桂枝，正名：肉桂（学名：Cinnamomum cassia Presl），又名玉桂、桂皮等，属樟目，樟科中等大乔木；一年生枝条圆柱形，顶芽芽鳞宽卵形，绿色的叶子互生，长椭圆形至近披针形；花白色，长约4.5mm；果椭圆形，成熟时黑紫色，无毛；花期6~8月，果期10~12月。
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Guizhi with cinnamon differ in clinical application.
Guizhi, rectification of names: Cinnamon (scientific name: Cinnamomum cassia Presl), also known as cinnamon, cinnamon etc., is laurales, Lauraceae moderately large trees; annual branches cylindrical, bud bud scales broadly ovate, green leaves are alternate, oblong to nearly lanceolate; flowers white, about 4.5mm; fruit oval, dark purple when mature, glabrous; flowering from June to August, the fruit of 10 to 12 months. 
Mainly produced in Guangxi, Guangdong and Yunnan and other places. Spring and summer cut twigs, dried or dried, cut into thin slices or small pieces with.
Chinese scientific name Latin name CassiaTwig Guizhi nickname cinnamon, cassia twig and other sectors Flora door Door Gang angiosperms dicotyledons outline laurales Branch Zhang Ke Yake camphor camphor family subfamily genus Cinnamomum family
Contents 1 Morphology Growth Habit 2 3 4 The main value of the history of cultivation techniques 5 6 Geographical Distribution
Morphological characteristics editor
Medium Large trees; bark grayish brown, old bark thick 13mm.
Year old branches cylindrical, dark brown, with longitudinal pinstripe, slightly pubescent, number four prism year old branches, brown, longitudinally pinstripes, densely greyish short nap.
Small terminal bud, bud scales broadly ovate, apex acuminate, densely greyish short nap.
Leaves alternate or nearly opposite, oblong to nearly lanceolate, apex slightly acute, base acute, leathery, margin cartilaginous, involution, green above, shiny, hairless, pale green below, dark, sparsely yellow short hair, from the base three veins, lateral veins subopposite, from leaf base 5 ~ 10mm at birth, extends upward slightly curved bottom end of the leaf gradually disappear, and the veins in the above significant depression, very prominent below to the side of a majority offshoot margin, within the margin offshoot arch link, the transverse veins wavy, nearly parallel, spaced 3 ~ 4mm, obvious above, below projections, during which are connected by small veins, small veins below visible; petiole stout, long 1.2 ~ 2cm, the ventral surface flat or slightly lower portion of a groove, short hair is yellow.
Panicles axillary or subterminal, long 8 ~ 16cm, three branches, branching end of 3-flowered cymes, peduncle length of inflorescence length of the half, and order levels are yellow hair shaft.
Flowers white, about 4.5mm; pedicels 3 ~ 6mm, being brown short hair. Perianth inside and outside of densely brown short hair, perianth tube inverted cone, large about 2mm, perianth lobes ovate-oblong, nearly, about 2.5mm, width 1.5mm, apex obtuse or acute ʱ??
Fertile stamens 9, filaments pubescent, first, two stamens about 2.3mm, flat filaments, about 1.4mm, the top 1/3 becomes large, oval-shaped anthers oblong, about 0.9mm, apex truncate, drug chamber 4, rooms are introverted, the chamber 2 is much smaller, about the third round stamen 2.7mm, flat filaments, about 1.9mm, the top 1/3 of a pair of rounded kidney-shaped glands, anthers oblong oval shape, drug chamber 4, the upper chamber 2 small lateral direction, the lower chamber 2 is large, outward.
Staminodes 3, located in the inner wheel, and even handle about 2mm, Shank slim, flat, long 1.3mm, pubescent, apex arrow-shaped equilateral triangle.
Ovary ovoid, about 1.7mm, hairless, style slender, with an equal ovary long, stigma small, inconspicuous. Fruit oval, about 1cm, width 7 ~ 8 (9) mm, dark purple when mature, glabrous; fruit tray shallow cup-shaped, long 4mm, top wide 7mm, edge truncate or slightly toothed crack.
