Home‎ > ‎Common Herbs 常用草藥‎ > ‎

牛蒡子 Arctium (Arctii Fructus) Niu Bang Zi

Click to get cool Animations for your MySpace profileSet 12 up AnimationSet 12 up Animation 


牛蒡子

 

(菊科二年生草本植物)

 编辑
牛蒡子(因为牛的力量大,故而古代医家又称其为大力子),中药名。为菊科二年生草本植物牛蒡(学名:Arctium lappa L.)的干燥成熟果实。呈长倒卵形,略扁,微弯曲,长5~7mm,宽2~3mm。表面灰褐色,带紫黑色斑点,有数条纵棱,通常中间1~2条较明显。顶端钝圆,稍宽,顶面有圆环,中间具点状花柱残迹;基部略窄,着生面色较淡。果皮较硬,子叶2,淡黄白色,富油性。无臭,味苦后微辛而稍麻舌。秋季果实成熟时采收果序,晒干,打下果实,除去杂质,再晒干。生用或炒用,用时捣碎。具有疏散风热,宣肺透疹,利咽散结,解毒消肿之功效。属于解表药中发散风热药。现代研究,牛蒡子还可用于防治糖尿病肾病;牛蒡果实含牛蒡甙经水解生成的牛蒡甙元具有抗癌活性。
中文学名
牛蒡子
拉丁学名
Fructus Arctii
别    称
恶实、鼠粘子、黍粘子、大力子、毛然然子、黑风子、毛锥子
二名法
Arctium lappa L.
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
合瓣花亚纲
桔梗目
菊科
亚    科
管状花亚科
菜蓟族
牛蒡属
分布区域
分布于东北、西北、中南、西南及河北、山西、山东、江苏等地。
英文名
Great Burdock Achene
用药部位
成熟果实
功效分类
解表药
学    名
Arctium lappa L.
类    别
二年生草本
颜    色
淡黄白色

形态特征编辑

二年生草本,具粗大的肉质直根,长达15厘米,径可
达2厘米,有分枝支根。直立,高达2米,粗壮,基部直径达2厘米,通常带紫红或淡紫红色,有多数高起的条棱,分枝斜升,多数,全部茎枝被稀疏的乳突状短毛及长蛛丝毛并混杂以棕黄色的小腺点。基生叶宽卵形,长达30厘米,宽达21厘米,边缘稀疏的浅波状凹齿或齿尖,基部心形,有长达32厘米的叶柄,两面异色,上面绿色,有稀疏的短糙毛及黄色小腺点,下面灰白色或淡绿色,被薄绒毛或绒毛稀疏,有黄色小腺点,叶柄灰白色,被稠密的蛛丝状绒毛及黄色小腺点,但中下部常脱毛。茎生叶与基生叶同形或近同形,具等样的及等量的毛被,接花序下部的叶小,基部平截或浅心形。
头状花序多数或少数在茎枝顶端排成疏松的伞房花序或圆锥状伞房花序,花序梗粗壮。总苞卵形或卵球形,直径1.5-2厘米。总苞片多层,多数,外层三角状或披针状钻形,宽约1毫米,中内层披针状或线状钻形,宽1.5-3毫米;全部苞近等长,长约1.5厘米,顶端有软骨质钩刺。小花紫红色,花冠长1.4厘米,细管部长8毫米,檐部长6毫米,外面无腺点,花冠裂片长约2毫米。
瘦果倒长卵形或偏斜倒长卵形,长5-7毫米,宽2-3毫米,两侧压扁,浅褐色,有多数细脉纹,有深褐色的色斑或无色斑。冠毛多层,浅褐色;冠毛刚毛糙毛状,不等长,长达3.8毫米,基部不连合成环,分散脱落。花果期6-9月。[1] 

生长习性编辑

喜温暖湿润气候,耐寒、耐热性颇强。生于山坡、山谷、林缘林中、灌木丛中、河边潮湿地、村庄路旁或荒地,海拔750-3500米。

物种分布编辑

分布于东北、西北、中南、西南及台湾的台南、河北、山西、山东、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、广西等地。[2] 

栽培技术编辑

繁殖播种

种子繁殖,播种期南方于秋季8-9月;北方于春季3-4月;夏季亦可播种。如遇干旱,出苗不易整齐;秋如果太晚,第2年则不能开花结实。直播或育苗移栽法,以直播为主。
播种前,将种子放入30~40℃的温水中浸泡12小时左右,过后涝出种子晾至不粘手时再播,这样有利于出苗。在整好地的畦面上按40~50cm的行距开浅沟进行条播,将种子(播种时最好将种子与火土灰混合成种子灰)均匀地撒在沟内;或按40~50cm的行距、33~35cm的株距穴播,每穴点入种子4~5粒。播后覆土2~3cm即可。

选地整地

牛蒡子对土壤环境要求不严,但以阳光充足、土层疏松、土壤肥沃、排水良好的地块种植为好。对选好的地块进行深翻,然后耙细,整平,结合整地每亩施入腐熟厩肥2500kg作底肥,再作成l~1.5m宽的高畦,四周开好排水沟。

田间管理

待苗有2-3片真叶时进行间苗、补苗,6-7月中耕除草,结合施粪肥1-2次,现蕾前重施1次磷、钾肥。冬季采培土,保苗越冬。抽茎后培土壅根,防止倒伏。幼苗期或第2年春季返青后要进行中耕松土,同时前期要特别注意除草,若杂草过多,可用8%高效盖草能防除,叶子封行后停止中耕。当苗长至4~5片真叶时,开始进行间苗,方法是拔掉病苗、弱小苗,留下壮苗、大苗,如有缺苗处,可选择间下的苗带土移栽;苗长至6片真叶时,条播者按株距25cm左右定苗2~3株,穴播者每穴留壮苗3~4株。基生叶铺开时,要及时追肥,每亩施入人畜粪水1000kg。植株开始抽茎后,每亩追施人畜粪水1500kg或尿素5kg和过磷酸钙10kg,促使分枝增多和籽粒饱满。另外,雨季要注意排水,防止积水烂根。

