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桂枝 Cinnamon Twigs (Cinnamomi Ramulus) Gui Zhi

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桂枝

 编辑
声明
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桂枝与肉桂在临床应用上有所不同。
桂枝,正名:肉桂(学名:Cinnamomum cassia Presl),又名玉桂、桂皮等,属樟目樟科中等大乔木;一年生枝条圆柱形,顶芽芽鳞宽卵形,绿色的叶子互生,长椭圆形至近披针形;花白色,长约4.5mm;果椭圆形,成熟时黑紫色,无毛;花期6~8月,果期10~12月。[1] 
主产于广西、广东及云南等地。春、夏季剪下嫩枝,晒干或阴干,切成薄片或小段用。
中文学名
桂枝
拉丁学名
CassiaTwig
别    称
玉桂、桂枝等
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
樟目
樟科
亚    科
樟亚科
樟族
樟属

形态特征编辑

中等大乔木;树皮灰褐色,老树皮厚达13mm。
一年生枝条圆柱形,黑褐色,有纵向细条纹,略被短柔毛,当年生枝条多少四棱形,黄褐色,具纵向细条纹,密被灰黄色短绒毛。
顶芽小,芽鳞宽卵形,先端渐尖,密被灰黄色短绒毛。
叶互生或近对生,长椭圆形至近披针形,先端稍急尖,基部急尖,革质,边缘软骨质,内卷,上面绿色,有光泽,无毛,下面淡绿色,晦暗,疏被黄色短绒毛,离基三出脉,侧脉近对生,自叶基5~10mm处生出,稍弯向上伸至叶端之下方渐消失,与中脉在上面明显凹陷,下面十分凸起,向叶缘一侧有多数支脉,支脉在叶缘之内拱形连结,横脉波状,近平行,相距3~4mm,上面不明显,下面凸起,其间由小脉连接,小脉在下面明显可见;叶柄粗壮,长1.2~2cm,腹面平坦或下部略具槽,被黄色短绒毛。
圆锥花序腋生或近顶生,长8~16cm,三级分枝,分枝末端为3花的聚伞花序,总梗长约为花序长之半,与各级序轴被黄色绒毛。
花白色,长约4.5mm;花梗长3~6mm,被黄褐色短绒毛。花被内外两面密被黄褐色短绒毛,花被筒倒锥形,长约2mm,花被裂片卵状长圆形,近等大,长约2.5mm,宽1.5mm,先端钝或近锐尖。
能育雄蕊9,花丝被柔毛,第一、二轮雄蕊长约2.3mm,花丝扁平,长约1.4mm,上方1/3处变宽大,花药卵圆状长圆形,长约0.9mm,先端截平,药室4,室均内向,上2室小得多,第三轮雄蕊长约2.7mm,花丝扁平,长约1.9mm,上方1/3处有一对圆状肾形腺体,花药卵圆状长圆形,药室4,上2室较小,外侧向,下2室较大,外向。
退化雄蕊3,位于最内轮,连柄长约2mm,柄纤细,扁平,长1.3mm,被柔毛,先端箭头状正三角形。
子房卵球形,长约1.7mm,无毛,花柱纤细,与子房等长,柱头小,不明显。果椭圆形,长约1cm,宽7~8(9)mm,成熟时黑紫色,无毛;果托浅杯状,长4mm,顶端宽达7mm,边缘截平或略具齿裂。
花期6~8月,果期10~12月。[1] 

生长习性编辑

肉桂喜温暖气候,适生于亚热带地区无霜的环境,最适宜生长的温度为26~30℃,植株在月平均气温20℃以上才开始生长,20℃以下生长缓慢,0~6℃低温未见冻害。肉桂喜湿润,忌积水,要求雨量充沛,相对湿度70%以上,雨水过多会引起根腐叶烂;过于干旱地带,植株生长势差。、肉桂属半阴性树种,对光照的要求随着树龄的不同而变化,幼苗喜阴,忌烈日直射;成龄树在较多阳光下才能正常生长,桂皮油[2]  含量高、质量好。肉桂属深根性树种,要求土层深厚、质地疏松、排水良好、通透性强的沙壤土或壤土。喜微酸性或酸性土壤,在pH4.5~6.5的红、黄壤土上生长良好。肉桂幼树生长缓慢,成株生长较快,萌芽力强;树龄达10年以上的实生树开始开花;肉桂种子寿命短,不能暴晒和久存。[3-4] 

