sulfur nitrile cancer-producing enzyme, the enzyme having detoxification of HCN, so that non-toxic HCN into sulfur nitrile, whereas normal cells lack β- glucosidase which contains a large amount of sulfur nitrile-forming enzyme. According to this theory, amygdalin should be able to selectively kill cancer cells while normal cells almost harmless.
② amygdalin can help the body trypsin digestion cancer hyaline membrane mucin, white blood cells so that the body more accessible to cancer cells, and phagocytic cells.
③ was found amygdalin similar NaSCN and NaOCN can affect absorption of thymidine into the DNA of liver tumor cells and tumor cells phosphates and amino acids.
5, hypoglycemic effect
Amygdalin has a role in prevention and treatment of diabetes because alloxan caused by anticancer drugs. A proof using urea-induced hyperglycemia in mice method, previously intraperitoneal injection 3g / kg amygdalin 48h post-test blood sugar, results showed amygdalin can specifically inhibit glucose alloxan-induced increases potency and blood bitter amygdalin concentration related.
6, lipid-lowering effect
Clinical reports, almonds can significantly reduce lipid levels in patients with high blood cholesterol, Spiller (1990) suggest that almonds are monounsaturated fatty acids help lower blood lipids in patients with mildly elevated, and without strict dietary restrictions.
7, the role of beauty
According to the theory of lung together fur in clinical certain skin diseases from Xuanfei method of governance, compatible eating almonds, often eligible Jie effect. Modern studies have shown that fat contained in bitter almond oil can soften the stratum corneum, so as to achieve the effect of beauty.
8 for intestinal dry constipation
This product contains grease and quality-run, bitter and gas, it could laxative. Often compatibility Bozi, Yuli equated with, such as "World Medical was effective side" of the five-jen pills.
9, other effects
Amygdalin has anti-mutagenic effect, can reduce micronuclei polychromatic by the dipyrone, metronidazole, mitomycin C caused by red blood cell count. Amygdalin hydrolysis benzaldehyde in vitro and in vivo health or ulcers, can inhibit pepsin digestion, suggesting that there are anti-ulcer effect. Pepsin hydrolyzate of almond water-soluble portion of the treated after carbon tetrachloride administered to rats, inhibit SGOT, SGPT levels and hydroxyproline content increased, and inhibition extend ELT time.
Acute swelling rat paw carrageenan-induced and adjuvant-induced almonds pepsin hydrolyzate of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and cotton rats induced granulomatous inflammation inhibition, but did not inhibit Development of Phase I and II injuries mouse arthritis. Rat adjuvant-induced arthritis, pepsin hydrolyzate of almond administration two months to extend ELT time, and inhibit the proliferation of the connective tissue of the abdominal artery.
Bitter almond oil also deworming, sterilization, in vitro tests on human roundworm, killing earthworms role, and typhoid, paratyphoid bacilli have antibacterial effect. Almond also has anti-pinworm and trichomoniasis infection, treatment of aplastic anemia role.
Experimental results show that: bitter almond decoction of normal rabbits promote the synthesis of TP function, oleic acid treatment of adult respiratory distress syndrome rabbit pathology results achieved improvement. Tip bitter almond can promote the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant can be tested in the clinical treatment of adult respiratory distress syndrome overall.
Harvest Storage
Conventional varieties harvested in June and July when the fruit is ripe.
Almond still have the longest shelf life of its hard shell. How to buy almonds, looking for shells not split, moldy or stained. Stored in sealed containers almond shells saved time will be longer than those sold in bulk containers, because they are less exposed to high temperature, air and humidity. If you buy bulk almonds box, make sure that there is a rapid turnover of store inventory, and bulk containers sealed to ensure maximum freshness. Almond uniform color to buy, not soft or dry out. In addition, it highlights the smell of almonds, should smell sweet and nutty, if their smell is pungent slightly bitter, it explained that it had broken. Save almonds should be placed in a sealed box, placed in a dry place to avoid the sun.
Literature
From "Annotations of Materia Medica."
1. "Doctors do not record": apricot, mining of May. Its two benevolent murder, can poison dogs. Health Jinshan Chuan Valley.
2. Sun Ssu: almond soup, such as foam did not understand who eat so gas obstruct body heat; soup through those places, moving air-conditioning.
3. "Herbal Supplements": apricot fried thick as cream cheese, served the Run five internal organs, to Tansou.
Almonds
Almonds
4. "Cultivation to money": cure food poisoning almonds, under Lee annoying bitter side to the solution of plum juice. Another side to the blue green juice of service.