Flowering from June to August, the fruit of 10 to 12 months. 
Growth habit editor
Cinnamon hi warm climate, suitable born in frost-free environment in subtropical regions, optimum growth temperature of 26 ~ 30 ℃, the plant began to grow in the monthly average temperature above 20 ℃, slow growth below 20 ℃, 0 ~ 6 ℃ low temperature did not see frost damage. Cinnamon hi humid, avoid stagnant water, requiring rainfall, relative humidity is above 70 percent, too much rain can cause root rot leaf mold; too arid zones, poor plant growth. , Cinnamon is a semi-negative species, on the light requirements vary with different ages, seedling shade, avoid direct sun; mature trees to grow normally in more sunlight, cinnamon oil  content, good quality. Cinnamon is a deep-rooted trees require deep soil, loose texture, good drainage, permeability strong sandy loam or loam. Hi slightly acidic or acidic soil, pH4.5 ~ 6.5 in red, yellow loam grow well. Cinnamon saplings grow slowly, adult rapid growth, sprouting ability; age more than 10 years of seedling trees begin to bloom; short cinnamon seed longevity, not exposure and go far. [3-4]
The main value edit
Guizhi is dried herbs cinnamon twigs, usually in the spring and summer harvest, directly or sliced dried leaves can be dried after removal. Gui Xin Wen can be expelling wind and cold, cold to treat colds, fever, chills and so on. 
Its spicy, sweet, warm, lungs, heart, bladder, is attending in cold temperatures commonly used in medicine, has a complement Yuanyang, blood, warm stomach effect, often associated with liver and kidney medicine, qi and blood drug compatibility, treat kidney deficiency, Vital Huoshuai, cold extremities pulse, with the drug combination on abdominal Leng Tong, cold paralysis lumbago other warm years, has significant effects of analgesic and anti-cancer. Carminative oils various existing drugs such as oil cooler, rheumatism oil all contain Gui Youcheng points.
Function: Guizhi sweating Jieji energy, warm the Tongmai, yang gas, cold pain. Main cold table card; alpine arthralgia; cold limbs; amenorrhea dysmenorrhea; Zhengjia agglomeration; Chest; palpitations; phlegm; urination. For the cold cold, abdominal Leng Tong, cold blood by the closure, joint arthralgia, phlegm, edema, palpitations, Bentun.
Dosage: 3 to 9 grams. 
Indications leprosy "benzenepropanoic alum" That is the main component of cinnamon oil, other by-products such as cinnamon twig, seeds, Ding Gui, Gui Zhong and others have different pharmacological effects, widely used in Chinese medicine. 
Cinnamon is a valuable spice plants, cinnamon powder in Western countries usually used to bake bread, pastry, preserved meat. The main ingredients except cinnamon oil cinnamic aldehyde, but also contains a dozen ingredients benzaldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, caryophyllene, coumarin, widely used in beverage, food flavoring, medicine recipe, reconcile flavors and advanced cosmetics. Cinnamon excellent material, structure and detailed, easy to crack, can produce high-end furniture. 
Cinnamon evergreen foliage flourish, biomass and large leaves, can effectively improve soil and water conservation. 
Cultivation Technical Editor
Alternatively and site preparation
Cinnamon is a deep-rooted trees, should choose near water drained flat slope or idle wasteland, with soil deep, loose texture, moist fertile sandy loam is the best. Ted deep soil preparation should all be until after the sun white topsoil, administering calcium magnesium phosphate 1950kg / hm, composting manure pigsty 33000kg / hm as basal, from Qikuan 1 ~ 1.2m, high 15 ~ 20cm, 40cm wide ditch , breaking clods, fine raked the whole, a good four weeks drains to prepare for planting. 
Planting season election in mid-March to early May, because cinnamon seeds is of short-life, so with mining-play best. Washed with water before planting seeds, to get rid of mildew, bursting seed. 5 ‰ with potassium permanganate solution soaking 15 ~ 20min, then rinse with water to the liquid, remove the seeds sown immediately. In seedbed seeding rate 225 ~ 240kg / hm appropriate, by spacing 20 ~ 24cm, spacing 5 ~ 7cm demand, the casing 1 ~ 1.5cm thick, pour enough water, Gallant. 