主要价值编辑

药用价值
中药材桂枝是肉桂的干燥嫩枝,一般在春、夏季节采收,去除叶后直接晒干或切片晒干即可。桂枝辛温,可祛风寒,能治疗感冒风寒、发热恶寒等。[5] 
其性味辛、甘,温,入肺、心、膀胱经,是主治里寒常用的温里药,具有补元阳、通血脉、暖脾胃之功效,常与补肝肾药、补气血药配伍,治疗肾阳不足、命门火衰、肢冷脉微,与其它温里药配伍治疗脘腹冷痛、寒痹腰痛,具有明显的镇痛和抗癌防癌的作用。现有的各种驱风油类药物如清凉油、风湿油等皆含有桂油成分。
功能:桂枝能发汗解肌,温经通脉,助阳化气,散寒止痛。主风寒表证;寒湿痹痛;四肢厥冷;经闭痛经;症瘕结块;胸痹;心悸;痰饮;小便不利。用于风寒感冒,脘腹冷痛,血寒经闭,关节痹痛,痰饮,水肿,心悸,奔豚。
用法用量:3~9克 。[6] 
主治麻疯病的“苯丙矾”其主要成分即桂油,肉桂的其它副产品如桂枝、桂子桂丁、桂盅等都有不同的药理作用,在中药中广为应用。[4] 
经济价值
肉桂是名贵的香料植物,桂皮粉在西方国家通常用来烤制面包、点心,腌制肉类食品。桂油主要成分除肉桂醛外,还含有苯甲醛肉桂醇、丁香烯、香豆素等十多种成分,广泛用于饮料、食品的增香、医药配方、调和香精和高级化妆品。肉桂材质优良,结构细致,不易开裂,可制作高档家具。[4] 
生态价值
肉桂树四季常绿,枝叶繁盛,生物量和落叶量大,能有效地改良土壤和涵养水源。[4] 

