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細辛 Asarum - Xi Xin




细辛

 编辑
声明
本词条介绍的是学名为Asarum sieboldii Miq.的物种。细辛,亦可指分类学“细辛属”下所有物种的统称。关于后者的介绍,请参阅“细辛属”词条。
细辛,别名:华细辛、盆草细辛,拉丁文名:Asarum sieboldii Miq. 马兜铃科细辛属多年生草本;根状茎直立或横走,直径2-3毫米,节间长1-2厘米,有多条须根。叶通常2枚,叶片心形或卵状心形,先端渐尖或急尖,基部深心形,顶端圆形,叶面疏生短毛,脉上较密,叶背仅脉上被毛;雄蕊着生子房中部,花丝与花药近等长或稍长,药隔突出,短锥形;子房半下位或几近上位,球状,较短,柱头侧生。果近球状,直径约1.5厘米,棕黄色。花期4-5月。[1] 
图片取自中国植物图库[2] 
中文学名
细辛
拉丁学名
Asarum sieboldii Miq.
别    称
华细辛、盆草细辛、绿须姜、独叶草、玉香丝、金盆草
二名法
Asarum sieboldii
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
原始花被亚纲
马兜铃目
马兜铃科
亚    科
细辛亚科
细辛族
细辛属
亚    属
杜衡亚属

基本性状编辑

形态特征

多年生草本;根状茎直立或横走,直径2~3mm,节间长1~2cm,有多条须根。
细辛细辛
叶通常2枚,叶片心形或卵状心形,长4~11cm,宽4.5~13.5cm,先端渐尖或急尖,基部深心形,两侧裂片长1.5~4cm,宽2~5.5cm,顶端圆形,叶面疏生短毛,脉上较密,叶背仅脉上被毛;叶柄长8~18cm,光滑无毛;芽苞叶肾圆形,长与宽各约13mm,边缘疏被柔毛。
花紫黑色;花梗长2~4cm;花被管钟状,直径1~1.5cm,内壁有疏离纵行脊皱;花被裂片三角状卵形,长约7mm,宽约10mm,直立或近平展;雄蕊着生子房中部,花丝与花药近等长或稍长,药隔突出,短锥形;子房半下位或几近上位,球状,花柱较短,顶端2裂,柱头侧生。
果近球状,直径约1.5cm,棕黄色。花期4~5月。[1] 
根茎呈不规则圆柱形,有短分枝,长1~20cm,直径1~4mm;表面灰棕色,有环形节,节间长1~10mm;根细长,密生节上,长5~20cm,直径约1mm。表面灰黄色,有纤细支根;根质脆,易折断,断面平坦,黄白色或白色。气香而强烈,味辛,麻舌。

显微特征

根横切面
(1)表皮细胞1列,部分残存。(2)皮层宽大,有众多油细胞散在;外皮层细胞1列,类长方形,木栓化;内皮层明显,可见凯氏点。皮层薄壁细胞含淀粉粒。(3)次生组织不发达,初生木质部2-4原型。
北细辛(根)横切面详图北细辛(根)横切面详图
粉末
粉末:淡黄灰色,有浓郁香气,味辛、苦,有较持久的麻舌感。
(1)外皮层细胞类长方形或多角形,垂周壁细波状弯曲。(2)油细胞类圆形,壁薄、木栓化,胞腔内常可见绿黄色油状物。(3)根茎表皮细胞类长方形或类长角形,垂周壁连珠状加厚,表皮中可见油细胞。(4)根茎石细胞呈类方形类长方形等。(5)导管主为网纹、梯纹。

植物形态

  •  
    细辛根茎
    细辛根茎(1张)
  •  
  •  
    细辛枝叶
    细辛枝叶(1张)
  •  
  •  
    细辛花果
    细辛花果(2张)

生长习性编辑

生于海拔1200-2100米林下阴湿腐植土中。

地理分布编辑

北细辛、汉城细辛习称辽细辛;华细辛称细辛。
北细辛主产于东北,销全国并出口;汉城细辛主产于吉林省、辽宁省,产量很小;华细辛主产于陕西省、四川省、湖北省;安徽省、江西省、浙江省等地亦产,多自产自销。
通常以东北产者质优,华细辛以陕西省华阴产者佳。
日本和朝鲜也有。
细辛细辛
模式标本采自日本。[1] 

分类学编辑

细辛,别名:华细辛、盆草细辛,拉丁文名:Asarum sieboldii Miq..被子植物门;双子叶植物纲马兜铃目马兜铃科细辛属;细辛。[1] 

属下种类编辑

细辛(本草经)华细辛(文献通称),盆草细辛(四川)
细辛-植物形状细辛-植物形状
Asarum sieboldii Miq. in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. -Bat. 2: 134. 1865; Maxim. in Mel. Biol. 8: 397. 1871; Hemsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26: 360. 1891: 中药志3: 108. 图78. 1961. ——Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) Maekawa in Nakai Fl. Sylv. Kor. 21: 22. 1936.[1] 
细辛(原变型)
Asarum sieboldii Miq. f. sieboldii.[1] 
汉城细辛(变型)
Asarum sieboldii Miq f. seoulense (Nakai) C. Y. Cheng et C. S. Yang in Journ. Arn. Arb. 64: 577. 1983. ——A. sieboldii Miq. var. seoulense Nakai in Fedde, Repert. Sp. Nov. 13: 267. 1914. et in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 28: 519. 1914;东北药用植物志54. 图60. 1959. ——Asiasarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. seoulense (Nakai) Maekawa. in Nakai Fl. Sylv. Kor. 21: 20. 1936.
本变型叶片背面有密生短毛,叶柄被疏毛。
产于辽宁东南部。生于林下及山沟湿地。朝鲜也有分布。模式标本采自朝鲜汉城。
本种全草入药。[1] 

