Home‎ > ‎Common Herbs 常用草藥‎ > ‎

菊花 Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemi Flos) Ju Hua

Click to get cool Animations for your MySpace profileSet 12 up AnimationSet 12 up Animation 









菊花

 

(中药)

 锁定
菊花,中药名。在植物分类学中是菊科、菊属的多年生宿根草本植物。按栽培形式分为多头菊、独本菊、大立菊、悬崖菊、艺菊、案头菊等栽培类型;有按花瓣的外观形态分为园抱、退抱、反抱、乱抱、露心抱、飞午抱等栽培类型。不同类型里的菊花又命名各种各样的品种名称。菊花是中国十大名花之三,花中四君子(梅兰竹菊)之一,也是世界四大切花(菊花、月季、康乃馨、唐菖蒲)之一,产量居首。因菊花具有清寒傲雪的品格,才有陶渊明的“采菊东篱下,悠悠见南山”的名句。中国人有重阳节赏菊和饮菊花酒的习俗。唐·孟浩然《过故人庄》:“待到重阳日,还来就菊花。”在古神话传说中菊花还被赋予了吉祥、长寿的含义。
菊花为菊科植物的干燥头状花序。主产于浙江、安徽、河南等地。9-11月花盛开时分批采收,阴干或焙干,或熏、蒸后晒干。生用。药材按产地和加工方法不同,分为“亳菊”、“滁菊”、“贡菊”、“杭菊”等。由于又有花的颜色不同,又有黄菊花和白菊花之分。[1] 
中文学名
菊花
别    称
寿客、金英、黄华、秋菊、隐逸花
植物界
被子植物门 
双子叶植物纲
桔梗目
菊科
菊属
菊花
分布区域
中国各城镇与及农村
采收时间
9-11月初开花时
用    量
5-10g
毒    性
无毒

生理特性

菊花为短日照植物,在短日照下能提早开花。喜阳光,忌荫蔽,较耐早,怕涝。喜温暖湿润气候,但亦能耐寒,严冬季节根茎能在地下越冬。花能经受微霜,但幼苗生长和分枝孕蕾期需较高的气温。最适生长温度为20℃左右,生长最高温度32℃,最低10℃,地下根茎耐低温极限一般为-10℃。花期最低夜温17℃,开花期(中、后)可降至15—13℃。喜充足阳光,但也稍耐阴。较耐 干,最忌积涝。喜地势高燥、土层深厚、富含腐殖质、轻松肥沃而排水良好的沙壤土。在微酸性到中性的土中均能生长,而以PH6.2-6.7较好。忌连作。 秋菊为长夜日植物,在每天14.5小时的长日照下进行茎叶营养生长,每天12小时以上的黑暗与100摄氏度的夜温则适于花芽发育。但品种不同对日照的反应也不同。

产地

菊花遍布中国各城镇与农村,尤以北京、南京、上海、杭州、青岛、天津、开封、武汉、成都、长沙、湘潭、西安、沈阳、广州、中山市小榄镇、滁州等为盛。

药用部位

植物的干燥头状花絮。

炮制方法

拣去杂草,阴干、生晒。

性味

味苦、甘,性微寒。

归经

归肺、肝经。

功效

散风清热,平肝明目,清热解毒。

应用

1、风热感冒,温病初起

本品味辛疏散,体轻达表,气清上浮,微寒清热,功能疏散肺经风热,但发散表邪之力不强。常用治风热感冒,或温病初起,温邪犯肺,发热、头痛、咳嗽等症,每与性能功用相似的桑叶相须为用,并常配伍连翘、薄荷、桔梗等,如桑菊饮(《温病条辩》)。

2、肝阳眩晕,肝风实证

本品性寒,入肝经,能清肝热、平肝阳,常用治肝阳上亢,头晕目眩,每与石决明、珍珠母、白芍等平肝潜阳药同用。若肝火上攻而眩晕、头痛,以及肝经热盛、热极动风者,可与羚羊角、钩藤、桑叶等清肝热、熄肝风药同用,如羚角钩藤汤(《通俗伤寒论》)。

3、目赤昏花

本品辛散苦泄,微寒清热,如肝经,既能疏散肝经风热,又能清泄肝热以明目,故可用治肝经风热,或肝火上攻所致目赤肿痛,治疗前者常与蝉蜕、木贼、白僵蚕等疏散风热明目药配伍,治疗后者常与石决明、决明子、夏枯草等清肝明目药同用。若肝肾精血不足,目失所养,眼目昏花,视物不清,又常配伍枸杞子、熟地黄、山茱萸等滋补肝肾、益阴明目药,如杞菊地黄丸(《医级》)。

4、疮痈肿毒

本品味苦性寒,能清热解毒,可治疗疮痈肿毒,常与金银花、生甘草同用,如甘菊汤(《揣摩有得集》)。[1] 