栽培技术编辑

种子育苗
选地和整地
肉桂是深根性树种,宜选择在靠近水源排水良好的平坦坡地或闲置荒地,以土壤深厚、质地疏松、湿润肥沃的沙壤土为最佳。整地要全部深翻晒地,待晒白表土后,施用钙镁磷肥1950kg/h㎡,腐熟的猪栏粪33000kg/h㎡作基肥,起畦宽1~1.2m,高15~20cm,沟宽40cm,打碎土块,整细耙平,开好四周排水沟,以备播种。[7] 
播种
播种季节选在3月中旬至5月上旬,因肉桂种子属于短寿命型,所以随采即播最好。播种前用清水洗净种子,除掉霉烂、爆裂的种子。用5‰的高锰酸钾溶液浸种15~20min,再用清水把药液冲洗干净,捞出种子立即播种。以苗床播种量225~240kg/h㎡为宜,按行距20~24cm、株距5~7cm点播,覆土1~1.5cm厚,淋足水分,盖草。[7] 
苗期管理
播种20天后,苗长出5~6cm高,揭去盖草,搭建约1.2m高的遮阴棚,要求透光度在30%~40%,以利幼苗生长。30天后当苗芽的小叶如指头般大时,可喷施磷酸二氢钾叶面肥。以后每隔15天喷施1次。也可结合杀虫剂、杀菌剂一起喷施。80天后,苗长出5~6片小叶时,可施复合肥600kg/h㎡。冬至以后,苗长至30~40cm高时,可揭棚架,控水控肥来晒苗,让叶梢晒至老熟蜡黄,以保证次年2~3月份移植时有高的成活率。肉桂苗期生长缓慢,要注意中耕除草,保持苗床湿润,但要防止积水。[7] 
种植管理
整地造林
种植要选土质疏松、深厚肥沃、温湿、阳光充足、不易受寒、排水良好的低丘地或冲刷较轻的山腹地为造林地,坡向宜选择东向或东南向,秋冬季炼山整地,进行全垦,挖穴的规格为40cm×40cm×40cm。经1~2个月风化后,于3月上中旬栽植,坑内先施入10kg基肥,然后垫一部分表土,栽苗扶正,使根部舒展,分次填土并稍踏实,浇透定根水再培以松土,根茎培土略高于地面。天旱时可用稻草覆盖穴面,保持土壤湿度。[7] 
种植密度
种植密度按经营目标不同而略有差异,一般采用1m×1m或0.7m×0.8m,密度可达9000~10500株/h㎡,甚至最密高达15000株/h㎡。若管理水平较高,则采用1m×1.2m或1.2m×1.2m。[7] 
补栽间作
栽植后30天内进行1次查苗补缺,按原植密度,用同龄树苗补栽。初栽幼龄林,宜间种一些如木豆、木薯等高秆作物;成林后,可间种益智、砂仁等阴生药用植物,达到改善土壤结构,助长增收的作用。林木郁闭后,停止间作。[7] 
林地抚育
中耕除草:幼龄期,每年要中耕除草2~3次,直至林木郁闭为止。每年11月份最后1次中耕,将铲除地内的杂草覆盖于植株周围,以减少土壤水分蒸发。中耕作业要小心谨慎,不要锄伤植株茎基,以免萌蘖,消耗养分,影响主干生长。
淋水施肥:造林后1~2个月内要定期淋水积湿,保证幼苗成活,以后视旱情而定。每年施肥2~3次,结合抚育进行,头3年着重施氮、磷肥促生长,第4年加施钾肥。每次每株施氮肥50g、磷肥50g或复合肥100g。
修枝整形:为使植株高大通直,要进行去萌修枝,把近地面的侧枝及多余的萌蘖剪除。采果后,要将成龄树的病虫枝、弱枝、受伤枝、过密枝剪除,以保证林地内的通透性。首次修枝可在栽后3~4年进行,以后隔年1次。修枝强度,一般4年以下的树,保留树冠应占树高的1/2,5~10年生的,保留树冠应占树高的1/3,11年以上的,保留树冠应占树高的1/4。修枝时间应在休眠期进行。[7] 
病害防治
肉桂树的主要病虫害有梢枯病、炭疽病、根腐病、泡盾盲蝽、双瓣卷蛾、木蛾、卷叶虫等。其中,主要由肉桂泡盾盲蝽为害引起的梢枯病的威胁最大。[7]  [8] 
枝枯病
首先是需培育无病虫壮苗,加强抚育管理;剪除病枝直至基部,清理地下枯枝以及林间感病的石槁树,采用代森胺600倍液喷施控制病菌侵染传播。[7]  [8] 
炭疽病
加强栽培管理,提高植株抗病性;发病初期用50%甲基托布津可湿性粉剂稀释700倍喷施,或用80%多菌灵可湿性粉剂600倍喷施,每7~10天喷1次,连续3次。[7]  [8] 
根腐病
苗圃开好排水沟,防止积水;发现病株,立即拔除,病穴用5%石灰浇灌消毒;发病初期用50%退菌特稀释500倍全面喷洒,可防止病害蔓延。[7]  [8] 
泡盾盲蝽
冬季清除有病虫害和已枯死的肉桂枝茎、病叶,搬出林地集中烧毁;在泡盾盲蝽发生的盛期用1500~2000倍稀释桂虫灵乳油进行防治;一年共用药5次,一次喷药可维持药效7~10天。[7]  [8] 
木蛾
每年3月成虫羽化以前,清除有虫害和已枯死的肉桂枝茎,远离林地集中处理;在幼虫孵化的5月底至8月初,用稀释1500~2000倍桂虫灵乳油进行防治,隔7~10天再喷1次,连续2~3次;在秋、冬季,若发现树干有新木屑排出,用药棉蘸1:10倍的敌百虫溶液填入孔内,外用黄泥封口熏杀幼虫。[7]  [8] 
樟红天牛
砍去受害枝条,集中处理;若发现树干有新木屑排出,用药棉蘸1:10倍90%敌百虫溶液塞入蛀孔内,外用黄泥封口熏杀幼虫。[7]  [8] 