繁殖方式编辑

种子繁殖分根繁殖两种方式。
种子直播:
细辛细辛
种子直播是发展细辛栽培的主要方法,4~5年即可收获。细辛种子一般在6月间成熟,这时果实由紫红变为粉白,手捏果肉软,呈粉砂状时即成熟可摘下。细辛种子不是一期成熟,采果期间,要每天到地里采一至两次,采下的果实放在阴暗处1~2天,待果皮变软成粉状,即可搓去果皮,用水将种子冲洗出来,晾一下,即可趁鲜混砂进行播种。要见熟即采,甚至差一天也不行,否则种子易脱落或被蚂蚁吃掉。果实采收去皮后,一般要立即播种,否则易丧失发芽力。据试验种子刚采下时发芽率达96%;在17~20℃常温下干放20天,其发芽率为81%;干放40天为29%;干放60天仅为2%。
播种时整平畦面(播种床面),按行距10cm宽,播幅3~5cm实行条播,即将拌有5~10倍细砂的种子均匀撒下,种间距离平均1~1.5cm,每行播种120~150粒(折合净种5~6g/m2),可用预制好的播种框控制撒播,以便提高播种工效。之后再用过筛的腐殖土筛洒覆盖1~1.5cm,要求厚度均匀一致。然后畦上盖一层枯枝落叶,保持土壤湿润。翌年春出苗前揭除覆盖物,以利出苗。如初次进行细辛种植,可在6~7月间,寻找当年种源种子。如采种后因故不能及时播种,可将鲜种子拌上5~10倍的清洁湿砂,进行低温湿砂贮存,砂藏期间要经常翻动和保湿,1~2个月后发芽率仍可达90%,采用此法可进行长途运输。待胚根将露白时,马上取出播种,这样虽可以延期播种,但要视具体情况灵活掌握,最迟不宜迟于七月末,如过晚会影响当年发根和翌年出苗。细辛种子在6~7月间播种后,在土中向下发根,直到秋末,根可长到6~10cm,而同时胚轴需经过低温越冬过程,在第二年春季方可生长出苗。细辛种子小,幼苗顶土能力弱,因而也可以穴播,在畦上按株行距15~20cm开平底浅穴,深3cm,每穴播种5~10粒,覆土1~1.5cm,上面再盖一层半腐熟的树叶。[5] 
育苗移栽:育苗移栽主要在种子少的情况下采用,如种子直播地块遇洪涝积水或其他意外灾害,也可移栽补救。方法与直播基本相同,除条播密度可增加外,还可进行撒播,播种量15g/m2。然后在培育2~3年后移栽。春秋两季均可移栽,而以秋季为好,秋栽在地上叶枯萎后,已形成丰满的越冬芽,这时栽植一般不需浇水。春季在牙苞萌动前,秋季在叶片萎谢之后,选苗壮根系完整无病虫害的秧苗,株行距10cm×15cm左右。栽前适当剪去须根,留7~10cm长即可,栽时须根向一侧舒展,芽头稍抬起。也可丛栽,每丛株行距18cm×20cm左右,一丛之中可栽小苗3~4棵,栽苗时芽头离开,稍抬起,根须呈扇形舒展,如遇土壤干旱,移栽定植后需浇水,待水渗下后再覆一薄层土,栽后畦面行间可覆上一层枯枝落叶,以此保墒,防止土壤板结和暴雨冲刷。也可在畦面上横向开沟,坐水栽,秧苗不宜过大,以两年生苗为好,有一片真叶,根不太长,便于移栽,栽时将根向一侧舒展开,覆土半数,浇水,待水渗下,再覆土至地平,并覆盖枯枝落
细辛细辛
叶。[5] 
分根繁殖
采用分株和根茎繁殖两种方法。
分株繁殖:分株宜在夏季进行,按细辛芽苞的多少将其分成单株,每株需具有1~2个芽苞,留根茎5~6cm,稍带须根和两枚叶片。然后按株行距10cm×15cm开沟或挖穴移栽,须根要舒展,栽后覆细土5~6cm,压实并及时浇水保湿。[5] 
根茎繁殖:细辛地下根状茎横生,节明显。在秋后采收时挖出根茎,选生长健壮、无病虫害的粗壮根茎,截成5~6cm的小段,每段需带有2~3个芽苞和10~20条长须根,进行分根繁殖。按行距15cm开沟,株距10cm一段接一段地埋入沟内,并覆细土厚5cm,遇天旱时,需及时浇水。[5] 

栽培技术编辑

细辛喜冷凉气候和阴湿环境,多生于林下荫湿处山沟腐殖质厚的湿润土壤中
细辛细辛
,喜土质疏松、肥沃的壤土或砂质壤土。在无遮阴、干燥、黏重的土壤和低洼积水的地块不宜种植细辛。该植物耐寒怕高温,畏强光,在遮阴条件下生长良好,气温高于35℃时,叶片枯萎。
细辛花期5月,果期6月,地下部根茎于9月后形成越冬芽。细辛是早春植物,顶凌出土,花期和果期都较早,6~9月上中旬为果后地上植株生长期和地下更新芽分化期,秋后地上部枯萎,进入休眠期。细辛冬季能耐-40℃以下低温。[5] 

种植方法

利用种子直播和育苗移栽两种方式。尤其是在林下栽培细辛,既不占粮田又不毁林,省工省料利于树木的生长。一般栽种3年后即可收获,每1m2可收干货1.5~2.5kg。如果5年收获,最高产可达6.5kg。
选地整地
细辛细辛
细辛喜含腐殖质丰富、排水良好的壤土或砂壤土,以山地棕壤和森林腐殖质土为更好。栽培细辛应选择地势平坦的阔叶林的林缘、林间空地、山脚下溪流两岸新垦地、老参地或农田。土层要深厚,土壤要疏松、肥沃、湿润。山地坡度应在15°以下,以利于水土保持,pH值以5.5~7.5为宜。农田前作以豆类和玉米较好。
林地或林缘栽培细辛,可在春季伐掉小灌木或过密枝,保持透光率50%左右。选地后翻耕,翻地深度20cm左右,碎土后拣出树根、杂草、石块,床面要求平整。结合耕翻施入基肥,一般每1m2施入腐熟的猪粪、鹿粪或枯枝落叶8~10kg、过磷酸钙0.25kg。顺山斜向做畦,畦宽120cm,畦高15~20cm,畦长视地形而定,一般长10~15cm,作业道宽50~80cm,走向尽可能呈正南正北。
种子直播
直播种子繁殖,繁殖系数大,减少发病,但生长速度慢,年限长,需要3~4年才能收获入药。在种子来源充足的情况下,采用直播是最好的方法。鲜种子播种期一般在7月上、中旬,最迟不宜超过8月上旬。鲜种子用25%多菌灵1000倍液浸种2h,可防细辛菌核病;用50%代森锰锌1000倍液浸种1h,可防细辛叶枯病。沙藏种子也必须于8月上旬播完,否则种子裂口生根后再进行播种,既不便播种,也不利于发根。播种方法有撒播、条播两种。
撒播
在床面上挖3~5cm深的浅槽,用筛过的细腐殖土把槽底铺平,然后将种子混拌5~10倍细沙或细腐殖土,均匀撒播。使种子间距3cm,播后用筛过的细腐殖土覆盖,厚度0.5~1cm。覆土后床面上再覆盖1层落叶或草,以保持土壤水分,防止床面板结和雨水冲刷。第2年春出苗前撤去覆盖物,以利出苗,鲜籽用量120~150g/m2
条播
在整好的床面上横床开沟,行距10cm,沟宽5~6cm,沟深3~5cm,沟底整平并稍压实,然后在宽沟内播种。种子间距2cm,覆土0.5~1cm,覆盖落叶或草保湿。第2年春出苗前撤去覆盖物,鲜籽用量约100g/m2
苗田管理
细辛细辛
播种遇干旱时要及时浇水,保持床内湿润。第2年春床土解冻,快要出苗时及时撤出覆盖物,以提高床温,促进早出苗。及时拔除杂草,雨季要挖好排水沟,防止田间积水。林间或林下栽培的,可适当疏整树冠。利用荒地、参地栽培的,可搭棚遮阴,也可种植玉米、向日葵等作物遮阴来调节光照。一般1、2年生抗光力弱,郁闭度0.6~0.7;3、4年生抗光力增强,郁闭度0.4为宜。从第3年开始,每年结合越冬覆盖应追肥1次,在床面追施腐熟的猪粪、鹿粪或林间腐熟落叶拌过磷酸钙,厚度1cm左右,每1m2约施猪粪、鹿粪10kg和过磷酸钙0.1kg。
移栽
细辛是多年生植物,生长发育周期长,一般林间播种后6~8年才能大量开花结果。为了利用野生幼苗,扩大营养面积,多数地方都采用育苗移栽方式,即先播种育苗3年,起苗移栽再长3年。移栽选整地与直播要求相近,移栽方法随种苗来源不同略有区别,分种子育苗移栽、根茎先端移栽。
种子育苗移栽法
秋春都可进行。秋季移栽,每年10月起挖2、3年生的细辛苗,分大、中、小3类分别栽种。栽种时横床开沟,行距15cm,沟深9~10cm,沟内按8~10cm株距摆苗,使须根舒展,覆土3~5cm。春天移栽,应在芽孢未萌动前进行。如果移栽过晚,在细辛出苗或展叶时进行,需要大量浇水,并需要较长时间缓苗,会影响细辛生长发育。
根茎先端移栽法
细辛的根茎分割后栽植可独立成活,发育成新的个体。根茎顶部的节间很短,将其截成1cm长的小段栽植。根茎分割成活率与根茎上、中、下的部位,分段的长短,顶芽的有无和潜伏期的大小及栽植时期有密切关系。一般茎上有越冬芽、潜伏芽大、根茎上段或者根茎段长的成活率高,秋栽的成活率比夏栽的高。栽法同前。