20 days after sowing, seedling grow 5 ~ 6cm high, thrown off Gallant, about 1.2m tall shade structures shed, requires light transmittance of 30% to 40%, in order to facilitate seedling growth. 30 days later when the sprouts as finger-like leaflets large, can be sprayed with foliar potassium dihydrogen phosphate. After spraying once every 15 days. May also be combined with insecticides, fungicides sprayed together. 80 days later, when the seedlings grow 5 to 6 leaflets, can compound fertilizer 600kg / hm. After the winter solstice, seedlings grow to 30 ~ 40cm high, it can expose scaffolding, controlling water control fertilizer to sun seedlings, so that leaves the tip sallow sun to mature in order to ensure a high survival rate of 2 to March next year when the transplant. Cinnamon seedling growth slow, pay attention to weeding, keep the seedbed moist, but to prevent water. 
Preparations for afforestation
Planting to choose loose soil, deep fertile, humid, sunny, easy to catch cold, well-drained or flushed lighter hilly hinterland mountains for afforestation, the slope should choose east or southeast, autumn and winter Lian Shan site preparation, full-Ken, digging specifications for 40cm × 40cm × 40cm. After 1 to 2 months weathering, in mid-March on planting, Sincere into 10kg basal pit, then pad some topsoil, Zaimiao righting, so the roots stretch, at times filling and a little ease, the root of water drenched again training in cultivation, slightly higher than rhizomes earth ground. Available straw when drought covering the hole surface, keep the soil humidity. 
Planting density varies according to slightly different business goals, the general 1m × 1m or 0.7m × 0.8m, density of up to 9000 to 10500 / hm, even the most dense of up to 15,000 / hm. If the higher management level, the adoption 1m × 1.2m or 1.2m × 1.2m. 
Planting monthly intercropping
Conducted 30 days after planting seedlings once a search to fill a vacancy, the original planting density, seedlings Planting monthly with their peers. First planted young forest, some, such as pigeon pea species should, cassava stalk crops; after forest can interspecific puzzle, Amomum and other shade of medicinal plants, to improve the soil structure, the role of contributing to income. After the forest canopy, stop intercropping. 
Weeding: young stage, a year weeding 2 to 3 times, until the forest canopy so far. November 1 last year cultivator, will eradicate the weed covering the plants around inside, in order to reduce soil moisture evaporation. Cultivator job to be careful, do not hurt the plant stem hoe, so sprout, consumption of nutrients, affecting the growth of the trunk.
Drenching fertilization: after planting within 1 to 2 months to regular watering wet product, to ensure seedling survival, later, as the drought may be. Fertilizer 2-3 times per year, combined with tending conducted the first three years focused on Nitrogen, phosphorus promote growth, plus the first four years of applying potassium fertilizer. Each per plant nitrogen 50g, 50g or phosphate fertilizer 100g.
Pruning shaping: For the plant tall, straight, I want to go Meng pruning, to near the ground sprout collateral and cut off the excess. Post-harvest fruit, to become mature trees of worms branches, weak branches, injured branches, closely spaced branches cut off, in order to ensure the permeability within woodland. First pruning can be 3 to 4 years after transplanting, once every other year after. Pruning intensity, usually 4 years of the tree, should retain the crown accounts for 1/2, 5 to 10 years of green tree height, retaining the crown should account should account for tree height tree height of 1/3, more than 11 years, to retain crown 1/4. Pruning should be carried out in the time period of dormancy. 
Cinnamon has a major pest shoot blight, anthracnose, root rot, bubble shield bugs, double valve moth, wood moth, leaf insects. Which is mainly composed of cinnamon bubble shield bugs infestation shoot blight caused the largest threat.  