发展历史编辑

先秦两汉时期对桂枝功效的认识及其应用
桂枝作为临床常用药物,人药历史悠久。《神农本草经》记载:“牡桂,味辛温,主上气逆,结气喉痹,吐吸,利关节,补中益气⋯⋯”从该段文字记载可知桂枝具有降气、利关节,补中益气之功。本书将其列为上品,可强身保健,为诸药先聘通使,日:“主百病,养精神,和颜色。久服轻身不老,面生光华,媚好常如童子。”足可见应用广泛之所在。桂枝二字首见于东汉时期《伤寒杂病论》,在本书中桂枝的使用频次较高,并随配伍的不同,功效亦不相同。桂枝汤是治疗风寒束表营卫不和所致的表虚证,方中桂枝透营达卫、解肌发表、与芍药配伍调和营卫。五苓散中与茯苓配伍,体现了卓越的化气行水之功。桂枝附子汤、甘草附子汤、桂枝芍药知母汤三方是治疗风湿痹痛的有效方剂,方中用桂枝温经通络散寒止痛。治疗心悸病证的名方炙甘草汤中,桂枝配生姜、清酒通阳以利血脉,可滋阴而无滞结之患。桂枝茯苓丸是张仲景专为治疗妇人症瘕,腹痛下血所设 。方中桂枝辛温行散,温通血脉。桂枝加桂汤是治疗阳虚寒邪上逆致发奔豚之方,方中加重桂枝用量,平冲降逆,为治冲逆的要药。由以上诸方可见通过与不同药物配伍使桂枝的辛、散、温、通作用发挥得淋漓尽致不愧为“为诸药先聘通使”。
隋唐五代时期对桂枝功效的认识
隋唐时期本草学和方剂学得到迅速发展,桂枝的功效在前人的基础上有了新的补充。《新修本草》“桂,味甘、辛,大热,有毒。利肝肺气,心腹寒热,”此时,桂枝的性昧在辛的基础上增加了甘味,由温性变成了大热。又云“虚而多冷加桂心、吴茱萸、附子、乌头⋯⋯”把桂枝归类于吴茱萸附子等大热的药物之类,可见当时桂枝和肉桂是同一药物,治疗应用偏重于性热温补之效。并且提出了服用桂枝的禁忌:“桂心忌生葱、生菜”。
唐以前医药文献的专著《千金要方》中有桂的方剂中,大多用的桂字,当时桂枝、桂心、肉桂为同一药物的不同名称。孙思邈在治“内热”时大量应用桂枝,突破了张仲景“有表证”的应用范畴,如“葛根龙胆汤”,用来治疗“伤寒三、四I;1不瘥,身体烦毒而热”。“诸风”篇中,桂枝用于中风偏瘫的方剂中,通过药物配伍,使其发挥祛风邪、通经络、利关节之效,如小续命汤,此方由桂枝、麻黄、川芎等药组成。风毒脚气篇中“风引汤”“内补石斛秦艽散”等方中加桂枝,取其发散肌肤水气,通行经脉气血之意。《外台秘药》将桂枝广泛应用于温热病中,多与寒凉药配伍舍其温热之性,取其通经脉、透营发表之功。
明清时期对桂枝功效的认识
明朝时期医药学家李时珍全面地总结了桂枝的功效,对桂枝的应用又提出了新的见解,《本草纲目》云:“治风癖失音喉痹,阳虚失血,内托痈疽疮痘,能引血化汗化脓,解蛇腹毒。”指出桂枝具有托毒化脓,解蛇腹毒的功效。《本草备要》言其“能利肺气,胁风属肝,桂能平肝”,提示桂枝既能利肺气,又能利肝气。《本草求真》云:“胁风本属于肝,凡治胁风之证,当以桂枝入肝平之。”把桂枝归为肝经,可调肝平风;《温病条辨》中桂枝用法即遵仲景之法,又有新的发挥。“盖温病忌汗,最喜解肌,桂枝本为解肌,且芳香化浊⋯⋯”指出桂枝有解肌化浊的功效。五苓加防己桂枝薏苡仁汤中注有:“⋯⋯故于五苓和霍乱之中,加桂枝温筋⋯⋯”提出桂枝用于霍乱转筋,具有温筋之效。白虎加桂枝汤治疗上焦温疟,用桂枝引邪外出,谓其“得热因热用之妙”。清代《医学衷中参西录》日:“逆气上逆者多由于肝”“其能降逆者,以其味辛,且华于秋,得金气而善平肝木。凡逆气之源于肝而上逆者,桂枝皆能降之”。充分论述了桂枝利肝肺气,降逆气,散邪气之功。小青龙汤加减方中喘重者去麻黄加杏仁而不去桂枝,意在桂枝具有降气定喘的作用。并说:“《本经》论牡桂,开端先言其主咳逆上气,似又以能降逆气为桂枝之特长。诸家本草鲜有言其能降逆气者,是用桂枝而弃其所长也。”
现代《中药学》教材把桂枝功效归纳为:发汗解肌,温通经脉,温助阳气等,大大削弱了桂枝的应用范围,通过对桂枝功效历史发展过程的梳理,发现桂枝许多曾经有效的功效被忽视,因此,若能很好的考察桂枝的各种功效,不仅可以物尽其用,节省药源,又能为现代临床用药和新药开发提供资源。