田间管理

撤出覆盖物
播种后第2年,早春雪化后,将覆盖的落叶或草等搂出田外。
细辛细辛
松土除草
移栽地块每年5月出苗后,要进行3~4次松土除草,提高床土温度,保蓄水分,对防止菌核病、促进生长有益。在行间松土要深些(3cm左右),根际要浅些(约2cm),对露出根不用进行培土。细辛怕乙草胺、丁草胺。[5] 
施肥灌水
在生长期间一般每年施肥2次,第1次在5月上、中旬进行,第2次在9月中、下旬进行,用硫酸铵或过石各5~7.5kg/667m2,多于行间开沟追施。秋季多数地区认为床面施用猪粪(5kg/m2)混拌过磷酸钙(0.1kg/m2)最好;有的药农秋季在床面上追施1~2cm厚的腐熟落叶,既追肥又保土保水,有保护越冬的效果。每年春季干旱时,应于行间灌水,保持湿润。
清林调光
林下或林缘种植要定期清林,防止枝条过密。对于农田栽培,应搭设遮阴棚调节光照,郁闭度与种子直播相同。
覆盖越冬
不论是直播还是育种移栽,在解冻前均需用1cm厚的落叶或不带草籽的茅草覆盖床面,待来年春季萌动前撤去。

病虫防治

病害防治
细辛移栽田主要病害是细辛菌核病,多发生在多年不移栽的地块,造成全株腐烂,靠种苗、土壤传播,发病条件主要是温度低、土壤湿度过大或者板结,严重时成片死亡。直播田的主要病害是叶枯病。
防治方法:加强田间管理,适当加强通风透光;及时松土,保持土壤通气良好;多施磷钾肥,使植株生长健壮,增强抗病力;发现病株应彻底清除,病区用5%石灰乳等处理。药剂防治菌核病可用50%多菌灵200倍液+50%代森锌800倍液灌根效果好,最好在秋季枯萎前或春季萌发前进行。严重病区可用1%硫酸铜溶液消毒杀菌;叶枯病用150倍多抗菌素效果好。
虫害防治
细辛虫害主要有小地老虎、黑毛虫、蝗虫、细辛凤蝶等。黑毛虫、蝗虫、细辛凤蝶咬食叶片,严重时大部分叶片被吃掉。地老虎为害最重,咬食幼芽,截断叶柄和根茎。
防治方法:每667m2用1~1.5kg2.5%敌百虫粉撒施,也可用1000倍敌百虫液喷雾。

主要价值编辑

药用价值

本种全草入药
细辛细辛
[1] 
功能主治
解表散寒,祛风止痛,通窍,温肺化饮。用于风寒感冒,头痛,牙痛,鼻塞流涕,鼻鼽,鼻渊,风湿痹痛,痰饮喘咳。
细辛作为药用植物,始载秦汉《神农本草经》,《神农本草经》将其列为上品。辽细辛根细、色灰黄、叶色绿,味辛辣麻舌。性温,有小毒。归心、肺、肾经。有祛风,散寒,温肺、行水,开窍的作用。治风寒头痛,鼻渊,齿痛,痰饮咳逆,风湿痹痛。此外,细辛还具有抗炎免疫、
细辛细辛
局部麻醉、提高新陈代谢、抗菌作用,亦可用于肿瘤患者化疗和放疗所致的白细胞减少。
性味归经
辛,温。归心、肺、肾经。
采制
夏季果熟期或秋初采挖,除去杂质,喷淋清水,稍润,切段,阴干。
本品呈不规则的段。根茎呈不规则圆形,外表皮灰棕色,有时可见环形的节。
细辛细辛
根细,表面灰黄色,平滑或具纵皱纹。切面黄白色或白色。气辛香,味辛辣、麻舌。