病虫害防治

病害有白粉病,发病初期喷50%甲基托布津1000倍液。褐斑病,5-6月发病,可喷代森锌65%可湿性粉剂600倍液。另有花叶病为害。虫害有食子虫、蚜虫、红蜘蛛,以及银纹夜蛾、地老虎等为害。
1、病害牛蒡灰斑病(Cercosporaacti-ambrosiaeHist.)主要为害叶片,病斑近圆形1~5mm,褐色至暗褐色,后期中心部分转为灰白色,潮湿时两面生淡黑色霉状物,即病原物的子实体。防治方法:秋季清洁田园,彻底清除病株残体。合理密植,及时中耕除草,控施氮肥。在发病初期喷1:1:150的波尔多液或75%百菌清可湿性粉剂500倍液。
牛蒡轮纹(AscochytaLappaeKabetBubL.)叶片上病斑近圆形2~12mm,暗褐色,以后中心变为灰白色,边缘不整齐,稍有轮纹,上生小黑点,即病原菌的分生孢子器。防治方法同灰斑病。牛蒡白粉病〔Sphaerothecafuliginea(Schlecht)Poll.〕,叶两面生白色粉状斑,后期粉状斑上长出黑点,即病菌的闭囊壳。防治方法:彻底清除病株残体,减少越冬菌源。发病初期喷50%甲基托布津可湿性粉剂1000倍液。
2.害虫主要有红花指管蚜〔Uroleucongobonis(Matsumura)〕和菊小长管蚜(MacrosiphoniellaSanborni(Gillette))。为害茎叶、果实,严重时可造成绝产,可喷40%氧化乐果乳油1000倍液、或10%杀灭菊酯乳油3000倍液、或50%灭蚜松乳油1000~1500倍液进行防治。连纹夜蛾〔Plusiacrassisigna(Warren)〕,以幼虫咀食叶片,造成缺刻孔洞,可喷90%敌百虫晶体800~1000倍液防治。棉铃虫(HeliothisarmigeraHübner)以幼虫为害叶片,使叶片造成缺刻,严重时花和幼果全部被害,造成大幅度减产。防治方法:采取冬耕冬灌,消灭越冬蛹,减少来年虫源。利用20w黑光灯诱杀成虫。幼虫3龄以前用90%敌百虫晶体1000倍液、或25%亚胺硫磷300~400倍液进行防治。地老虎:幼虫咬食叶片或心叶,可用敌百虫毒饵诱杀,或早晨人工扑杀。
蚂蚁:食主根,严重时成片死亡。可用80%敌敌畏乳油2000倍液浇灌根围;也可用动物骨头诱杀。

采收

次年春夏季当种子黄里透黑时将果枝剪下,采收后将果序摊开曝晒,充分干燥后用木板打出果实种子,除净杂质晒至全干后即成商品。根挖出后洗净,刮去黑皮即可菜用,或晒干药用。
注意:种子成熟期很不一致,故应分期采收。如久不采收,果实过分成熟,易被风吹落。由于总苞上有许多坚硬的钩刺,采摘时应在早晨和阴天刺软时进行,不致伤手;若晴天采摘,则应带上手套。

药用价值编辑

性味归经

味辛;苦;性寒。归肺;胃经。
牛蒡子-原植物(图1)牛蒡子-原植物(图1)
⑴《别录》:“味辛,平。”
⑵《本草拾遗》:“味苦。”
⑶《珍珠囊》:“辛,纯阳。”
⑷《医学启源》:“《主治秘要》云:辛,温。”
⑸《珍珠囊补遗药性赋》:“味辛平。性微寒,无毒。降也,阳也。
⑹《本草经疏》:“味辛苦,气寒,无毒。阳中之阴,升多于降,阳也。入手太阴、足阳明经。”

主治功效

牛蒡子-原植物(图2)牛蒡子-原植物(图2)
疏散风热;清热解毒透疹;宣肺利咽散肿。
风热感冒、温病初起;风热或肺热咳嗽、咯痰不畅;咽喉肿痛;斑疹不透;麻疹初期,疹出不畅及风疹瘙痒;疮疡肿毒及痄腮等。生用可润肠通便,热毒咽喉红肿疼痛,兼有热结便秘尤宜。
用于热毒疮肿尚未溃者,常与地丁,野菊花等清热解毒药配伍。