地理分布编辑

原产中国广东、广西、福建、台湾、云南等省区。印度、老挝、越南至印度尼西亚等地也有分布。[1] 

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%A1%82%E6%9E%9D/644033

Guizhi editor
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Guizhi with cinnamon differ in clinical application.
Guizhi, rectification of names: Cinnamon (scientific name: Cinnamomum cassia Presl), also known as cinnamon, cinnamon etc., is laurales, Lauraceae moderately large trees; annual branches cylindrical, bud bud scales broadly ovate, green leaves are alternate, oblong to nearly lanceolate; flowers white, about 4.5mm; fruit oval, dark purple when mature, glabrous; flowering from June to August, the fruit of 10 to 12 months. [1] 
Mainly produced in Guangxi, Guangdong and Yunnan and other places. Spring and summer cut twigs, dried or dried, cut into thin slices or small pieces with.
Chinese scientific name Latin name CassiaTwig Guizhi nickname cinnamon, cassia twig and other sectors Flora door Door Gang angiosperms dicotyledons outline laurales Branch Zhang Ke Yake camphor camphor family subfamily genus Cinnamomum family
Contents 1 Morphology Growth Habit 2 3 4 The main value of the history of cultivation techniques 5 6 Geographical Distribution
Morphological characteristics editor
Medium Large trees; bark grayish brown, old bark thick 13mm.
Year old branches cylindrical, dark brown, with longitudinal pinstripe, slightly pubescent, number four prism year old branches, brown, longitudinally pinstripes, densely greyish short nap.
Small terminal bud, bud scales broadly ovate, apex acuminate, densely greyish short nap.
Leaves alternate or nearly opposite, oblong to nearly lanceolate, apex slightly acute, base acute, leathery, margin cartilaginous, involution, green above, shiny, hairless, pale green below, dark, sparsely yellow short hair, from the base three veins, lateral veins subopposite, from leaf base 5 ~ 10mm at birth, extends upward slightly curved bottom end of the leaf gradually disappear, and the veins in the above significant depression, very prominent below to the side of a majority offshoot margin, within the margin offshoot arch link, the transverse veins wavy, nearly parallel, spaced 3 ~ 4mm, obvious above, below projections, during which are connected by small veins, small veins below visible; petiole stout, long 1.2 ~ 2cm, the ventral surface flat or slightly lower portion of a groove, short hair is yellow.
Panicles axillary or subterminal, long 8 ~ 16cm, three branches, branching end of 3-flowered cymes, peduncle length of inflorescence length of the half, and order levels are yellow hair shaft.
Flowers white, about 4.5mm; pedicels 3 ~ 6mm, being brown short hair. Perianth inside and outside of densely brown short hair, perianth tube inverted cone, large about 2mm, perianth lobes ovate-oblong, nearly, about 2.5mm, width 1.5mm, apex obtuse or acute ʱ??
Fertile stamens 9, filaments pubescent, first, two stamens about 2.3mm, flat filaments, about 1.4mm, the top 1/3 becomes large, oval-shaped anthers oblong, about 0.9mm, apex truncate, drug chamber 4, rooms are introverted, the chamber 2 is much smaller, about the third round stamen 2.7mm, flat filaments, about 1.9mm, the top 1/3 of a pair of rounded kidney-shaped glands, anthers oblong oval shape, drug chamber 4, the upper chamber 2 small lateral direction, the lower chamber 2 is large, outward.