质量要求

以根色灰黄、叶色绿、干燥、气辛香、嚼之辛辣麻舌者为佳。
化学成份
北细辛全草含挥发油2.5%, 油中主要成分为甲基丁香酚、黄樟醚、细辛醚、榄香素,尚含优香芹酮、爱草醚、蒎烯、莰烯、桉油精、dl-去甲基衡州乌药碱(dl-demethylcoclaurine,hignamine)、辛味物质派立托胺和(2E,4E,8Z,10E)-N-异丁基-2, 4,8,10-十二碳四烯酰胺等.华细辛全草含挥发油2.6%,油中主要成分为α-侧柏烯(α-thujene)、月桂烯(myrcene)、γ-松油醇、榄香素, 尚含α-松油醇、黄樟醚、甲基丁香酚、肉豆蔻醚、芳樟醇、细辛醚、柠檬烯等.华细辛还含有正十五烷、谷甾醇、菜油甾醇、豆甾醇、芝麻脂素和N-异丁基十四碳四烯酰胺等.汉城细辛含挥发油1%,油中主要成分为优香芹酮, 另含α-或β-蒎烯、桉油精(1,8-cinede)、甲基丁香酚、黄樟醚、α-甲氧基黄樟醚、榄香素、
细辛细辛
细辛醚等。[6] 
植物鉴定
(1)根横切面:表皮细胞1列,部分残存。皮层宽,有众多油细胞散在;外皮层细胞1列,类长方形,木栓化并微木化;内皮层明显,可见凯氏点。中柱鞘细胞1~2层,初生木质部2~4原型。韧皮部束中央可见1~3个明显较其周围韧皮部细胞大的薄壁细胞,但其长径显著小于最大导管直径,或者韧皮部中无明显的大型薄壁细胞。薄壁细胞含淀粉粒。
(2)取本品粉末0.5g,加甲醇20ml,超声处理45分钟,滤过,滤液蒸干,残渣加甲醇2ml使溶解,作为供试品溶液,另取细辛对照药材0.5g,同法制成对照药材溶液。再取细辛脂素对照品,加甲醇制成每1ml含1mg的溶液,作为对照品溶液。照薄层色谱法(附录Ⅵ B)试验,吸取上述三种溶液各10μl,分别点于同一硅胶G薄层板上,以石油醚(60~90℃)-乙酸乙酯(3:1)为展开剂,展开,取出,晾干,喷以1%香草醛硫酸溶液,热风吹至斑点显色清晰。供试品色谱中,在与对照药材色谱和对照品色谱相应的位置上,显相同颜色的斑点。
药理作用
  1. 解热镇痛作用;
  2. 对心血管系统的影响:细辛挥发油能明显增加豚鼠离体心脏的冠脉流量;并能降压, 而煎剂能升压;
  3. 对呼吸系统的作用:细辛挥发油对组胺或乙酰胆碱致痉的气管平滑肌有非常显著的松弛作用,且其抗组胺作用较抗乙酰胆碱强。
细辛细辛
具有祛风散寒,通窍止痛,温肺化饮的功效。
1.镇静、镇痛作用细辛挥发油有明显的中枢抑制作用,小剂量可使动物安静、驯服、自主活动减少;大剂量可使动物睡眠,并有明显的抗惊厥作用。细辛煎剂灌服也有镇痛作用。其较强的镇痛作用为其治疗头身痛、牙痛等的重要药理学基础。
2.解热作用细辛挥发油灌服对多种原因如温刺法、四氢β-萘胺、伤寒、副伤寒混合疫苗所引起的家兔实验性发热有明显的解热作用,对啤酒酵母所致的大鼠发热也有明显的解热效果。还能降低正常大鼠的体温。
3.抗炎、免疫抑制和抗变态反应细辛挥发油灌服或注射均有明显的抗炎作用。如细辛对致炎剂角叉菜胶、酵母、蛋清、甲醛等所致的大鼠关节肿胀有明显的抑制作用,并能对抗巴豆油所致小鼠耳廓肿胀,抑制抗血清引起的大鼠皮肤浮肿、由组织胺引起的毛细血管通透性增加以及抑制塑料环和棉球肉芽增生。对去肾上腺的大鼠,仍有抗炎作用。
细辛的有效成分甲基丁香酚、N-异丁基十二烷四烯酰胺和去甲乌药碱均可明显抑制组织胺所引起的脉鼠离体回肠收缩。细辛水或醇提取物均能使速发型变态反应总过敏介质释放量减少40%以上,说明其有抗变态反应作用。
4.提高机体的代谢功能从细辛中分离的消旋去甲乌药碱具有β-受体激动剂样的广泛药理效应,有强心、扩张血管、松弛平滑肌、增强脂质代谢和升高血糖等作用。现知去甲乌药碱含于多种药性温热的中药内,如细辛、附子吴茱萸等,其呈现的药理作用与中药散寒或祛寒功效相吻合,因此可将其视为散寒药效的重要物质基础之一。
5.平喘、祛痰作用细辛能松弛支气管平滑肌而呈现平喘作用。离体实验证明,细辛挥发油对组胺乙酰胆碱所引起的支气管痉挛有明显的对抗作用;其挥发油成分甲基丁香酚对脉鼠气管亦有明显的松弛作用。细辛醚也有一定平喘、祛痰作用。此外,其醇浸剂静注,可对抗吗啡所致的呼吸抑制。
6.强心、抗心肌缺血、升高血压作用细辛具有强心、抗心肌缺血和升高血压的作用。离体实验表明,细辛挥发油对兔、脉鼠心脏有明显的兴奋作用,表现为正性肌力,正性频率作用,并能增加冠脉流量。对犬实验性心源性休克,细辛能提高其平均动脉压、左室压峰值和冠状血窦流量等作用,其作用强度与多巴胺相似,但其不加快心率。
细辛挥发油给麻醉犬、猫静脉注射,可见降压作用,但其煎剂却有明显的升压作用,其升压作用可能与去甲乌药碱有关。
7.抗菌、抗病毒作用细辛醇浸剂、挥发油等对革兰阳性菌、枯草杆菌伤寒杆菌有一定的体外抑制作用,煎剂对结核杆菌和伤寒杆菌亦有抑制作用。细辛挥发油对多种真菌如黄曲霉菌、黑曲霉菌、白色念珠菌等均有抑制作用,抗菌的有效成分为黄樟醚。α-细辛醚有抑制呼吸道合胞病毒增殖的作用。
8.局麻作用50%细辛煎剂能阻滞蟾蜍坐骨神经冲动传导,作用可逆。
细辛细辛
其麻醉效果与1%普鲁卡因接近。挥发油有表面麻醉浸润麻醉作用。50%细辛酊涂于人舌也有局麻作用。[7] 
用药禁忌
气虚多汗血虚头痛,阴虚咳嗽等忌服,反藜芦。
《本草经疏》:凡病内热及火生炎上,上盛下虚,气虚 有汗,血虚头痛,阴虚咳嗽,法皆禁用。
《得配本草》:风热阴虚禁用。
《本草别说》:细辛,若单用末,不可过半钱匕,多即气闷塞,不通者死。
《注解伤寒论》:水停心下而不行,则肾气燥。[7] 
不良反应
毒性成分:黄樟醚。 
  ①细辛对肾脏有一定毒性,肾功能不全者应慎用。
②细辛每日用量超过20g→口唇、舌尖、趾指发麻感,停药后可以恢复。
马兜铃酸的检查
色谱条件与系统适用性试验 以十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂;以乙腈为流动相A,以0.05%磷酸溶液为流动相B,按下表中的规定进行梯度洗脱;检测波长为260nm。理论板数按马兜铃酸I峰计算应不低于5000。
时间(分钟)
流动相A(%)
流动相B(%)
0~10
10~18
18~20
20~30
30~31
31~35
35~40
30→34
34→35
35→45
45
45→53
53
53→100
70→66
66→65
65→55
55
55→47
47
47→0
对照品溶液的制备 取马兜铃酸I对照品适量,精密称定,加甲醇制成每1ml含0.2μg的溶液,即得。
供试品溶液的制备 取本品中粉约0.5g,精密称定,置具塞锥形瓶中,精密加入70%甲醇25ml,密塞,称定重量,超声处理(功率500W,频率40kHz)40分钟,放冷,再称定重量,用70%甲醇补足减失的重量,摇匀,滤过,取续滤液,即得。
测定法 分别精密吸取对照品溶液与供试品溶液各10μl,注入液相色谱仪,测定,即得。
本品按干燥品计算,含马兜铃酸I(C17H11O7N)不得过0.001%。

经济价值

细辛经水蒸气蒸馏可得精油,在化妆品、医药等行业用途很多。以辽细辛浸膏
细辛细辛
为添加剂原料,广泛用于日用产品,如肥皂、化妆品、牙膏等,具有抗菌、消炎、止血、镇痛等疗效。含细辛的兽药用于治咳嗽喘、便秘;含细辛的农药作杀虫剂和杀菌剂;由于细辛中所含挥发油具有特殊芳香气味,国外已开发使用细辛作为建筑材料的防蛀填料和防蚊驱虫原料。

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

细辛属

细辛亚属
细辛组
 尾花细辛 肾叶细辛 双叶细辛 长毛细辛
短管组
 短尾细辛 铜钱细辛 台湾细辛 地花细辛 单叶细辛
杜衡亚属
华细辛组
 库页细辛 细辛
杜衡组
 川北细辛 福建细辛 小叶马蹄香 皱花细辛 川滇细辛
 杜衡 灯笼细辛 下紫细辛 金耳环 长茎金耳环
 大花细辛 大叶马蹄香 南川细辛 紫背细辛 山慈菇
 青城细辛 大屯细辛 五岭细辛
长花组
 白斑细辛 短柱细辛 芋叶细辛 下花细辛 祁阳细辛
 红金耳环 南漳细辛
以上物种均分布于中国
参考资料
词条标签:
自然  植物  双子叶植物纲
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/36960/16121977.htm

Asarum editor
Statement
This entry describes the species scientific name Asarum sieboldii Miq. In. Asarum, also refers to the taxonomy of all species referred to under "Asarum." About the latter, see "Asarum" entries.
Asarum, Alias: China Asarum, Asarum grass basin, Latin name:. Asarum sieboldii Miq Aristolochiaceae Asarum is a perennial herb; Rhizome erect or cross walk, 2-3 mm in diameter, internode length 1-2 cm, a number of fibrous roots. Leaves usually 2, blade heart-shaped heart-shaped or ovate, apex acuminate or acute, base deeply cordate, top round, sparsely dense foliage on short hairs, veins, dorsal vein only on the hair; stamens children room Central, filaments and anthers nearly as long or longer, anther prominent, short taper; ovary semi-inferior or near the upper, globular, short, stigmas lateral. Fruit nearly spherical, about 1.5 cm in diameter, brown. Flowering from April to May. [1] 
Picture gallery from the Chinese plant [2]
Chinese scientific name fine Xin Lading Name Asarum sieboldii Miq. Aka Hua Asarum, Asarum basin grass, green shall ginger, uniflora, Yuxiang silk, Jinpen grass two law Asarum sieboldii community Flora door dicotyledonous Angiosperms Gang Plants Subclass original metachlamydeae outline aristolochiales families aristolochic Keya Ke Xin Yake fine family Asarum Asarum Belong subgenus subgenus Asarumforbesii
Contents 1 Basic morphological traits ▪ ▪ microscopic characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 Geographical distribution of taxonomic species under 6 5 7 reproduction cultivation techniques cultivation methods ▪ ▪ field management ▪ pest control ▪ 8 main value of medicinal value ▪ quality requirements ▪ Economic Value
Basic Traits Edit
Morphological characteristics