5. "The sketches by": apricot, now everywhere with them. In fact, also several species, yellow and apricot gold circle by name. Legend has it that the cloud to grow Jinan County of Split Mountain, that of another person Handi apricot, today nearly all kinds of cooked first. Huang's name and its flat wooden apricot taste of Health, less than gold apricot. Apricots medicine, east to the winner today, still with the kinds of persons to their homes. Armeniaca unbearable medicine. May mining, nuclear break to double benevolent.
6. "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic": the main Keni gas thunder, pharyngitis, under the gas, milk gold sores, chilling Bentun.
7. "Annotations of Materia Medica": tin solution, Hu powder poison.
8. "Doctors do not record": the main shock epilepsy, the heart Fanre, ethos to come, when the line of headache, Jie Ji, eliminate anxious heart, the poison to kill a dog.
9. "Medicinal theory": governance belly Bi nowhere, sweating, the main febrile disease. Under emergency rule heart full of pain, in addition to confidants Worries, treatment lung cough, asthma and promote on. Into aspartic fried, Run cardiopulmonary. Can and cheese soup, YiRun complain. That night the cool air moving.
10. Choi Woo-suk "Cuisine": Li Yan sucking wind silent and not open.
11. "Medical Kai source": In addition to the lungs dry, dry wind that mediastinoscopy treatment. "Indications secret" cloud, lungs gas, digestion, up stagnant air.
12. "Southern Yunnan Materia Medica": stop coughing, phlegm lungs, Run stomach, eliminate flour product, under the gas. Cure rickets insects.
13. "Compendium of Materia Medica": insecticide, cure various sores, swelling, blisters go craniofacial Zha Zhu atmosphere.
14. Li Gao: Almonds next breath, governance gas also. Peach therapy mad, treatment of blood also. Peach, almond all cure constipation, when the blood points. Day is hard stools, line yang also; the night is hard stools, line Yin also. Therefore, dry stool secret imaginary person who is not too vent, pulse floating in the air, with almonds, orange peel; pulse in the blood, with a peach, orange peel; so all those with tangerine peel, hand Yangming and lunar hand as table also. The cardia, the main exchanges, soul sects, the main income closed. Therefore, Wang Yan, lung and colon for the channel also.
Fifteen. "Compendium of Materia Medica": almonds can lower energy spread, so Jieji, scattered wind, reducing gas, moistening, consumer product, treatment with the drug injury is. Boils insecticide, with its poisonous. Governance cold medicine in lung, skin also pointed users, whichever diverge too.
16. "Changsha drug solution": Lung main reservoir of gas, down the line on the meridian at mediastinoscopy, gas against the closure resistance mediastinoscopy born cough, hiding the disease and can not be reduced, due to the swelling of the liver plug, the disease and could not do, so swelling and pain. Almond Lee opened sparse, broken obstruct Jiangni, Bi and Zhichuan good start, swelling and moistening, air conditioning per depression, no to easily here. Its all indications, treatment Keni, tune aphonia, stop hemoptysis, broken vaginal bleeding, insecticidal Ni, except ZHA thorns, open deafness, go head nebula, flat pterygium, corpuscles food, run the large intestine, through urine, various effects, all its drop wiles eliminate turbidity Yu also.
17. "Materia Medica truth": almonds, both divergent cold that it can, in addition to the complex there are next breath of air power, the margin Sheen is scattered evil, bitter the next gas, run it through the Secretariat, Wen Zexuan stagnation sputum. Almond odor is ready, it is where the lung feel cold, and see Asthma Keni, chest full of constipation, headache Fanre with husband Gudu, sore, dog poison, surface poison, poison tin, gold sores, all can modulating. On Higashigaki almonds and Aster, are in addition to Yu Xuanfei open drowning, and a master in the lung's blood, a gas main in the lung; almonds and walnuts, both cure constipation, and a floating pulse asthma cure their constipation, on the day and see; a rule which pulse crazy hair constipation, and see at night. Chu Feng Zhan on almonds, Trichosanthes wilt, are expectorant, and a diverging to remove from the Cou, it's very sensitive virtual table; a clearing from the stomach to remove, hometown virtual who should not. Various drugs had the same appearance, but studies have to distinguish the real, can not examine and scrutinize the fine also. But with almonds to cure constipation, you have to use dried tangerine peel to the rank and file, through the beginning of the gas.
18. "Medicine" sign: Almonds attending chest without water, so the rule cough, short breath and next rule nodes in the chest, heartburn, body swelling.
19. "Sutra card": Ephedra soup, big dragon soup, ephedrine almond soup gypsum licorice, ephedra surgery plus soup, almond Coix Ma licorice soup, Magnolia ephedra soup, clam soup, are ephedra, almond and with the lid open ephedra main bulk its force noted in hair orifices, extending its non-blood contact by almond in the air, then it varies injury to inverse How slow is described in almond ephedra, Guizhi of Utah in peony, jellyfish, shrimp carry it on.