Staminodes 3, located in the inner wheel, and even handle about 2mm, Shank slim, flat, long 1.3mm, pubescent, apex arrow-shaped equilateral triangle.
Ovary ovoid, about 1.7mm, hairless, style slender, with an equal ovary long, stigma small, inconspicuous. Fruit oval, about 1cm, width 7 ~ 8 (9) mm, dark purple when mature, glabrous; fruit tray shallow cup-shaped, long 4mm, top wide 7mm, edge truncate or slightly toothed crack.
Flowering from June to August, the fruit of 10 to 12 months. [1] 
Growth habit editor
Cinnamon hi warm climate, suitable born in frost-free environment in subtropical regions, optimum growth temperature of 26 ~ 30 ℃, the plant began to grow in the monthly average temperature above 20 ℃, slow growth below 20 ℃, 0 ~ 6 ℃ low temperature did not see frost damage. Cinnamon hi humid, avoid stagnant water, requiring rainfall, relative humidity is above 70 percent, too much rain can cause root rot leaf mold; too arid zones, poor plant growth. , Cinnamon is a semi-negative species, on the light requirements vary with different ages, seedling shade, avoid direct sun; mature trees to grow normally in more sunlight, cinnamon oil [2] content, good quality. Cinnamon is a deep-rooted trees require deep soil, loose texture, good drainage, permeability strong sandy loam or loam. Hi slightly acidic or acidic soil, pH4.5 ~ 6.5 in red, yellow loam grow well. Cinnamon saplings grow slowly, adult rapid growth, sprouting ability; age more than 10 years of seedling trees begin to bloom; short cinnamon seed longevity, not exposure and go far. [3-4]
The main value edit
Medicinal Value
Guizhi is dried herbs cinnamon twigs, usually in the spring and summer harvest, directly or sliced ​​dried leaves can be dried after removal. Gui Xin Wen can be expelling wind and cold, cold to treat colds, fever, chills and so on. [5]
Its spicy, sweet, warm, lungs, heart, bladder, is attending in cold temperatures commonly used in medicine, has a complement Yuanyang, blood, warm stomach effect, often associated with liver and kidney medicine, qi and blood drug compatibility, treat kidney deficiency, Vital Huoshuai, cold extremities pulse, with the drug combination on abdominal Leng Tong, cold paralysis lumbago other warm years, has significant effects of analgesic and anti-cancer. Carminative oils various existing drugs such as oil cooler, rheumatism oil all contain Gui Youcheng points.
Function: Guizhi sweating Jieji energy, warm the Tongmai, yang gas, cold pain. Main cold table card; alpine arthralgia; cold limbs; amenorrhea dysmenorrhea; Zhengjia agglomeration; Chest; palpitations; phlegm; urination. For the cold cold, abdominal Leng Tong, cold blood by the closure, joint arthralgia, phlegm, edema, palpitations, Bentun.
Dosage: 3 to 9 grams. [6]
Indications leprosy "benzenepropanoic alum" That is the main component of cinnamon oil, other by-products such as cinnamon twig, seeds, Ding Gui, Gui Zhong and others have different pharmacological effects, widely used in Chinese medicine. [4]
Economic Value
Cinnamon is a valuable spice plants, cinnamon powder in Western countries usually used to bake bread, pastry, preserved meat. The main ingredients except cinnamon oil cinnamic aldehyde, but also contains a dozen ingredients benzaldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, caryophyllene, coumarin, widely used in beverage, food flavoring, medicine recipe, reconcile flavors and advanced cosmetics. Cinnamon excellent material, structure and detailed, easy to crack, can produce high-end furniture. [4]