用法用量

【内服】:煎汤,5-10g,入煎剂宜打碎,炒后寒性减;或入散剂。
【外用】:适量,煎汤含漱。

用药禁忌

该品能滑肠,气虚便溏者忌用。《本草经疏》:痘疮家惟宜于血热便秘之证,若气虚色白大便自利或泄泻者,慎勿服之。痧疹不忌泄泻,故用之无妨。痈疽已溃,非便秘不宜服。

化学成分

果实含牛蒡甙(arctiin),水解生成牛蒡甙元(arctigenin)及葡萄糖(glucose)。又含罗汉松脂酚(matairesinol),络石甙元(trachelogenin),倍半木质素(sesquiligenan)AL-D及 AL-F。种子含牛蒡甙,牛蒡酚(lap-paol)A、B、C、D、E、F、H。又含脂肪油,其中脂肪酸成分有:花生酸(arachic acid),硬脂酸(steraic acid),棕榈酸(palmitic acid)和亚油酸(linoleic acid)。
1.《别录》:明目补中,除风伤。
2.《药性论》:除诸风,去丹毒,主明目,利腰脚,又散诸结节、筋骨烦热毒
3.《食疗本草》:明耳目,利腰膝,通利小便。
4.《本草拾遗》:主风毒肿,诸痿。
5.《珍珠囊》:润肺散气,主风毒肿,利咽膈。
6.李东垣:治风湿瘾疹,咽喉风热,散诸肿疮疡之毒,利凝滞腰膝之气。
7.《纲目》:消斑疹毒。
8.《本草经疏》:恶实,为散风除热解毒之要药。辛能散结,苦能泄热,热结散则脏气清明,故明目而补中。风之所伤,卫气必壅,壅则发热,辛凉解散则表气和,风无所留矣。藏器主风毒肿诸痿;元素主润肺、散结气、利咽膈、去皮肤风、通十二经络者,悉此意耳。故用以治瘾疹、痘疮,尤获奇验。
9.《药品化义》:牛蒡子能升能降,力解热毒。味苦能清火,带辛能疏风,主治上部风痰,面目浮肿,咽喉不利,诸毒热壅,马刀瘰疬,颈项痰核,血热痘,时行疹子,皮肤瘾疹,凡肺经郁火,肺经风热,悉宜用此。
10.《本草求真》:牛蒡子,今人止言解毒,凡遇疮疡痈肿、痘疹等症,无不用此投治,然犹未绎其义。凡人毒气之结,多缘外感风寒,营气不从,逆于肉里,故生痈毒。牛蒡味辛且苦,既能降气下行,复能散风除热,是以感受风邪热毒而见面目浮肿,咳嗽痰壅,咽间肿痛,疮疡斑疹,及一切臭毒、痧闭、痘疮紫黑、便闭等症,无不借此表解里清。但性冷滑利,多服则中气有损,且更令表益虚矣。至于脾虚泄泻为尤忌焉。
11.《本草正义》:牛蒡之用,能疏散风热,起发痘疹,而善通大便,苟非热盛,或脾气不坚实者,投之辄有泄泻,则辛泄苦降,下行之力为多。洁古作温,景岳又谓其降中有升,皆非真谛。《别录》称其明目,则风热泄而目自明。补中者,亦邢热去而正自安。除风伤者,以风热言之也。其根茎,则濒湖《纲目》谓之苦寒,《别录》主治,皆除热通利之意。盖其功力,本与子相近,而寒凉疏泄之性过之,皆以清热泄导为治,凡非实火,未可妄投。凡肺邪之宜于透达,而不宜于抑降者,如麻疹初起,犹未发泄,早投清降,则恒有遏抑气机,反致内陷之虞。惟牛蒡则清泄之中,自能透发,且温热之病,大便自通,亦可少杀其势,故牛蒡最为麻疹之专药。
12.《本草乘雅》:此秉风大动摇之用,故抽水土之力独胜。味辛气平,为风木乃制为用矣。则凡病从风生,或因风寒薄郁乃成痤者,取之捷如影响,设属形层之外与上部者,功力尤胜。此以承制之品,宣助肝木,便无太过之失,厥受和平之益矣。
13.《药性解》:牛蒡子,味辛,性温,无毒,入十二经。主风湿瘾疹盈肌、咽喉风热不利、诸肿疮疡之毒、腰膝凝滞之气,润肺止嗽,散气消痰一名恶实,一名鼠粘子。
14.《药鉴》:气寒,味苦辛,无毒。苦能解毒退热,而利咽喉之痛,并甘桔为妙。辛能达表润肌,而散疮疡之肿,同解毒尤良。合气与味,又治腰膝凝滞之血。若痘出不快者,即用麻黄、桔梗汁煮之,则痘不时起发矣。
15.《景岳全书》:味苦辛,降中有升。治风毒斑疹诸瘘,散疮疡肿毒喉痹及腰膝凝寒痹滞之气,以其善走十二经而解中有散也。
16.《本草备要》:一名鼠粘子,一名恶实。泻热解毒。辛平。润肺解热,散结除风,利咽膈,理痰嗽,消斑疹,利二便,行十二经,散诸肿疮疡之毒,利腰膝凝滞之气。性冷而滑利,痘证虚寒泄泻者忌服。实如葡萄而褐色,酒拌蒸,待有霜拭去用。根苦寒,竹刀刮净,绞汁,蜜和服,治中风,汁出乃愈。捣和猪脂,贴疮肿及反花疮。肉反出如花状。

药用配伍

1.配浮萍,共奏宣散风热,透发疹毒,祛风止痒之妙用,用治外感风热,咽喉肿痛等症,麻疹透发不畅诸症,风热隐疹瘙痒等症。
2.配山药,一补一清,清补合法,故宣肺气,清肺热,健脾胃,祛痰止咳之力增强,用治脾胃不健,肺气虚弱,痰湿内生,停阻气道,以致胸膈满闷,咳嗽气短,喉中水鸡声,身倦乏力等症,慢性支气管炎支气管哮喘偏于虚者可用。
3.配连翘,并走于上,清热解毒,消炎止痛,祛风止痒,宣透疹毒之力增强,用治热聚上焦,以致口舌生疮,牙龈肿痛,咽喉肿痛等症,痈肿疮疡诸症,风热痒疹,斑疹等症。
4.配玄参,相须为用,解毒利咽之功倍增,用治外感发热所致的咽喉红肿疼痛,如急性扁桃体炎咽喉炎等。
5.配甘草,用治肺经风热或肺经郁火,热毒上炎的咽喉肿痛,如急性咽炎,扁桃体炎等。
6.配薄荷,共奏疏风清热,利咽之功,用治外感风热。
7.配桔梗,疏风宣肺之力大增,可用治外感风热,咳嗽咯痰不利及咽喉肿痛等症。

临床应用

牛蒡子-原植物(图4)牛蒡子-原植物(图4)
1.用于风热感冒,咽喉肿痛。该品辛散苦泄,寒能清热,故有疏散风热,宣肺利咽之效,用治风热感冒、咽喉肿痛,常 配银花、连翘、荆芥、桔梗等同用,如银翘散;若风热壅盛,咽喉肿痛,热毒较甚者,可与大黄、薄荷、荆芥、防风等同用, 如牛蒡汤;若风热咳嗽,痰多不畅者,常配荆芥、桔梗、前胡、甘草。
2.用于麻疹不透。该品清泄透散,能疏散风热,透泄热毒而促使疹子透发,崐用治麻疹不透或透而复隐,常配薄荷、荆芥、蝉蜕、紫草等同用,如透疹汤。
3.用于痈肿疮毒,痄腮喉痹。该品辛苦性寒,于升浮之中又有清降之性,能外散风热,内泄其毒,有清热解毒,消肿利咽之效,且性偏滑利,兼可通利二便,故可用治风热外袭,火毒内结,痛肿疮毒。兼有便秘者,常与大黄、芒硝栀子、连翘、薄荷等同用;该品配瓜蒌,连翘,天花粉、青皮等同用,又可用治肝郁化火,胃热壅络之乳痈证,如瓜蒌牛蒡汤;该品配玄参、黄芩、黄连、板兰根等同用,还可用治瘟毒发颐、痄腮喉痹等热毒之证,如普济消毒饮
4.预防猩红热:取牛蒡子炒研成粉,过筛储存备用。2~5岁每次1克,5~9岁每次1.5克,10~15岁每次2克,成人每次3克,每天3次,饭后用温开水送服,共服2天。流行期间,除服药预防外,仍应注意控制传染源,切断传播途径等。临床观察344例,发病者7名;服药后12天内未发病者,计327例,占98%。一般在接触后3日内服药预防效果较佳,6日后服药的预防效果不佳。如再次接触需重新再服1次。服药中未发现不良反应。
5.治疗面神经麻痹:以牛蒡纠偏汤为主,随证加味,每日2次,水煎服。
6.治疗咽喉肿痛:牛蒡子、板蓝根、桔梗、薄荷、甘草。水煎服。

药理作用

牛蒡子煎剂对肺炎双球菌有显著抗菌作用。水浸剂对多种致病性皮肤真菌有不同程度的抑制作用。牛蒡子有解热、利尿、降低血糖、抗肿瘤作用。牛蒡子苷有抗肾病变作用,对实验性肾病大鼠可抑制尿蛋白排泄增加,并能改善血清生化指标。[3] 