Perennial herbs; Rhizome erect or cross walk, diameter 2 ~ 3mm, section length between 1 ~ 2cm, a number of fibrous roots.
Asarum
Asarum
Leaves usually 2, blade heart-shaped heart-shaped or ovate, long 4 ~ 11cm, width of 4.5 ~ 13.5cm, apex acuminate or acute, base deeply cordate, lobes on both sides of a long 1.5 ~ 4cm, width 2 ~ 5.5cm top round, foliage sparsely haired, more dense veins, dorsal veins coat only; petiole length 8 ~ 18cm, glabrous; buds husk kidney round, each about the length and width of 13mm, edge sparsely pubescent.
Purple flowers; pedicels 2 ~ 4cm; floral tube bell-shaped, diameter 1 ~ 1.5cm, the inner walls have alienated longitudinal ridges wrinkled; perianth lobes triangular-shaped oval, about 7mm, a width of 10mm, erect or nearly flat ; stamens children room Central, filaments and anthers nearly as long or longer, anther prominent, short taper; ovary semi-inferior or near the upper, spherical, style short, the top 2-lobed stigma lateral.
Fruit nearly spherical, diameter of about 1.5cm, brown. Flowering 4 to 5 months. [1] 
Rhizome irregular cylindrical, with short branches, long 1 ~ 20cm, diameter of 1 ~ 4mm; gray-brown surface, an annular section, section length between 1 ~ 10mm; elongate, the dense section, length 5 ~ 20cm, diameter of about 1mm. Surface greyish yellow with thin rootlets; root brittle, easily broken, section smooth, yellow-white or white. The air is fragrant and intense, spicy, Ma tongue.
Microscopic characteristics

Root cross-section
(1) an epidermal cells, the remaining part. (2) cortical large, there are many scattered oil cells; an outer cortical cells, the class rectangle, cork; within the cortex obvious, visible Kjeldahl points. Cortical parenchyma cells containing starch grains. (3) secondary tissue developed, primary xylem 2-4 prototypes.
North Asarum (root) cross-section detail
North Asarum (root) cross-section detail
Powder
Powder: yellowish gray, with a rich aroma, spicy, bitter, have a more lasting sense of Ma tongue.
(1) The outer cortical cell class rectangle or polygon, fine wavy anticlinal walls curved. (2) Oil cells round, thin wall, cork, cell cavity often visible greenish-yellow oil. (3) class roots epidermal cells rectangular or triangular class long anticlinal walls Pente-like thickening, epidermal cells visible oil. (4) cells were class roots stone square or rectangular type. (5) the main conduit for the reticulate, ladder pattern.
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Asarum roots
Asarum roots (1)
 
 
Asarum leaves
Asarum foliage (1)
 
 
Asarum fruit
Asarum fruit (2)
Growth habit editor
1200-2100 Millington was born in elevation in the next damp humus.
Geographical Distribution Edit
North Asarum, Asarum Seoul Xi said Liao Asarum; Hua said Asarum Asarum.
North Asarum is mainly produced in the northeast, sold nationwide and exported; Seoul Asarum is mainly produced in Jilin, Liaoning, production is small; Asarum is mainly produced in China, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Hubei; Anhui, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and other places are also produced, more homegrown.
Northeast producers usually high quality, Hua Asarum Huayin, Shaanxi Province produced a plus.
Japan and North Korea have.
Asarum
Asarum
The type specimen was collected from Japan. [1] 
Taxonomy Editor
Asarum, Alias: China Asarum, Asarum grass basin, Latin name: Asarum sieboldii Miq .. angiosperm; Dicotyledon; aristolochiales; Aristolochiaceae; Asarum; Asarum. [1] 
Under the kind of editor
Asarum (Ben Cao Jing) Chinese Asarum (literature known), sarmentosum Asarum (Sichuan)
Asarum - Plant Shape
Asarum - Plant Shape
...... Asarum sieboldii Miq in Ann Mus Bot Lugd -Bat 2: 134. 1865; Maxim in Mel Biol 8: 397. 1871; Hemsl in Journ Linn Soc Bot 26:... 360...... 1891: Herbal Chi 3: 108. Figure 78. 1961. --Asiasarum sieboldii (. Miq) Maekawa in Nakai Fl Sylv Kor 21:. 22. 1936. [1]
Asarum (original variant)
Asarum sieboldii Miq. F. Sieboldii. [1]
Seoul Asarum (variant)
. Asarum sieboldii Miq f seoulense (Nakai) CY Cheng et CS Yang in Journ Arn Arb 64:...... 577. 1983. --A sieboldii Miq var seoulense Nakai in Fedde, Repert Sp Nov. 13:.. 267 . 1914. et in Bot Mag Tokyo 28:..... 519. 1914; northeast medicinal flora 54. Figure 60. 1959. --Asiasarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var seoulense (Nakai) Maekawa in Nakai Fl Sylv Kor. 21: 20.1936.
Leaves the back of this variant have dense undercoat, petioles sparsely hairy.
Southeastern Liaoning. In forests and valley wetlands. North Korea also have distribution. The type specimen was collected from Seoul Korea.
This species is the whole plant medicine. [1] 
Reproduction editor
Seed multiplication and sub-sub-root propagation in two ways.
Seeding:
Asarum
Asarum
Seeding is the main method development Asarum cultivation, 4 to 5 years can be harvested. Asarum seed generally mature in June, when the fruit turns pink and the purple, pinching the soft flesh that can be picked when ripe silt-like form. Asarum seed is not a mature stage, during the fruit picking, to be taken to the ground once or twice a day, in the shade of fruit picked from 1 to 2 days, until softened peel into powder, then rub to peel, water The seeds were washed out, dry it, you can take advantage of fresh sand sowing. To see that is cooked mining, nor even bad day, otherwise the seeds easy to fall off or eaten by ants. After harvest, peeled, seeded generally immediately, or easily lose germination ability. According to tests just picked seed germination rate of 96%; at 17 ~ 20 ℃ dry place at room temperature for 20 days, the germination rate of 81%; dry place 40 days was 29%; dry place 60 days only 2%.
Leveling sowing Qimian (seeding bed), 10cm wide row spacing, sowing rate 3 ~ 5cm implement drilling, will sow the seeds evenly mixed with 5 to 10 times the fine sand, the average distance between species 1 ~ 1.5cm, every row planting 120 to 150 (equivalent to net seed 5 ~ 6g / m2), the available prefabricated sow sowing box control in order to improve seeding efficiency. After sieve and then sprinkle sifted humus cover 1 ~ 1.5cm, requires uniform thickness. Then stretch the cover layer litter, keep the soil moist. The following spring emergence Qianjie addition to covering, in order to facilitate emergence. If the initial conduct Asarum planted in 6 to 7 months, looking for then provenance seeds. After such seed is unable to timely sowing, the seeds can be fresh mix of 5 to 10 times the clean wet sand, wet sand at low temperature storage, during the Tibetan sand often flip and moisturizing, 1 to 2 months after the germination rate is still up 90%, using this method can be transported over long distances. When grin radicle will be immediately removed seeding, although this can be extended sowing, but depending on the specific circumstances of flexibility, the latest not later than the end of July, as the party influence over the current year and the following year the hair root emergence. Asarum seeds between June and July after sowing, the soil down to the hair root, until the end of autumn, the root can grow to 6 ~ 10cm, while the hypocotyl subject overwintering process, in the second year of growth in the spring before emergence ʱ?? Asarum small seed, seedling top soil is weak, and thus can Dibble, the furrow spacing 15 ~ 20cm by the end of Kaiping shallow hole, deep 3cm, 5 to 10 per hole sowing, casing 1 ~ 1.5cm, above and then cover a Layer half the maturity of the leaves. [5]
Seedling transplanting: seedling transplanting mainly in the case of using less seed, such as seeding Lot encounter other unexpected disaster or flood water can also be transplanted remedy. Methods and live basically the same, in addition to increase drilling density, but also for sowing, seeding rate of 15g / m2. And then incubated for 2 to 3 years after transplanting. Spring and autumn can be transplanted, and to fall as well, Qiuzai ground after leaf withered, has formed a plump wintering buds, then planting generally do not need watering. Spring before bud sprout teeth, autumn leaf fade after the election Miao Zhuang root complete pest-free seedlings, spacing 10cm × about 15cm. Fibrous roots before planting appropriate cut, leaving 7 ~ 10cm long can be, when planted fibrous roots stretch to one side, bud slightly raised. Can also be planted clump, clump spacing around each 18cm × 20cm, among a clump of seedlings can be planted 3 to 4, when Zaimiao bud left, slightly raised, fan-shaped roots stretch, in the case of soil drought, transplanting to be watered after planting until the water seepage under a thin layer of soil and then cover between rows can be covered with a layer after transplanting Qimian litter, as soil moisture, prevent soil compaction and rain erosion. Also laterally opener on Qimian sit hydroponic, seedlings should not be too large, two-year seedlings as well, there is a true leaves, the root is not too long, easy to transplant, the roots stretch to one side when planted, casing half, watering until the water seepage under, and then the casing to the horizon, and covered litter fall
Asarum
Asarum
Leaves. [5]
Points root breeding
Ramets and rhizomes propagation using two methods.
Division propagation: ramet should be in the summer, according to the number Asarum buds will be divided into plant, each plant needs to have 1 to 2 buds, leaving roots 5 ~ 6cm, slightly fibrous and two blades. Then press the spacing of 10cm × 15cm trenching or digging transplanting, fibrous roots to stretch after transplanting cover with fine soil 5 ~ 6cm, compacted and timely watering moisture. [5]
Rhizome propagation: Asarum underground rhizomes grow wild, Section obvious. Dug during the autumn harvest roots, choose robust growth, pest-free stout rhizomes, cut into small pieces of 5 to 6cm, and each needs with 2 to 3 buds and fibrous length of 10 to 20 to carry out a root reproduction. Ditching 15cm row spacing, spacing 10cm section by section buried in the trench, and cover with fine soil thickness 5cm, when the case of drought, the need for timely watering. [5]
Cultivation Technical Editor
Moist soil Asarum likes the cold weather and damp environment, many born understory shade damp at the ravine in thick humus
Asarum
Asarum
Hi soil loose, fertile loam or sandy loam. Without shade, dry, heavy clay soil and low-lying land should not be planted Asarum water. When the plant cold fear heat, fear of light, grows well in shade conditions, the temperature is higher than 35 ℃, leaf wilt.
Asarum Flowering in May, fruiting in June, underground rhizomes wintering buds formed after September. Asarum plant is early spring, top Ling unearthed, both flowering and fruiting earlier, in mid-June to September on growing plants above ground and underground buds after fruit update period, autumn shoots wither into dormancy. Asarum winter temperature capability -40 ℃ below. [5]
Cultivation method