The first is the need to cultivate pest-free seedlings, tending to strengthen management; pruning diseased branches until the base of the litter and clean up underground stone forest susceptible rotten tree, using Dyson amine 600 times spraying to control the spread of pathogen infection.  
Strengthen the cultivation and management, improve plant disease resistance; early onset of spraying diluted 700-fold with 50% thiophanate-methyl WP, or 80% carbendazim WP 600 times spraying, spraying every 7 to 10 days 1 times, three times in a row.  
Good nursery open drains to prevent hydrocephalus; discovery of diseased plants, immediately unplug it, sick watering hole with a 5% lime disinfection; early onset with 50% diluted 500 times tuzet full spray to prevent the disease from spreading.  
Bubble shield bugs
Clear winter pests and diseases and has withered cinnamon stems, diseased leaves, concentrated woodland burned out; the peak of the bubble shield to prevent and treat the occurrence of bugs with the 1500 to 2000-fold diluted insect Gui Ling EC; total medication five times a year, once Spraying can maintain the efficacy of 7 to 10 days.  
Adult emergence in March of each year, remove infested and has withered cinnamon stems focus away from woodland; larvae hatch in late May to early August, 1500 to 2000-fold diluted Gui Ling EC to prevent and treat insect, every 7 to 10 days and then spray a second, for 2 to 3 times; in the autumn and winter, if found to have new wood trunk discharge, medication cotton dipped in 1:10 times trichlorfon solution to fill the hole, external Wong smoked seal kill larvae.  
Zhang red beetles
Amputation victims branches, centralized processing; if found new wood trunk discharge, medication cotton dipped in 1:10 times 90% trichlorfon solution Zhukong stuffed, topical Wong smoked seal kill larvae.  
Development history Edit
Qin and Han Dynasties to the understanding and application of the Efficacy
Guizhi as a clinical commonly used drugs, human medicine has a long history. "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" record: "Mu Gui, Weixin temperature, inverse gas main on, knot gas Houbi, Breath, Lee joints, Buzhongyiqi ⋯⋯" from the paragraph written records shows Guizhi have lower gas, Lee joints, deficiency of power. This book will be listed as the top grade, can be physical health, for the various drugs employed through make first, day:. ". Main diseases, raise the spirit, and color Jiufu light not old, unfamiliar brilliance, often as good fawn boy." enough to see the wide range of application lies. Guizhi two prefix seen in the Eastern Han Dynasty, "Febrile Diseases", in this book Guizhi the use of higher frequency, and is not the same with the compatibility of different effects. Guizhi soup is cold beam therapy table and table Camp David is not caused by deficiency, 方中桂 sticks up through camp guard, Jieji published compatibility with peony reconcile business health. Wulingsan with Poria compatibility, reflects the excellence of the gas line water power. Guizhi Fuzi soup, licorice aconite soup, soup tripartite Guizhishaoyaozhimu is effective prescription treatment of rheumatism, Fang Gui warm the meridians with cold pain. Treatment of Diseases palpitations name of party Zhigancao soup, Gui with ginger, sake yang to facilitate blood, yin without delay knot can suffer. GFW is designed for the treatment of Zhongjing woman Zhengjia, abdominal established under the blood. Xin Wen Fang Zhonggui branch line loose, warm-blood. Fang Yang Twig Gui soup is cold pathogen Shangni PL Bentun of treatment, prescription aggravated Gui amount Jiangni flat punch for punch counter to the drug treatment. Ogata be seen from the above with the compatibility of different drugs to make Gui Xin, casual, warm, through the role of its head is indeed a "first for the various drugs employed through make."
Sui and Tang Dynasties on the Efficacy of understanding
Sui herbal medicine and prescriptions rapid development, Gui efficacy of a new supplement on the basis of previous. "Newly Revised Materia Medica", "Gui, sweet, acrid, hot, toxic. Lee hepatopulmonary gas, confidant of cold and heat," At this point, Gui Mei basis of sexual Sheen adds sweet taste, made into a warm hot. Yun "Virtual and more cold-Gui Xin, Evodia, monkshood, Aconitum ⋯⋯" the Guizhi aconite and other classified Evodia hot drugs and the like, seen at the time Guizhi and cinnamon are the same drug, emphasis on therapeutic applications thermal warming effect. And proposed taking Guizhi taboo: "Gui Xin avoid raw onions, lettuce."