药方选录

牛蒡子-原植物(图6)牛蒡子-原植物(图6)
1.牛蒡汤(《证治准绳·幼科》),用治小儿伤风,发热烦躁,鼻塞气喘,痰嗽惊啼,及诸疮赤紫,丹毒,咽喉肿痛。
2.牛蒡甘桔汤(《外科正宗》),用治颐毒表邪已尽,耳项结肿,微热不红而疼痛者。
3.栀子清肝汤(《医部全录·头门》),用治少阳经虚,肝火风热上攻而致的鬓疽,痛连颈项胸乳太阳穴等处,或寒热晡甚,胸满口苦舌干。
4.启关散(《普济方》),用治风热客搏上焦,悬壅肿痛。
5.牛蒡解肌汤(《疡科心得集》),用治头面风热,或颈项痰毒,风热牙痛。
6.治头痛方(《方脉正宗》),用治头痛连睛,并目昏涩不明。
7.治风热瘾疹方(《养生必用方》)。
8.治喉痹方:牛蒡子六分,马蔺子八分。上二味捣为散,每空腹以暖水服方寸匕,渐加至 一匕半,日再。(《广济方》)。
9.治咽膈不利方:牛蒡子(微炒)、荆芥穗各一两,甘草(炙)半两。并为末,食后夜卧,汤点二钱服,当缓取效。(《本草衍义》)。
10.治风热闭塞咽喉,遍身浮肿:牛蒡子一合,半生半熟,杵为末,热酒调下一钱匕。(《经验方》)
中药材-牛蒡子(图5)中药材-牛蒡子(图5)
11.治瘄疹不起透:牛蒡子(研细)五钱,柽柳煎汤,调下立透。(《本草汇言》)
12. 治痰厥头痛:旋覆花一两,牛蒡子一两(微炒)。上药捣细罗为散,不计时侯,以腊面茶清调下一钱。(《圣惠方》)
13.治风热成历节,攻手指作赤肿麻木,甚则攻肩背两膝,遇暑热或大便秘即作:牛蒡子三两(隔纸炒),新豆豉(炒),羌活(去芦)各一两,干生地黄二两半,黄耆一两半(蜜炙)。上为细末,汤调二钱服,空心食前,日三服。(《本事方》牛蒡子散
14.治风龋牙痛:牛蒡子炒,煎水含漱吐之。(《延年方》) 15.治吹乳:鼠粘子加麝、酒吞下。(《袖珍方》)
16.治便痈:鼠粘子三钱炒,细末,入蜜一匙,净朴硝一匙,温酒空心服。(《袖珍方》)[4] 

性状鉴别编辑

瘦果长倒卵形,两端平截,略扁微弯,长5-7mm,直径2-3mm。表面灰褐色或淡灰褐色,具多数细小黑斑,并有明显的纵棱线。先端较宽,有一圆环,中心有点状凸起的花柱残迹;基部狭窄,有圆形果柄痕。质硬,折断后可见子叶两片,淡黄白色,富汕性。果实无臭;种子气特异,味苦微辛,稍久有麻舌感。以粒大、饱满、色灰褐者为佳。

显微鉴别

瘦果横切面:外果皮为1列大小不等的类方形薄壁细胞,壁弯曲,多破裂;外被角质层。中果皮厚薄不匀,细胞壁稍厚,棕黄色或暗棕色,微木化;于棱脊处常有小形维管束。内果皮狭窄,为棕黄色的颓废细胞层,细胞界限不清,为1列草酸钙方晶所充填。种皮最外为1列棚产太细胞,多扭曲,排列紧密,长75-120μm,直径10-30μm,壁甚厚,层纹明显;营养层为数列薄壁细胞,常颓废不清。胚乳细胞数列,内含脂肪油。子叶细胞充满糊粉粒及脂肪油,并含有细小的草酸钙簇晶,偶见小方晶。

理化鉴别

(1)取脱脂该品粉末2g,加乙醇20ml温浸1h,滤过。滤液作以下试验:
①取滤液2ml,加入1%三氯化铝的乙醇溶液,则呈蓝绿色。(检查木脂素类)
②取滤液2ml,加入等体积的3%碳酸钠水溶液,于水浴上煮沸3-5min,放冷,加入重氮化试剂,则溶液呈红色。(检查木脂素类)
(2)取该品粗粉5g,加稀盐酸水溶液(pH1.0-2.0)10ml。浸泡过夜,滤过。取滤液3份各2ml,置3只试管中,分别加碘化汞钾试剂、碘化饿钾试剂、硅钨酸试剂各1滴,则分别产生白色、棕红色及白色沉淀。(检查生物碱
(3)取该品粉末少量,置紫外光灯(365nm)下观察,显绿色荧光。[5] 