The use of direct seeding and transplanting seedlings in two ways. Asarum especially cultivated in the forest, cropland neither accounting nor deforestation, provincial labor and materials in favor of the growth of trees. General planting can be harvested after three years, to be received by each 1m2 dry 1.5 ~ 2.5kg. If the five-year harvest, the highest yield up to 6.5kg.
Site preparation
Asarum
Asarum
Asarum happy with humus-rich, well-drained loam or sandy loam, with mountain and forest humus brown soil for the better. Cultivation Asarum should choose the flat edge of the forest broad-leaved forest, glade, mountain streams on both sides of the foot newly cultivated land, old ginseng or farmland. To deep soil, soil to loose, fertile, moist. Mountain slope should be at 15 ° or less, in order to facilitate soil and water conservation, pH value of 5.5 to 7.5 is appropriate. Farmland before with beans and corn better.
Asarum cultivated woodland or forest edge, Kovar out in the spring small or too dense shrub branches, holding about 50 percent light transmittance. After the election to plowing, plowing depth of about 20cm, after pulverizer picked roots, weeds, rocks, bed surface should be smooth. Tillage was applied to basal binding, generally every 1m2 into the decomposition of pig, deer manure or litter 8 ~ 10kg, SSP 0.25kg. Shunshan oblique Zuoqi, Qikuan 120cm, Kwai high 15 ~ 20cm, depending on the terrain and the long stretch, the general length 10 ~ 15cm, job channel width 50 ~ 80cm, north south strike was possible.
Seeding
Live seed breeding, propagation coefficient, reduce morbidity, but slow growth, long life, takes 3 to 4 years to harvest medicine. In the case of sufficient seed sources, using live is the best way. Sowing fresh seeds usually in July, the middle, at the latest not more than early August. Fresh seeds with 25% carbendazim 1000 times soaking 2h, can prevent Asarum Sclerotinia; with 50% mancozeb 1000 times soaking 1h, Asarum can prevent blight. Sand seeds must also be aired in early August, otherwise after sowing the seeds take root gap, neither they sow, is not conducive to hair roots. Sow sowing methods, drilling two kinds.
Broadcast
In the bed surface 3 ~ 5cm deep dug shallow groove, with fine sifted humus pave the bottom, then the seeds Hunban 5 to 10 times the fine sand or humus, evenly sow. The seed spacing 3cm, after sowing using finely sifted humus cover, thickness 0.5 ~ 1cm. After casing the bed surface is then covered with a layer of leaves or straw, to keep the soil moisture, prevent bed panel junctions and rain erosion. In the spring before the emergence of the second cover removed to facilitate the emergence of fresh seed dosage 120 ~ 150g / m2.
Drilling
In the whole a good bed surface transverse bed trenching, line spacing 10cm, groove width 5 ~ 6cm, Goushen 3 ~ 5cm, ditch leveling and slightly compacted, and then in a wide trench sowing. Seed spacing 2cm, the casing 0.5 ~ 1cm, covering leaves or grass moisture. In the spring before the emergence of the second cover is removed, fresh seeds with about 100g / m2.
Miao Tian Management
Asarum
Asarum
When planting in drought timely watering, keep the bed moist. 2nd year spring thaw Chuangtu timely withdrawal when covering about emergence, in order to improve the bed temperature, promote early emergence. Timely removal of weeds, dug ditches during the rainy season to prevent the water in field. Forests or forest planting, thinning may be appropriate to the whole canopy. The use of wasteland, ginseng cultivation can be scaffolding shade, also planted corn, sunflower and other crops used to adjust the light shade. Usually 1, 2-year-old anti-light is weak, canopy density of 0.6 to 0.7; 3, 4-year-old anti-light force enhancement, canopy density 0.4 is appropriate. From the third year onwards, each combined with winter cover should be dressing 1, in bed dressing maturity of pig manure composting between deciduous forest deer manure or superphosphate mix, about 1cm thickness, each approximately 1m2 pig manure, deer manure SSP 10kg and 0.1kg.
Transplanting
Asarum perennials, long growth cycle, after the general forest planted between 6-8 years to bear fruit a lot. To take advantage of the wild seedlings, expand the area of ​​nutrition, most places have adopted seedling transplanting way, that is, first planting seedlings for three years, and then a long lifter transplant three years. Site preparation and transplanting election broadcast requirements similar method of transplanting seedlings from different sources with slightly different points transplanting seedlings seeds, rhizomes apex transplanting.
Seed seedling transplanting method
Autumn and spring can be carried out. Fall transplanting, dig every year since October 2, 3 years old of Asarum seedlings, large, medium, small 3 categories were planted. When planting a cross bed trenching, line spacing 15cm, Goushen 9 ~ 10cm, the trench by 8 ~ 10cm spacing put seedlings, make fibrous roots stretch, casing 3 ~ 5cm. Spring transplanting should be carried out before the spores did not sprout. If the transplant is too late, in the emergence or Asarum leaf, requiring a lot of water, and take a long time Huanmiao Asarum will affect growth and development.
Rhizome apex transplanting method
Asarum roots after planting division can survive independently, develop into a new individual. Section between the top of the rhizome is short, it was cut into 1cm long short planting. Dividing rhizomes and roots on the survival rate, middle and lower parts, segment length, buds presence and latency is closely related to the size and planting time. Usually stems have winter buds large latent buds, roots or rhizomes survival segment segment length of high survival rate Qiuzai higher than the summer planting. Hydroponics with the former.
Field management