主治

风热感冒,头痛眩晕,目赤肿痛,眼目昏花,疮痈肿毒。

相关配伍

1、但咳,身热不甚,口微渴:桑叶二钱五分,菊花一钱,杏仁二钱,连翘一钱五分,薄荷一钱八分,桔梗二钱,甘草八分,苇根二钱。水二杯,煮取一杯,日二服。(《温病条辨》桑菊饮)
2、肿毒疔疮:白菊花四两,甘草四钱,水三碗煎一碗,冲热黄酒服。(《仙拈集》二妙汤)

用法用量

5-10g。

禁忌

气虚胃寒,食少泄泻者慎用。

鉴别用药

桑叶与菊花皆能疏散风热,平抑肝阳,清肝明目,通可用治风热感冒或温病初起,发热、微恶风寒、头痛,肝阳上亢,头痛眩晕,风热上攻或肝火上炎所致的目赤肿痛,以及肝肾精血不足,目暗昏花等证。但桑叶疏散风热之力较强,又能清肺润燥,凉血止血。菊花平肝、清肝明目之力较强,又能清热解毒。[1] 

相关论述

1、《本草纲目》:风热,目疼欲脱,泪出,养目去盲,作枕明目。
2、《本经》:诸风头眩肿痛,目欲脱,泪出,皮肤死肌,恶风湿痹。久服利血气,轻身耐老延年。
3、《别录》:疗腰痛去来陶陶,除胸中烦热,安肠胃,利五脉,调四肢。
4、《本草衍义》:近世有二十余种,惟单叶花小而黄,绿叶色深小而薄,应候而开者是也。
参考资料
  • 1.  高学敏.中药学.北京:中国中医出版社,2007:74
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/4206/16144201.htm

Chrysanthemum (TCM) Lock
This entry transformation and standardization to promote the project by the pharmaceutical terminology outcome State Administration of Traditional Chinese / Chinese Medical Science and Technology Development Center offers.
Chrysanthemum, Chinese name. In plant taxonomy is Asteraceae, genus of perennial herbs. Press cultivated form is divided into long daisy, chrysanthemum, large Li Ju, Ju cliff, art chrysanthemum, chrysanthemum cultivars desk; there by the appearance of the petals form into park hold, hold back, reverse hold, hold chaos, exposed heart hold, hold, etc. cultivars fly afternoon. Different types of chrysanthemums in a variety of species and named names. Daisy is the flower of China's top ten three, four gentlemen (Merlin, bamboo and chrysanthemum), one of the world four cut (chrysanthemum, rose, carnation, gladiolus) one, yield top. Daisy has Aoxue due to poor character, only Tao Yuanming "mining Ju Dong, long to see the mountain," the famous. Chinese people have the Chung Yeung Festival Double Ninth and drink chrysanthemum wine customs. Tang Meng Hao Ran "over the enemy village": "until the Double Ninth Day, also come on Daisy." In ancient myths and legends Daisy has also been given a good fortune, longevity meaning.
Chrysanthemum Compositae dried flower heads. Mainly produced in Zhejiang, Anhui, Henan and other places. 9 - November blossom batches harvested, dried or drying, or smoked, dried after steaming. Students use. Herbs different origin and processing methods, divided into "Bo Ju," "Chu Ju," "chrysanthemum", "chrysanthemum", etc. Because there are different flower color, but also yellow chrysanthemums and white chrysanthemums points. [1] 
Chinese scientific name chrysanthemum nickname life passenger, Kim, Huang Hua, Chrysanthemum, Seclusion flower border Flora door Door Gang angiosperms dicotyledons outline campanulales families Asteraceae genus Chrysanthemum chrysanthemum species distribution area and the towns and rural China Mining 9 closing time - the amount of 5-10g toxicity toxic bloom early November
Contents 1 Origin physiological characteristics 2 3 4 processing methods medicinal parts of taste 5 6 7 effect 8 Meridian application ▪ 1, Fengreganmao, febrile disease early ▪ 2, liver yang dizziness, liver wind empirical ▪ 3, red eyes dim ▪ 4, attending carbuncle swollen poison 9 11 10 Related compatibility Dosage Contraindications 13 12 14 differential treatment related discussion
Physiological characteristics
Daisy is a short-day plants under short-day energy early flowering. Hi sunshine, avoid shading, more resistant to early, the fear of floods. Hi warm and humid climate, but can also cold, the winter season can overwinter in underground rhizomes. Flowers can withstand micro-cream, but the bud seedling growth and branching of the higher temperatures required. The optimum growth temperature is about 20 ℃, the maximum temperature of growth 32 ℃, minimum 10 ℃, underground rhizomes low temperature limit is generally -10 ℃. Flowering lowest night temperature 17 ℃, flowering period (during and after) can be reduced to 15-13 ℃. Hi sunny, but also a little shade. More resistant to dry, very sensitive to waterlogging. Hi Gaozao terrain, deep soil, humus-rich, fertile and easy-drained sandy loam. In slightly acidic to neutral soil could grow, and to PH6.2-6.7 better. Avoid continuous cropping. Chrysanthemum plant day to night, at 14.5 hours per day of sunshine long stems and leaves vegetative growth, more than 12 hours a day of darkness and the night temperature is 100 degrees Celsius suitable for flower bud development. But the variety of different responses to sunlight is also different.
Place of origin
Chrysanthemum Chinese all over the urban and rural areas, especially in Beijing, Nanjing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Qingdao, Tianjin, Kaifeng, Wuhan, Chengdu, Changsha, Xiangtan, Xi'an, Shenyang, Guangzhou, Zhongshan, Chuzhou Sheng.
Medicinal parts
Dried heads tidbits plants.
Processing Methods
Pick weeds, dry, sun-dried.
Taste
Bitter, sweet, slightly cold.
Meridian
In the lungs, the liver.
Effect
Scattered wind heat, Liver eyesight, detoxification.
Application
1, Fengreganmao, febrile disease early