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/97332/97332.htm

Arctium (Asteraceae biennial herb) Edit
Arctium (because the power of large cattle, therefore the ancient physicians also known as the strong promoter), Chinese name. Asteraceae biennial herbs burdock (scientific name: Arctium lappa L.) dried ripe fruit. Elongated obovate, slightly flat, slightly curved, long 5 ~ 7mm, width 2 ~ 3mm. Surface taupe with purple spots, several longitudinal edges, usually in the middle of 1 to 2 more apparent. Top obtuse, slightly wider, the top surface has a ring in the middle with a dotted style remnants; base slightly narrower, lighter complexion with students. Peel hard, cotyledons 2, yellowish white, rich oil. Odorless, slightly spicy and slightly bitter after Ma tongue. Autumn harvest ripe fruit Infructescences, dried, lay the fruit, remove impurities, and then dried. Students with or fried, mashed with time. Having evacuation wind-heat, Xuanfei Touzhen, pharynx Sanjie, swelling detoxification effect. Relieving drugs belonging divergent wind-heat drug. Modern research, Arctium can be used for prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy; burdock fruit contains burdock burdock glycosides produced by the hydrolysis of aglycone have anticancer activity.
Chinese scientific name Arctium Latin name Fructus Arctii aka real evil, rat sticky child, millet stick child, vigorously son, Mao Ran Ran son, a dark and stormy son, Mao awl two law Arctium lappa L. boundary Flora door dicotyledonous Angiosperms Gang Plants Subclass gamopetalous Asia outline campanulales Branch Ju Ke Yake tubular flowers family subfamily genus Burdock cynareae Distribution area located in the northeast, northwest, South, Southwest, and Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong, Jiangsu and other places. English name Great Burdock Achene drug site classified relieving effect ripe fruit pharmaceutically name Arctium lappa L. categories biennial yellowish white color
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 cultivation techniques for the distribution of species breeding sow ▪ ▪ ▪ site preparation field management ▪ pest control ▪ harvested 5 medicinal value ▪ ▪ Indications of flavor to the effectiveness of drug contraindications ▪ Dosage ▪ ▪ chemical composition Clinical application compatibility ▪ ▪ ▪ pharmaceutical pharmacological effects ▪ Prescription selection 6 microscopic identification character identification ▪ ▪ physical and chemical identification
Morphological characteristics editor
Biennial, with thick fleshy taproot, up to 15 cm, the diameter can be
Up to 2 cm, with branches rootlets. Stems erect, up to two meters, stout, base diameter of 2 cm, usually with purple or purple red, with most high from the edge of the strip, branched ramp, the majority of all stems and branches are sparse and papillary Shorthair Long silk mixed with brown hair and small glands. Basal leaves broadly ovate, up to 30 cm, 21 cm wide, shallow edge sparse wavy concave tooth or tooth tip, base heart-shaped, there are up to 32 cm of petiole, two color, green above, there are sparse short coarse hair and yellow glandular dots, white or pale green below, thin hair or hair is sparse, there are yellow glandular dots, gray petioles, are densely arachnoid villi and yellow glandular dots, but the lower part of the regular hair removal. Stem leaves with basal leaves nearly the same shape or the same shape, equipment and so kind and the same amount of hair to be, then the lower part of the inflorescence Ye, base truncated or shallowly cordate.
Capitulum majority or minority in the top of stems arranged in lax corymb or conical corymbs, peduncle stout. Involucre ovate or ovoid, 1.5-2 cm in diameter. Bracts multilayer most outer triangular or diamond-shaped lanceolate, width of 1 mm, the inner lanceolate or linear subulate, 1.5-3 mm wide; bracts all subequal, ca. 1.5 cm, the top cartilaginous barbs. Purple flowers, corolla 1.4 cm long, thin tube 8 mm Minister, Minister eaves 6 mm, outside no glands, corolla lobes ca. 2 mm.
Achene pour down long oval or long oval skew, 5-7 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, flattened sides, Hazel, a majority of fine veins, with dark brown spots or no spots. Crested multilayer, Hazel; crested just rough hairy, unequal, up to 3.8 mm, the base is not even a ring, decentralized off. Fruit period from June to September. [1] 
Growth habit editor
Hi warm and humid climate, cold, heat resistance is quite strong. Hillslopes, valley, forest edge, forest, bush, river and wet ground, the village street or wasteland, 750-3500 meters above sea level.
Edit the distribution of species
Located in the northeast, northwest, South, Southwest and Taiwan Tainan, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangxi and other places. [2] 
Cultivation Technical Editor
Reproduction sowing

Seed propagation, sowing the South in the fall from August to September; the north in the spring from March to April; summer can be planted. In case of drought, emergence neat easy; if too late autumn, the first two years can not be flowering and fruiting. Live or seedling transplanting method to live based.
Before sowing, the seeds were placed in 30 ~ 40 ℃ warm water soak for about 12 hours, after the flood of re-sowing the seeds when dry to sticky, it is a good emergence. On the whole good places Qimian spaced by 40 to 50cm of open shallow trench were drilling the seed (seed sowing is best to mix ash and fire Tuhui into seeds) evenly spread in the trench; or press 40 ~ 50cm line spacing, spacing 33 ~ 35cm of Dibble, select seeds per hole 4 to 5. After sowing the casing 2 ~ 3cm can.
Site preparation

Arctium strict requirements on the soil environment, but with plenty of sunshine, soil loose, fertile soil, good drainage and land cultivation as well. Selected plots of deep plowing, then rake thin, leveling, with site preparation into rotted manure 2500kg per acre as base, then made Takakuro l ~ 1.5m wide, surrounded by open drains well.
Field management

Were to be thinning seedlings have 2-3 true leaves, fill the gaps, from June to July weeding, combining manure applied 1-2 times, before squaring re-applied once phosphorus and potassium. Winter earth mining, seedling winter. After pumping stem earth obstruct roots prevent lodging. Seedling stage or the second in the spring after turning green To Row crop cultivators, while paying particular attention to the early weeding, weeds if excessive, can be 8% efficient Gallant Control, after leaf closure line stop cultivating. When the seedlings grow to 4-5 true leaves begin thinning, is to unplug the diseased seedlings, weak seedlings, leaving the seedlings, seedlings, if Deficiency Department, under the inter-selectable with soil transplanting seedlings; seedlings grow to 6 true leaves, drill presses the left and right spacing 25cm Dingmiao 2 to 3, Dibble who seedling per hole to stay three to four. Basal leaves when spread to timely fertilizer applied per acre of water into Ren Chufen 1000kg. After the plant began pumping stems per acre topdressing Ren Chufen water 1500kg or urea and superphosphate 5kg 10kg, prompting an increase in branches and full grain. In addition, the rainy season should pay attention to drainage, prevent water rot.
Pest Control

Powdery mildew disease, early onset of spraying 50% thiophanate-methyl 1000 times. Spot, May-June the disease, can be sprayed Zineb 65% WP 600 times. Another mosaic disease damage. There Gallic insect pests, aphids, spider mites, and looper, cutworms and other damage.
1, gray leaf spot disease burdock (Cercosporaacti-ambrosiaeHist.) Major damage leaves, lesion suborbicular 1 ~ 5mm, brown to dark brown, late into the central portion of gray, pale green when wet black mold shaped sides, namely pathogen fruiting matter. Control methods: Fall clean the garden, the elimination of diseased plant debris. Rational close planting, timely weeding, control nitrogen. In the early stages, spray 1: 1: 150 Bordeaux solution or 75% chlorothalonil WP 500 times.
Burdock Physalospora (AscochytaLappaeKabetBubL.) Nearly circular spots on the leaves 2 ~ 12mm, dark brown, after the center becomes gray, jagged, slightly Physalospora, black specks on the green, that the pathogen pycnidia. Control methods with gray leaf spot disease. Burdock powdery mildew grow black spots on both sides of the green leaf white powdery spots, powdery spots late [(Schlecht) Poll. Sphaerothecafuliginea], namely bacteria cleistothecia. Control methods: the elimination of diseased plant debris, reduce overwintering bacteria source. Early onset of spraying 50% thiophanate-methyl WP 1000 times.
2. Safflower pests mainly refers aphid [Uroleucongobonis (Matsumura)] and chrysanthemum small aphid (MacrosiphoniellaSanborni (Gillette)). Damage stems and leaves, fruits, severe cases can cause never produced, can be sprayed 40% omethoate EC 1000 times, or 10% fenvalerate EC 3000 times, or 50% off the pine aphid EC carried out from 1000 to 1500 times Prevention. Even Looper [Plusiacrassisigna (Warren)], the larvae eat the blade tip, causing notch holes, can be sprayed 90% trichlorfon crystal 800 to 1000 times control. Bollworm (HeliothisarmigeraHübner) larvae damage leaves, causing the blade notch, flowers and young fruit all serious when the victim, causing a substantial cut. Control methods: take winter plowing winter irrigation, destroy overwintering pupae, reduce insect coming year. Use 20w black light trap and kill adults. 3rd instar larvae to prevent and treat previously with 90% crystal trichlorfon 1000 times, or 25% phosmet 300 to 400 times. Cutworm: larvae bite blade or leaf, available trichlorfon bait trapping, or artificial culling morning.
Ant: food taproot, serious death into a film. Available 80% dichlorvos EC 2000 times watering rhizosphere; also used animal bones trapping.
Harvest