20. "Materia Medica will read": Where Ren Jie Jiang, so (almond) power post lower gas, lower gas phlegm eliminate the cough stops. Can embellish the large intestine, it is available in the large intestine by gas closed. Examination of sex seems to be no pungent almond, Run-down seems to only have the power, without the dissolution of the standing force, but the cold outside the beam, lung obstruct inverse, had to use this bitter drop of the goods, so that gas and tables along side have solutions, so Mahuangtang use it, also the intention ear. Walnuts, almonds, and its nature is similar to a hepatic blood points, a human lung by gas separation. As insecticide detoxification, another can be, with those who care about the gods ears.
twenty one. "New Materia Medica": almonds, sweet, bitter, temperatures can go up or down, Yin Zhongyang also, a small drug. Designed into the lunar lung. Lee is under preparation, in addition to chest gas against breathlessness, stop coughing, phlegm fall, run the large intestine, gas closed will be very difficult, relieves congestion by paralysis.
Prescription selection
1) ephedra soup ("Treatise on"), with the governance of exogenous cold.
Almonds pictures
Almonds pictures (20)
2) three bend soup ("Taiping Benevolent Dispensary Bureau"), with the governance of feeling Feng Xie, stuffy nose, body weight, no voice, or cold injury cold, headache, dizziness, limb arrest quan, cough, sputum, chest full of shortness of breath.
3) Great Dragon soup ("Treatise on"), with a wind-heat attack the lungs, or cold Yu-fire, Yonge in lung cough syndrome.
4) ephedrine almond Coix licorice soup ("Golden Chamber"), with rheumatism in the table cold table dampness syndrome.
5) the treatment of chronic illness colorectal dry knot unfavorable: Almonds 400 g walnuts 300 g (both with soup bubble peeled) Trichosanthis Ren 500 grams (shelled net) total shamisen pound drunk; Fritillaria 400 grams Chen bile star 200 grams (via Three System's) within the same Fritillaria research fine mix of apricot, peach, trichosanthis Sanren. Caulking Divine Comedy 200 g powder for the pill Wu Zi. Every morning at 15 g serving light ginger. ("Square pulse authentic")
6) in the treatment of various sore throat: peeled almonds grind leaching into the light cream powder, sesame oil paint on informal adult children. ("Compendium of Materia Medica")
7) the treatment of nasal sores: apply the pound almond milk; also burning nuclear pressure to take the deposition of oil. ("Emergency preparedness daughter to party")
Drug contraindications
Yin cough and loose stool Jifu.
1) "Annotations of Materia Medica":. "Get good evil fire Astragalus, skullcap, Pueraria fear 蘘 grass.."
2) "Ben Cao Jing Shu": "Yin cough, lungs home with Hot, hot sputum bogey."
3) "Materia Medica is": "Yuan Qi and depression Convicted of use, too afraid to vent their settlement."
4) "by every original": "Wang Xue family is particularly cutting ban."
5) "new Materia Medica": "false and cough due to constipation bogey."
Processing Methods
1. Almond: Picking a net impurity, set in boiling water boil, once the skin from the fish microfold, dip in cold water, take off the seed coat, dried, toss the net.
2. Fried Almonds: Almonds net take home the pot simmer fry slightly yellow, remove and let cool.
Central microscopic identification of seed transverse section:
1. Almond testa cell 1, scattered with oblong, oval, sometimes shell-shaped and the top truncated trapezoidal yellow stone cells high 38-95μm, width 30-57μm. Buried in the parenchyma part of the wall is thinner, more pits and holes ditch; a part of the wall thicker, less or no pits. Species subcutaneous side to cell shrinkage nutrition layer, there is no fine vascular bundles. Endotesta cell 1, containing a yellow substance. Perisperm spent several columns parenchyma cells. Endosperm is a rectangular cell particles within the vague and fatty oil.
2. Wild almond seed coat single stone cells or ~ 5 (or more) scattered in the parenchyma cells in the seed coat, stone cells were class, polygonal, polygonal or spindle-shaped, pits large and dense; lateral view was shell-shaped, round, oval, square type, polygonal or spindle-shaped, radial 27-76μm, bottom width of 18 ~ 60μm, prominent part in the epidermis was half-moon, arched or domed, about accounting for half the height, color lighter, wall thickness 5-8 (-10) μm, layer of grain and grain obviously, bottom wall thickness of 3 ~ 5μm, lamellar no or very little pits close.
3. Mountain almonds wide flat stone cell surface view, were round, oval, polygonal, class square, pits large and dense; lateral view mostly wide shell-shaped, round or flat fusiform, rare long round or oval, high 46 ~ 84μm, width of 34 ~ 68μm.