The taste oct evacuation, light body of the table, clean air floating, slightly cold, heat, wind and heat lung function evacuate, but the evil force is not strong divergence table. Common treatment Fengreganmao, or febrile disease early, warm Fanfei evil, fever, headache, cough embolism, similar to the function and performance of each phase must be used mulberry leaves, and often compatibility forsythia, mint, bellflower, such as Sangju drink ("warm Diseases debate").
2, liver yang dizziness, liver wind Positive

The character cold, into the liver, can Liver heat, Liver Yang, commonly used rule hyperactivity, dizziness, each with abalone, mother of pearl, white peony root and other calming liver yang drug use. If anger upside and dizziness, headache, and liver by excessive heat, extreme heat moving wind, could and antelope horn, Uncaria, mulberry and other Liver heat, put out the liver wind with drug use, such as antelope horn Uncaria soup ( "Popular Treatise on").
3, red eyes dim

This product Xinsan vent bitter, slightly cold heat, such as the liver, the liver to evacuate both wind and heat, but also Qingxie liver heat to eyesight, it can cure liver by wind and heat, or anger caused by red eyes and swollen upside pain, often associated with the treatment of former cicada, Equisetum, white silkworm and other evacuation wind-heat eyesight drug compatibility, the treatment which is often associated with abalone, cassia, Prunella Liver eyesight and other drug use. If the liver and kidney fine blood, head loss of the support, eyes dim, blurred vision, and often compatibility wolfberry, Rehmannia, dogwood and other nourishing liver and kidney yin eyesight drugs, such as Qijudihuang pill ("medical grade") ʱ??
4, carbuncle swollen poison

The taste of bitter cold, can detoxify, treat sore carbuncles poisoning, often with honeysuckle, raw licorice with the use, such as chamomile soup ("try to figure out something to set"). [1] 
Indications
Fengreganmao, headache, dizziness, red eyes and throat, eyes dim, carbuncle swollen poison.
Related Compatibility
1, but the cough, fever less, mouth slightly thirsty: Mulberry two fifth of the money, a money chrysanthemum, almond second money, forsythia a fifth of the money, a money-eighth of mint, Campanulaceae two money, licorice eight, reed root second money. Two cups of water, Zhuqu cup, day two. ("Warm Diseases identified" Sangju drink)
2, swollen boils poison: white chrysanthemum forty-two, licorice four money, fried bowl of water bowls, red wine served hot. ("Sin twist set" two wonderful soup)
Dosage
5-10g.
Taboo
Qi and stomach, eat less diarrhea caution.
Identification of medication
Mulberry leaf and chrysanthemum have encountered evacuation of wind-heat, stabilize liver-yang, Liver eyesight, can cure common cold or warm through early disease, fever, slightly bad cold, headache, hyperactivity, headache, dizziness, wind and heat on attack or anger on the inflammation caused by red eyes and throat, as well as liver and kidney deficiency blood, head dark dim card. But Mulberry evacuation wind-heat strong force, but clearing the lungs and moistening, cooling blood to stop bleeding. Daisy Pinggan force Liver eyesight is strong, but also detoxification. [1] 
Related discussion
1, "Compendium of Materia Medica": wind-heat, head pain to take off, tear out, raising projects go blind, make pillow eyesight.
2, "The Classic": all the wind dizziness and throat, head to take off, tear out the dead skin muscle, evil rheumatism. Jiufu profit blood, light-resistant old sickness.
3, "Do not record": treatment of low back pain go to Tao Tao, in addition to chest Fanre, Ann stomach, Lee five veins, tune limbs.
4, "Ben Cao Yan Yi": There are more than twenty modern times, but a single small yellow leaves and flowers, dark green leaf color small, thin, should designate and who is also open.
Reference material
1. Gao Min. Pharmacy. Beijing: China Traditional Chinese Medicine Press, 2007: 74











Comments