The following year in spring and summer when the seed yellow seeped black fruiting branches cut the harvest will infructescence spread exposure, after thoroughly dried fruit seeds with wooden play, in addition to the net impurity sun to dry Serve merchandise. After the root dug wash, scrape the black can be vegetable or dried medicinal.
Note: The seed maturity very inconsistent, it should be phased harvest. Such as long-suppressed harvest, fruit too ripe, easily blown off. Since there are many hard barbs on total bracts, should be picked in the morning and cloudy soft spines When not injured hand; if sunny picking, you should wear gloves.
Medicinal value edit
Tropism of taste

Weixin; bitter; cold. In the lungs; stomach.
Arctium - original plant (Figure 1)
Arctium - original plant (Figure 1)
⑴ "Do not record": "spicy, flat."
⑵ "Herbal Supplements": "bitter."
⑶ "pearl sac": "Sim, Chun-yang."
⑷ "Medical Kai source": "" Indications Miyao, "says: acrid, warm."
⑸ "pearl sac Addendum medicinal Fu": "spicy level slightly cold, non-toxic drop also, the sun also...
⑹ "Ben Cao Jing Shu": "taste hard, cold air, non-toxic yin yang, up more than down, Yang also start lunar, Meridian..."
Indications effect

Arctium - original plant (Fig. 2)
Arctium - original plant (Fig. 2)
Evacuation of wind-heat; detoxification rash; Xuanfei scattered swollen pharynx.
Fengreganmao, febrile disease early; wind-heat or Hyperactivity cough, expectoration poor; sore throat; rash impervious; early measles, rubella itching rash and poor; sores and mumps and the like. Students can use laxative, heat toxin throat swelling and pain, both hot junction constipation particularly appropriate.
Not swollen for heat canker collapse, often with ground Ding, wild chrysanthemum detoxification drug compatibility.
Dosage

[Oral]: Jiantang, 5-10g, should break into the decoction, fried cold minus; or into powder.
[External]: amount, Jiantang mouthwash.
Drug contraindications

The product can Hua Chang, Qi loose stools were hanged. "Ben Cao Jing Shu": smallpox home but appropriate for blood heat constipation of the card, if the Qi and the color white stools or diarrhea are self-interested, Shen Wu of service. Fever rash does not avoid diarrhea, so use it anyway. Ulcer has collapse, non-constipation should not be served.
chemical composition

Fruit contains burdock glycosides (arctiin), hydrolysis burdock aglycone (arctigenin) and glucose (glucose). Podocarpus and fat-containing phenol (matairesinol), network Stone aglycone (trachelogenin), times half lignin (sesquiligenan) AL-D and AL-F. Burdock seed containing glycosides, burdock phenol (lap-paol) A, B, C, D, E, F, H. It contains fatty oils, wherein the fatty acid composition are: Peanut acid (arachic acid), stearic acid (steraic acid), palmitic acid (palmitic acid) and linoleic acid (linoleic acid).
1. "Do not record": eyesight fill in, in addition to wind damage.
2. "resistance": In addition to all the wind, go erysipelas, main eyesight, waist and feet, and scattered all nodules, bones Fanre poison.
3. "Herbal": clear eyes and ears, Lee lassitude, Tom Lee urine.
4. "Herbal Supplements": the main wind drug swelling, Zhu atrophy.
5. "pearl sac": lungs bulk gas, the main wind drug swelling, Liyan diaphragm.
6. Li Dongyuan: rheumatism urticaria, throat hot wind, scattered all swollen sore poison, Lee lassitude of stagnant air.
7. "outline": Consumers spotted poison.
8. "Ben Cao Jing Shu": evil real, as scattered wind heat in addition to the drug detoxification. Sim can Sanjie, pain can discharge heat, heat in the dirty air Qingming scattered, so eyesight and fill in. Wind injured, Wei gas will obstruct, obstruct 则 fever, Xinliang disband the table is gas and wind carry nothing 留. Possession of all main wind drug swelling atrophy; element main lungs, gas Sanjie, Liyan diaphragm, to the skin, the wind, through the twelve meridians who learned the meaning ears. Therefore, in order to rule urticaria, smallpox, especially eligible odd experience.
9. "Drugs of justice": Arctium can go up or down, the force antipyretic drugs. Bitter can clear fire, with Sim can Shufeng, attending the upper wind phlegm, face swelling, throat unfavorable, various toxic heat obstruct, saber scrofula, neck nuclear sputum, blood heat pox, when the line of rash, skin rash addiction, where the lung by Yu fire, lung by wind-heat, noted this is appropriate.
10. "Materia Medica truth": Arctium, most people stop words detoxify, Whenever sore carbuncles, smallpox embolism, no vote without this rule, and then unravel its meaning is still unknown. Mortal knot gas, more edge exogenous cold, not from the gas business, inverse to the meat, so the raw carbuncle poison. Burdock spicy and bitter, both lower gas down, scattered wind energy complex in addition to heat, toxic heat is feeling Feng Xie and meet head edema, cough, phlegm, between the pharynx and throat, sore rash, and all foul poisonous, Closed fever, smallpox Zihei, then close embolism, whereby all tables in the clear solution. But of cold sliding profits, more clothes in the air undermine, and even more beneficial virtual table carry on. As spleen diarrhea is especially avoid Yan.
11. "Herbal justice": burdock purposes, to evacuate air heat, from the hair smallpox, and good pass stool, Gou non-excessive heat, or temper is not solid who throw Noir has diarrhea, then oct vent bitter drop, downstream The force of more. Jie ancient as temperature, King Yue and claims that fall in liters, none of the essence. "Do not record" called eyesight, the wind and heat vent and mesh evident. Fill in who also Xing heat to and positive self-security. In addition to wind the injured to wind hot words too. Its roots, is near Lake "outline" that the bitter cold, "Do not record" hot Tongli attending meaning, are removed. Cover its skill, the present and the child close, but it was too cold catharsis, begin heat vent guide as a rule, any non-real fire, yet to know the jump shot. Where appropriate for penetration of lung evil, not suitable for suppressing a decrease, such as measles since the beginning still unknown vent, cast clear early fall, there is a constant curb air dryer, renvoi retraction risk. Burdock is Qingxie but among self-energy through the hair, and warm the disease, stool self-taught, little can kill its potential, it is the most measles burdock special medicine.
12. "Herbal Take Ya": This Bing wind shake purposes, it is the power of pumping soil alone win. Weixin gas level, the wind is prepared for the use of wood to carry. Where the disease from the wind, or because of the cold thin Yu Naicheng acne who take the Czech Republic, such as the impact, located outside of the upper case of the conformal layer who is better than skill. This order for the system of the goods, to help wood is declared, it is not too much of the loss, the benefits of peace by Jue men.
13. "herbal solution": Arctium, spicy, warm, non-toxic, into the twelve. Primary surplus muscular rheumatism urticaria, throat unfavorable wind and heat, all swollen sore poison, weak stagnant gas, lungs Cough, Phlegm an evil real bulk gas, a mouse stick child.
14. "medicine Lesson": air cold, bitter acrid, toxic. Bitter detoxification fever, and throat pain, and kumquat better. Sim can run muscle of the table, while the bulk of the swollen sore, with detoxification, especially good. Aiki and taste, and treatment of blood stagnation of lassitude. If smallpox out unhappy, namely with ephedra, bellflower cook the sauce, then carry on smallpox from time to time from the hair.
15. "Jing Yue Quan Shu": Bitterpungent drop in liters. Treating Wind poison rash all fistula, scattered sores Houbi and waist Ning Han Bi stagnation of the gas, its good to go twelve and the solution has also scattered.
16. "herbal medicine prepared to": a mouse stick child, a real evil. Diarrhea fever detoxification. Xin Ping. Lungs antipyretic, relieves congestion in addition to the wind, Liyan diaphragm, science Tansou, elimination rash, Lee two, line twelve, scattered all sore swollen poison, Lee waist and stagnant air. Of cold and sliding profits, chicken pox, diarrhea Jifu Deficiency Syndrome. Solid such as grapes and brown, wine mixed with steam, to be wiped off with frost. The root of the bitter cold, bamboo knife scrape, Jiao Zhi, honey kimono, treatment of stroke, is the juice out more. Pound and pig fat, trans flower stickers sores and sore. Anti-meat out of the flower shape.
Medicinal Compatibility