Withdraw cover
The first two years after planting, after the early spring snow, it will cover leaves or grass hug the outer fields.
Asarum
Asarum
Tillage weeding
Lot 5 moonrise postemergence transplanting year, to be 3 to 4 times tillage weeding, improving Chuangtu temperature, water retention points, good for prevent Sclerotinia, promote growth. To some deep tillage between rows (about 3cm), rhizosphere to shallow (about 2cm), the exposed root without performing earth. Asarum afraid acetochlor, butachlor. [5]
Fertilization and irrigation
During the growth of general fertilizer twice a year, the first time in May, the mid-performed the second time in mid-September to late carried out with ammonium sulfate or too rock for each 5 ~ 7.5kg / 667m2, more than the line between open topdressing ditch. Fall in most regions think the bed pig manure (5kg / m2) Hunban superphosphate (0.1kg / m2) best; some Yaonong fall in the bed surface dressing 1 ~ 2cm thick composting leaves, both fertilizer and insurance soil water retention, a protective effect of winter. Every year when spring drought, irrigation should be between the lines, to keep moist.
Qing Lin dimming
Forest or forest edge to regularly clean planting forests, prevent the branches too close. For farmland cultivation, should regulate the erection of shed light shade, canopy density and seeding the same.
Winter cover
Whether live or breeding transplanting thawed required before 1cm thick leaves with or without seeds of thatched bed, until the next spring before bud removed.
Pest control

Disease Prevention
Asarum Asarum transplanted field is Sclerotinia main disease, occurs in transplanted plots for years, causing the whole plant rot, by seed, soil-borne, the incidence of the condition is mainly low temperature, soil moisture is too large or harden , severe death into a film. The main disease is the blight broadcast fields.
Control methods: to strengthen field management, appropriate strengthening air and light; timely tillage, keeping soil aeration is good; more phosphate and potassium fertilizer, the plants robust growth, enhance resistance to disease; found diseased plants should be thoroughly cleaned with 5% lime Ward milk and other treatment. Chemical control Sclerotinia available 50% + 50% carbendazim 200 times 800 times Zineb IRRIGATING good effect, preferably before wither before autumn or spring germination. Ward severe 1% copper sulfate solution available sterilization; blight with 150 times more effective antibiotics.
Pest Control
Asarum pests are cutworm, black caterpillars, grasshoppers, butterflies and other Asarum. Black caterpillars, grasshoppers, butterflies Asarum chomping blades, vanes most serious being eaten. Cutworms heaviest damage, bite shoots, cut off the petiole and rhizome.
Control methods: per 667m2 with 1 ~ 1.5kg2.5% trichlorfon powder applicator can also be used trichlorfon 1000 times liquid spray.
The main value edit
Medicinal Value

This species is the whole plant medicine
Asarum
Asarum
ʱ?? [1] 
Indications
Relieving cold, chills and pain, Tongqiao, drink warm the lung. For the cold cold, headache, toothache, nasal congestion, runny nose, allergic rhinitis, Biyuan, rheumatism, cough phlegm.
Asarum as a medicinal plant, only contained in the Qin and Han "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" will be listed as the top grade. Liao Asarum root thin, sallow color, leaf color green, spicy taste Ma tongue. And warm, a small drug. Heart, lung, kidney. There expelling wind, cold, warm the lung, the role of the water line, resuscitation. Governance cold headache, Biyuan, tooth pain, phlegm, Keni, rheumatism. In addition, Asarum also has anti-inflammatory immune,
Asarum
Asarum
Local anesthesia, increase metabolism, anti-bacterial effect, can be used for patients with cancer of white blood cells caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy reduced.
Tropism of taste
Acrid, warm. Heart, lung, kidney.
Collect and process
Fruit ripening summer or early autumn excavation, removal of impurities, spray water, a little run, cut into sections, dried.
This product was irregular segments. Rhizome irregular round, gray-brown outer skin, sometimes visible section annular.
Asarum
Asarum
Root thin, surface greyish yellow, smooth or with longitudinal wrinkles. Section yellow-white or white. Gas spicy, spicy taste, Ma tongue.
Quality requirements