Tang previous medical literature monograph "Prescriptions" in Gui prescriptions, mostly with Gui word, when Gui, Gui Xin, cinnamon different names for the same drug. Sun Simiao when governance "heat" large number of applications Guizhi, breaking Zhang, "there is prima facie evidence" of application areas, such as the "guts 葛根龙 soup", used to treat the "Treatise three, four I; 1 does not recover from illness, the body is tired and poison hot. " "All wind" chapter, Guizhi recipe for stroke hemiplegia by drug compatibility to play expelling evil, Meridian, Lee joint effect of such Xiaoxuming soup, this side by the Gui, ephedra, Chuanxiong other drugs. Wind poison beriberi articles in "Wind cited soup" "mending Dendrobium Gentiana scattered" and other prescription Guizhi, whichever divergence skin moisture, qi meridians pass intended. "Taiwan nostrums" will be widely used Guizhi warm diseases, multiple drug compatibility with cold homes warmed the nature, whichever meridians, power through the camp of publication.
Ming and Qing dynasties of the Efficacy of understanding
Ming Dynasty medical scientist Li Guizhi comprehensive summary of the effectiveness of the application of Guizhi also proposed new ideas, "Compendium of Materia Medica," says: "Treating addiction Wind aphonia pharyngitis, Yang bleeding, ulcer sore Neto pox, can lead blood of sweat fester, solution poison snake belly. "he noted Guizhi have entrusted poison pus, solution poison snake belly effect. "Materia Medica prepared to" words "can benefit lung, threatening wind is the liver, Kwai Pinggan" prompt Guizhi both Lee lung, but also benefit the liver. "Materia Medica truth," saying:. "Threatening wind belonged to the liver, where the rule of wind threatened the card, when the level of hepatic Gui" Gui classified as the liver, liver adjustable level wind; "warm Diseases identified "That is in compliance with Guizhi usage Jhongjing law, another new play. "Cover febrile disease bogey Khan, most hi Jieji, Gui this is Jieji and Fangxianghuazhuo ⋯⋯" noted Guizhi have Jieji Huazhuo effect. Wuling plus Menispermaceae Guizhi soup Yiyiren marked with: "⋯⋯ it in Wuling and cholera among Guizhi Wenjingtong ⋯⋯" Gui asked for cholera transferred tendons, with effect warm tendons. White Tiger Guizhi decoction on focal temperature and malaria, with Guizhi cited evil out, claims that "heat gain due to wonderful use of heat." Qing Dynasty "medical wholehearted participation in the West recorded" Day: "The inverse gas Nizhe more due to liver" "it can Jiangni who, with its spicy, and China in the autumn, the gold and the good level of the wood where the gas against the gas. it comes from the liver and the Nizhe, Gui Jieneng drop it. " Fully discussed Guizhi Lee hepatopulmonary gas, Jiangni gas, scattered power of evil. Little Dragon Decoction Fang severe asthma and not to go ephedra Almond Guizhi, Guizhi have lower gas intended Dingchuan role. And said: "" The Classic "on Mu Gui, began to air their statement on the main Keni, like again can Jiangni gas for long Guizhi of various home herbal few words and who can Jiangni gas, is used. Guizhi and abandon its director too. "
Modern "pharmacy" teaching to the Efficacy summarized as follows: sweating Jie Ji, warm meridians, to help warm yang, greatly weakened the Guizhi range of applications, through the historical development of the Efficacy of carding, find Guizhi Many have effectively ignored the effect, therefore, if a good variety efficacy study Guizhi, not only can make the best use, saving drug source, but also provide resources for modern clinical medicine and drug development.
Geographical Distribution Edit
Origin China Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Yunnan and other provinces. India, Laos, Vietnam to Indonesia and other places also have distribution. 
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
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