1. With duckweed, played a total declared scattered wind-heat, through poison rash, chills and itching of the magical, with the governance of exogenous wind-heat, sore throat, measles poor through the hair Zhu Zheng, wind and heat rash itching embolism hidden ʱ??
2. With yams, a meeting of a clear, clear up legal, so Xuanfei gas, clearing the lungs heat, spleen and stomach, force expectorant cough increased, with the governance of the stomach is not healthy, lung weakness, endogenous phlegm, stop blocking the airway that mediastinoscopy stuffiness, cough, shortness of breath, throat sound of water fowl, tired body fatigue embolism, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, who used somewhat empty.
3. With forsythia, and go on, detoxification, anti-inflammatory pain, chills and itching, rash poison declared force enhancement, with the governance of the coke thermal polymerization, resulting in mouth sores, swollen gums, sore throat, carbuncle swollen sore Zhu Zheng, wind-heat prurigo, rash embolism.
4. Hotels Scrophulariaceae, phase must be used, detoxification Liyan power multiplied by exogenous heat treatment due to throat swelling and pain, such as acute tonsillitis, laryngitis.
5. With licorice, with Zhifei by wind-heat or lung Yu fire, toxic heat sore throat inflammation, such as acute pharyngitis, tonsillitis.
6. With mint, a total of memorial to the throne wind heat, Liyan of power, with the governance of exogenous wind-heat.
7. With bellflower, force Shufeng Xuanfei the surge, can cure exogenous wind-heat, cough and sore throat unfavorable expectoration.
Clinical application

Arctium - original plant (Figure 4)
Arctium - original plant (Figure 4)
1. For Fengreganmao, sore throat. The goods Xinsan bitter vent, cold to heat, so it is the evacuation of wind-heat, the effect of Xuanfei Liyan, with treatment Fengreganmao, sore throat, often with honeysuckle, forsythia, Nepeta, Campanulaceae equated with, such as Yinqiaosan; if the wind heat dampness, sore throat, hot toxic than worse, with rhubarb, mint, Nepeta, wind equated with, such as burdock soup; if the wind-heat cough, phlegm poor, often with Nepeta, Campanulaceae, Peucedanum, licorice.
2. For measles impervious. The goods Qingxie through scattered, to evacuation wind-heat, through Xiere poison through the hair and cause rash, measles impervious Queensland with treatment or through undone hidden, often with mint, Nepeta, cicada, comfrey equated with, such as through rash soup.
3. For carbuncle swollen sore, mumps Houbi. The product is hard and cold, to have floating up into the clear drop in the nature, to the outer scattered wind heat, vent its poison inside, there are detoxification, swelling Liyan effect, and sexual side sliding profits, and can Tongli two will be, it can cure wind-heat outside attack, burning within the knot, painful swollen sore. Both constipation, often with rhubarb, Glauber's salt, gardenia, forsythia, mint equated with; the product is equipped with Trichosanthes, forsythia, TCS, blue equated with, they can cure liver-fire, obstruct stomach meridians of milk carbuncle card, such as Trichosanthes burdock soup; the product is equipped Scrophulariaceae, skullcap, berberine, Ban Langen equated with, but also with the governance of plague poison Yi, mumps pharyngitis and other toxic heat of the card, such as Puji disinfect drinking.
4. Prevention of scarlet fever: Take Arctium fried research into a powder, sifted store spare. 2 to 5 years each 1 g, 5 to 9 years old each 1.5 grams, 10 to 15 years each 2 g, 3 g per adult, 3 times a day after meals with warm water delivery service, serving a total of two days. During the epidemic, in addition to taking preventive outside, should pay attention to, cut off the route of transmission and so on. 344 cases of clinical observation, onset 7; 12 days after administration does not onset, total 327 cases, accounting for 98%. Usually three days after exposure prevention was better medication, poor preventive effect after 6 medication. Such as the need to re-contact again for 1 second. Medication is not found adverse reactions.
5. Treatment of Facial Paralysis: A Burdock correction based soup, flavored with the card, 2 times a day, decoction.
6. Treatment of sore throat: Arctium, Radix, bellflower, mint, licorice. Decoction.
Pharmacological effects