4. Northeast almond stone cells are mostly higher long shell-shaped, the top small base gradually to large, high 46 ~ 95μm, width of 41 ~ 91μm, pits and holes ditch were fine.
Modern pharmacology
Almonds are also rich in flavonoids (referred to as flavonoids), because of its small molecular weight, easily absorbed through the blood-brain barrier into the adipose tissue, so it has a wide range of human health effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti- allergy, inhibit bacteria, viral suppression, prevention and treatment of liver disease, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood pressure, prevent thrombosis, reduce vascular fragility, enhance immunity, improve cardiovascular blood circulation, anti-tumor.
Drugs (poison) Neo
Overdose of bitter almonds, can occur poisoning, manifested as dizziness, suddenly collapsed, palpitations, headache, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, coma, cyanosis, mydriasis, light responses disappear, slow weak pulse, shortness of breath or slow and irregular ʱ?? If not timely rescue, can cause respiratory failure and death. Oral poisoning apricot leather or apricot root decoction can save, see "apricot skin", "apricot root" section. Amygdalin LD50: rat, mouse intravenous injection of 25g / kg; intraperitoneal injection of 8g / kg. Rats op is 0.6g / kg. MTD: mice, rabbits, dogs both intravenous and intramuscular 3g / kg; oral administration were 0.075g / kg; intravenous injection of human 5g (about 0.07g / kg). Oral administration of bitter almond 55 (about 60g), containing amygdalin about 1.8g (about 0.024g / kg), can be deadly. Oral easy to produce a large number of bitter almond poisoning. First act on the extension of the brain's vomiting, respiratory, and vascular vagus sports center, have aroused excitement, and then into a coma, convulsions, and then throughout the central nervous system paralysis, and death due to respiratory center paralysis. Which is mainly due to hydrogen cyanide poisoning mechanism contained in almonds is very easy with mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase reacts ferric form of cytochrome oxidase - cyanide complexes, so that cell respiration is inhibited, the formation of the organization asphyxia, leading to death. Because the intestinal flora containing β- glucosidase, to normal mice orally 600mg / kg amygdalin, leading to death within 2-5 hours. Check blood CN- reach 2.6-4.5μg / ml; and sterile mice to the same dose of bitter glycosides jen No, no mice died; blood CN- less than 0.4μg / ml. Description of intestinal flora is the root cause amygdalin oral toxicity, its toxicity is about 40 times larger than the intravenous injection. By Ames method, TA100 strain, S-9, Mix (+), amygdalin have lethal effect.
Pharmacokinetics
Amygdalin pharmacokinetics in humans in line with the open two-compartment model. Distribution half-life of intravenous administration of 6.2 minutes; the mean elimination half-life phase is 120.3 minutes; the average clearance rate was 99.3ml / min. Some people think that is the main excretory way glomerular filtration amygdalin. After rapid intravenous injection accelerate Amygdalin 500mg / kg, drawn amygdalin biological half-life tl / 2a was 3.4 minutes; tl / 2B was 4.95 minutes; within 48 hours of rabbit urinary excretion was 71.4% injected dose. Amygdalin mainly in the prototype from the urine excretion in the human body. 6g after intramuscular dose, plasma concentration 180μg / ml.
Food value

Basic Information
Grams of food
Almond not with millet with the food.
Almond not with astragalus, skullcap, Kudzu and other drug use.
Almonds and chestnuts can not: the same food can stomach.
Almonds, Ling and lung: the same food is not conducive to the absorption of the protein.
Almonds can not be the same with dog food: almonds rich in protein, and greasy; hot dog. Both with the food, easy to damage the stomach.
Almond not with pork with water: can cause abdominal pain.
Affordable food
Almonds and milk with food, can beauty emollients.
Therapeutic value
Chinese medicine believes that almonds glycosides, flat. In the lungs, large intestine. Lungs expectorant, cough and asthma, laxative and other functions.
Modern research has found that almonds contain vitamin B17, has anti-cancer effect. [2] 
High nutritional value of almonds. Almonds are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, beneficial to heart health; vitamin E and other antioxidants, can prevent disease and premature aging. Almond contains 27 percent protein, 53 percent fat, 11 percent carbohydrates, 111 milligrams of calcium per hundred grams of almonds, 385 mg of phosphorus, 70 mg of iron, also contains a certain amount of carotene, ascorbic acid and bitter almonds glycosides. According to legend, the Ming Dynasty 林辛士 John Johnson have time out, overnight Qingcheng Hill School, a Taoist to teach him a longevity secret, let him eat seven gold almonds, persisted in eating, will be eligible for a large benefit. The Hanlin comply with this side, persevere until old age is still light as physical health, paying attention, quick thinking, longevity is not bad.







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