Color sallow root, leaf green, dry, air spices, spicy Ma tongue who chew better.
Chemical composition
North Asarum whole plant contains 2.5% of volatile oil, oil the main component of methyl eugenol, sassafras ether, asarone, Lam Hong Su, still with excellent carvone, love grass ether, pinene, camphene, eucalyptol , dl- demethylation Hampshire aggregata base (dl-demethylcoclaurine, hignamine), pungent substance faction care legislation amine and (2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E) -N- isobutyl -2, 4,8,10- dodecene tetraene amide. China Asarum whole plant contains volatile oil 2.6%, oil is the main ingredient α- arborvitae ene (α-thujene), myrcene (myrcene), γ- terpineol, Lam Hong Su, still containing α- terpineol, sassafras ether, methyl eugenol, nutmeg ether, linalool, asarone, limonene. Hua Asarum also contains n-pentadecane, sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sesame lignans and N- isobutyl tetradecatetraene amide. Seoul Asarum volatile oil containing 1%, oil the main ingredient for the gifted carvone, the other containing α- or β- pinene, eucalyptol (1,8-cinede), methyl eugenol, sassafras ether, α- methoxy group sassafras ether, Lam Hong Su,
Asarum
Asarum
Asarum ether. [6]
Plant Identification
(1) root cross-section: an epidermal cells, some remnants. Cortical width, there are many scattered oil cells; an outer cortical cells, class rectangle, cork and micro-wood; within the cortex obvious, visible Kjeldahl points. Pericycle cell 1 to layer 2, primary xylem 2-4 prototypes. Phloem visible central beam 1 to 3 was significantly higher than the surrounding phloem parenchyma cells in large cells, but its long diameter was significantly smaller than the maximum diameter of the catheter, or phloem no obvious large thin-walled cells. Thin-walled cells containing starch grains.
(2) to take this product powder 0.5g, add methanol 20ml, ultrasonic treatment for 45 minutes, filtered and the filtrate evaporated and the residue in methanol 2ml dissolve, as the test solution, the other to take Asarum control medicine 0.5g, with the legal system as the reference drug solution. Then take Asarum Lignans reference substance, add methanol produced per 1ml solution containing 1mg, as the reference solution. Thin layer chromatography (Appendix Ⅵ B) test, to learn of the three solutions 10μl, respectively, the same silica gel G plate with petroleum ether (60 ~ 90 ℃) - ethyl acetate (3: 1) the agent, started out, dried, sprayed with 1% vanillin sulfuric acid solution, the hot air to spot the color clear. Test products for chromatography, chromatography with the reference drug and the corresponding reference standard chromatographic position was the same color spots.
Pharmacological effects
Antipyretic and analgesic effects;
Effects on cardiovascular system: Asarum volatile oil can significantly increase the guinea pig heart coronary flow; and can lower blood pressure, while decoction can boost;
Effects on the respiratory system: Asarum volatile oil of histamine or acetylcholine-induced spasm of airway smooth muscle relaxation has a very significant role, and its anti-histamine effect stronger than the anti-acetylcholine.
Asarum
Asarum
With a comfortable and easy Tongqiao pain, drink warm the lung effect.
1. sedative and analgesic effects Asarum volatile oil obviously central inhibition, small doses can make animal quiet, tame, reduce locomotor activity; high-dose animals can sleep, and have significant anticonvulsant effect. Asarum decoction gavage have analgesic effect. Important Pharmacological Basis of treatment of head and body pain, toothache, etc. for its strong analgesic effect.
2. antipyretic effect Asarum volatile oil gavage for a variety of reasons, such as warm needling, tetrahydro-β- naphthylamine, typhoid, paratyphoid mixed vaccine caused fever rabbits have significant antipyretic effect on beer yeast induced fever in rats have significant antipyretic effect. But also reduce the body temperature normal rats.
3. The anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and anti-allergic Asarum volatile oil gavage or injection have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Joint swelling in rats induced by inflammatory agents such as Asarum on carrageenan, yeast, egg white, formaldehyde caused significantly inhibited, and to fight against the croton oil-induced ear edema in mice, inhibition caused large antiserum Rat skin edema, increased capillary permeability and inhibition of the histamine-induced plastic ring and a cotton ball granulation. To go to the adrenal gland in rats, there is still anti-inflammatory effect.
Asarum active ingredient methyl eugenol, N- isobutyl dodecyl four acrylamide and higenamine could significantly inhibit histamine induced murine vein contraction of isolated ileum. Asarum water or alcohol extract all make immediate type hypersensitivity allergy mediators total emission reduction of more than 40%, indicating that they have anti-allergic effect.
4. Increase the body's metabolic function isolated from Asarum racemic higenamine having β- agonist-like pharmacological effects of widespread, it has a strong heart, dilation of blood vessels, smooth muscle relaxation, enhanced and elevated lipid metabolism blood sugar and so on. Now known higenamine contained within a variety of warm herbal medicine, such as Asarum, aconite, Evodia, etc., which exhibits pharmacological effects and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine cold or dispelling the match, it can be regarded as loose One of the important material basis for the efficacy of cold.
5. asthma, expectorant Asarum can relax the bronchial smooth muscle and showed asthma. In vitro experiments show that, Asarum volatile oil of bronchospasm caused by histamine and acetylcholine has obvious antagonism; its volatile oil ingredient methyl eugenol on rat tracheal vein there is an apparent relaxation effect. Asarone also have some asthma, expectorant effect. In addition, the alcohol infusion intravenous morphine can fight respiratory inhibition.
6. strong heart, myocardial ischemia, or high blood pressure effect Asarum has a strong heart, myocardial ischemia and lift effect of hypertension. In vitro experiments showed that the volatile oil of Asarum rabbit, rat cardiac veins obvious excitement, manifested as positive inotropic, positive-frequency effect, and can increase coronary blood flow. Canine experimental cardiogenic shock, Asarum can improve their mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure and coronary sinus peak flow and other effects, and its intensity and dopamine similar, but it does not speed up the heart rate.
Asarum volatile oil to anesthetized dogs, cats intravenous injection, visible antihypertensive effect, but there are significant boost its decoction effect, its effect may be related boost higenamine related.
7. antibacterial, antiviral fine octanol infusion, volatile oil against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhi have certain in vitro inhibition decoction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and typhoid bacilli also inhibited. Asarum volatile oil for a variety of fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans was inhibited, the antimicrobial active ingredient is sassafras ether. α- asarone inhibit respiratory syncytial virus proliferation.
8. The local anesthesia can block 50% of Asarum decoction toad sciatic nerve impulse conduction, the role reversible.
Asarum
Asarum
Its anesthetic effect and 1% procaine close. Volatile oil surface anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia. 50% Asarum tincture applied human tongue have local anesthetic effect. [7]
Drug contraindications
Qi and sweating, headache, blood deficiency, Yin cough Jifu, anti-veratridine.
"Ben Cao Jing Shu": Where the disease on the fire heat and raw inflammation, Morishita virtual, Qi sweat, blood deficiency headache, Yin cough, France are disabled.
"Was equipped with Materia Medica": wind-heat Yin disabled.
"Herbal mention": Asarum, if used alone at the end, can not be more than half the money dagger, namely multi-tightness plug, nowhere to die.
"Treatise on the Notes": heart and not stop at the water, then dry kidney. [7]
Adverse reactions
Toxic ingredients: sassafras ether.
① Asarum have a certain toxicity to the kidneys and kidney dysfunction should be used with caution.
② Asarum daily dosage of more than 20g → lips, tongue, toe finger tingling sensation can be restored after treatment.
Check aristolochic acid
Chromatographic conditions and system suitability test octadecylsilane bonded silica as a filler; acetonitrile as mobile phase A, with 0.05% phosphoric acid as mobile phase B, as specified in the following table gradient elution; detection wavelength to 260nm. Number of theoretical plates of aristolochic acid I peak should not be less than 5000.
Time (min)
Mobile phase A (%)
Mobile phase B (%)
0 ~ 10
10 to 18
18 to 20
20 to 30
30 to 31
31 to 35
35 to 40
30 → 34
34 → 35
35 → 45
forty five
45 → 53
53
53 → 100
70 → 66
66 → 65
65 → 55
55
55 → 47
47
47 → 0
Preparation of the reference solution to take aristolochic acid I reference standard amount, accurately weighed, add methanol produced per 1ml solution containing 0.2μg, that is, too.
Preparation of the test solution to take this product in powder of about 0.5g, accurately weighed, set stoppered Erlenmeyer flask, precision by adding 70% methanol 25ml, Mesa, said that given the weight, ultrasound treatment (power 500W, frequency 40kHz) 40 minutes, let cool, then weighed and the weight, with 70% methanol to complement the weight loss, shaking, filtration, the filtrate, that is, too.
Determination of Precision learn from each 10μl of the test solution and reference solution for, into the liquid chromatograph to measure, that is, too.
This product calculated on dry goods, containing aristolochic acid I (C17H11O7N) not more than 0.001%.
Economic Value

Asarum can be obtained by steam distillation of essential oils, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other industries for many purposes. Liao Asarum extract
Asarum
Asarum
As an additive raw material, widely used in household products such as soap, cosmetics, toothpaste, etc., with anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, bleeding, pain and other effects. Containing veterinary drug used to treat cough Asarum asthma, constipation; Asarum make pesticide-containing insecticides and fungicides; the Asarum volatile oil contained in a special aroma, abroad as a building material has been developed using Asarum moth insecticide-treated mosquito packing and materials.
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Asarum foliage (1)
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Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Asarum
Fine Xinya genus
Asarum group
▪ tail flower kidney Asarum Asarum ▪ ▪ ▪ double Asarum Asarum hairy
Short tube group
▪ ▪ tailed coins Asarum Asarum Asarum Taiwan ▪ ▪ ▪ spend a single leaf Asarum Asarum
Du Heng subgenus
Hua Asarum group
▪ ▪ Sakhalin Asarum Asarum
Du Heng Group
Kawakita Asarum Asarum Fujian ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ wrinkled leaflets Saruma spend Asarum Asarum ▪ Chuandian
Du Heng ▪ ▪ ▪ under purple lanterns Asarum Asarum ▪ ▪ long stems gold earrings gold earrings
▪ ▪ large flower Asarum Asarum Asarum nanchuan ▪ ▪ ▪ indica Spirodela Asarum
Asarum Asarum splendens ▪ ▪ ▪ Five Ridges in Datun Asarum
Long flower group
▪ ▪ short column of white Asarum Asarum Asarum taro ▪ ▪ ▪ Qiyang under flower Asarum Asarum
▪ ▪ Nanchangosaurus Asarum red gold earrings
Above species are distributed in China
Reference material
1. Asarum. Flora of China [reference date 2015-01-15]
2. Asarum. China Plant Gallery [reference date 2015-01-15]
3. "Febrile Diseases" in prescription compatibility Asarum Probe. Sina [reference date 2013-12-6]
4. Asarum sieboldii. asianflora [reference date 2013-12-6]
5. Shao Chun Ye, Yan Shiping. Asarum cultivation techniques. INVESTIGATION DESIGN, 2012, (01).
6. Zhang Weidong, Chen Wansheng, Kongde Yun, Lihui Ting, Wang Yonghong, Yang a gold study Chinese medicine Erigeron chemical constituents (Ⅰ). Second Military Medical University, 2000, (02).
7. Asarum. Medical Encyclopedia [reference date 2013-12-22]
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