Arctiin of pneumococcus have significant antibacterial effect. Flooding agent for a variety of pathogenic skin fungi have different degrees of inhibition. Arctium antipyretic, diuretic, lower blood sugar, anti-tumor effect. Arctiin anti-nephropathy effect on experimental nephropathy inhibit urinary protein excretion, and can improve serum biochemical indicators. [3]
Prescription selection

Arctium - original plant (Figure 6)
Arctium - original plant (Figure 6)
1. burdock soup ("Treatment of the criterion David Branch"), treat children with colds, fever, irritability, nasal congestion, asthma, Tansou scared cry, Ji Zhu purple red sores, erysipelas, sore throat.
2. Burdock Gan Jie Tang ("surgical authentic"), Yi poison treatment table with evil done, twinning swollen ear, fever and pain is not red.
3. gardenia Liver soup ("Medical Department recorded · head door"), with the governance of Shaoyang empty, wind-heat upside caused the anger coming from gangrene, pain in the neck even Xiongru temples, etc., or even cold and heat Asr chest full of bitter tongue dry.
4. Start off powder ("Universal Relief"), with a wind-heat stroke on customer focus, hanging obstruct the throat.
5. burdock Jie Ji Tang ("ulcer subjects experience set"), wind-heat with the governance of the head, face, or neck phlegm, wind-heat toothache.
6. Headache party ("Party pulse authentic"), with a headache even eye and head faint astringent unknown.
7. The wind-heat urticaria party ("health must square").
8. Governance Houbi side: Arctium six points, Iris child eight. Two flavor pound as a casual, fasting with warm water every service Fangcun Bi, gradually increased to a dagger and a half day longer. ("Wide Relief").
9. Governance pharyngeal diaphragm adverse side: Arctium (Wei Chao), Nepeta ear each twelve, licorice (Sunburn) two and a half. And for the end of the night after eating lying, soups serving two money, when slow to take effect. ("Ben Cao Yan Yi").
10. The wind-heat treatment occlusion throat, swollen Bianshen: Arctium a, half-cooked, pestle for the end of the next hot wine transfer money dagger. ("Experience side")
Chinese herbal medicines - Arctium (Fig. 5)
Chinese herbal medicines - Arctium (Fig. 5)
11. The rash can not afford treatment Cu through: Arctium (finely) five money, tamarisk Jiantang, transfer under legislation through. ("Materia Medica words")
12. Phlegm Jue headache: Inula twelve, Arctium twelve (Wei Chao). On the drug as a casual pound Shiloh, not time Hou, clear tone next to wax seasoned millet mush money. ("Sheng Hui Fang")
13. The wind-heat treatment into the calendar section, tapping fingers numb as red and swollen, and even the shoulder attack knees, the case of heat or constipation that is, for: Arctium thirty-two (separator paper fried), new tempeh (fried), Notopterygium ( go Lo) each twelve dry REHMANNIAE twenty-two half, Astragalus twelve and a half (honey roast). For the fine, the soup two money transfer service, the former hollow food, day three. ("Skill side" Arctium powder)
14. Wind caries toothache cure: Arctium fried, Jianshui rinse spit. ("Sickness Party") 15. The rule blowing milk: sticky rat son plus musk, wine swallow. ("Pocket parties")
16. The rule will carbuncle: mouse stick fry sub-three money, fine, into a spoonful of honey, a spoonful of net Puxiao warm wine Kong Xinfu. ("Pocket parties") [4]
Character identification editor
Achenes long obovate, truncated at both ends, slightly flat slightly curved, long 5-7mm, diameter 2-3mm. Surface taupe or pale brown, with numerous small dark spots, and there are distinct longitudinal ridge line. Apex wide, there is a circle, the center raised a bit like style remnants; base narrow, round stalk marks. Hard, visible cotyledon after breaking two pieces, yellowish white, rich Shan resistance. Fruit odorless; seeds gas specific, bitter slightly acrid, slightly longer sense of Ma tongue. In tablets, full, color gray brown is preferred.
Microscopic identification

Achene cross-section: epicarp as a class sizes of square thin-walled cells, curved wall, multi-rupture; outer cuticle. Mesocarp uneven thickness, thicker cell walls, brown or dark brown, slightly-wood; in ridge-shaped vascular bundles at the often small. Endocarp narrow, brown decadence cell layer, cell ill, as a calcium oxalate crystals are filling. Testa is a shed outermost cells produce too much, more twisted, tightly packed, long 75-120μm, diameter 10-30μm, wall very thick, laminated obvious; Nutrition layer several columns parenchyma cells, often decadent unclear. Endosperm cells in a column containing a fatty oil. Cotyledon cell filled with aleurone and fatty oil, and contains small clusters of calcium oxalate, and occasionally small square crystal.
Physical and chemical identification

(1) take the product powder skimmed 2g, add ethanol 20ml soaking 1h, filtration. The filtrate was made the following test:
① the filtrate 2ml, 1% ethanol solution of aluminum chloride, the bluish-green. (Check lignans)
② the filtrate 2ml, adding an equal volume of 3% sodium carbonate aqueous solution, in a water bath boiling 3-5min, let cool, add the diazotizing agent, the solution was red. (Check lignans)
(2) to take the product meal 5g, dilute aqueous hydrochloric acid (pH1.0-2.0) 10ml. Soak overnight, filtration. Three copies of the filtrate 2ml, set three tubes, respectively, mercury, potassium iodine reagents, reagent potassium iodide hungry, silicotungstic acid reagent and 1 drop, respectively, a white, brown and red and white precipitate. (Check alkaloids)
(3) take a small amount of the product powder, UV light (365nm) observed, significant green fluorescence. [5]
Atlas Atlas more
Entry pictures
Entry pictures (7)
Arctium
Arctium (3)
1/1
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. burdock. Flora of China [reference date 2013-12-8]
2. Burdock. China Species Information Database [reference date 2013-12-8]
3. Gao Min. "Pharmacy". Beijing: China Traditional Chinese Medicine Press, 2007: 71
4. Arctium. Chinese family [reference date 2013-12-8]
5. Arctium of character identification. Food Science and Technology Network [reference date 2013-12-8]







Comments