Ecological Value
Cinnamon evergreen foliage flourish, biomass and large leaves, can effectively improve soil and water conservation. [4]
Cultivation Technical Editor
Seed Nursery
Alternatively and site preparation
Cinnamon is a deep-rooted trees, should choose near water drained flat slope or idle wasteland, with soil deep, loose texture, moist fertile sandy loam is the best. Ted deep soil preparation should all be until after the sun white topsoil, administering calcium magnesium phosphate 1950kg / hm, composting manure pigsty 33000kg / hm as basal, from Qikuan 1 ~ 1.2m, high 15 ~ 20cm, 40cm wide ditch , breaking clods, fine raked the whole, a good four weeks drains to prepare for planting. [7]
Sowing
Planting season election in mid-March to early May, because cinnamon seeds is of short-life, so with mining-play best. Washed with water before planting seeds, to get rid of mildew, bursting seed. 5 ‰ with potassium permanganate solution soaking 15 ~ 20min, then rinse with water to the liquid, remove the seeds sown immediately. In seedbed seeding rate 225 ~ 240kg / hm appropriate, by spacing 20 ~ 24cm, spacing 5 ~ 7cm demand, the casing 1 ~ 1.5cm thick, pour enough water, Gallant. [7]
Seedling management
20 days after sowing, seedling grow 5 ~ 6cm high, thrown off Gallant, about 1.2m tall shade structures shed, requires light transmittance of 30% to 40%, in order to facilitate seedling growth. 30 days later when the sprouts as finger-like leaflets large, can be sprayed with foliar potassium dihydrogen phosphate. After spraying once every 15 days. May also be combined with insecticides, fungicides sprayed together. 80 days later, when the seedlings grow 5 to 6 leaflets, can compound fertilizer 600kg / hm. After the winter solstice, seedlings grow to 30 ~ 40cm high, it can expose scaffolding, controlling water control fertilizer to sun seedlings, so that leaves the tip sallow sun to mature in order to ensure a high survival rate of 2 to March next year when the transplant. Cinnamon seedling growth slow, pay attention to weeding, keep the seedbed moist, but to prevent water. [7]
Planting Management
Preparations for afforestation
Planting to choose loose soil, deep fertile, humid, sunny, easy to catch cold, well-drained or flushed lighter hilly hinterland mountains for afforestation, the slope should choose east or southeast, autumn and winter Lian Shan site preparation, full-Ken, digging specifications for 40cm × 40cm × 40cm. After 1 to 2 months weathering, in mid-March on planting, Sincere into 10kg basal pit, then pad some topsoil, Zaimiao righting, so the roots stretch, at times filling and a little ease, the root of water drenched again training in cultivation, slightly higher than rhizomes earth ground. Available straw when drought covering the hole surface, keep the soil humidity. [7]
Planting density
Planting density varies according to slightly different business goals, the general 1m × 1m or 0.7m × 0.8m, density of up to 9000 to 10500 / hm, even the most dense of up to 15,000 / hm. If the higher management level, the adoption 1m × 1.2m or 1.2m × 1.2m. [7]
Planting monthly intercropping
Conducted 30 days after planting seedlings once a search to fill a vacancy, the original planting density, seedlings Planting monthly with their peers. First planted young forest, some, such as pigeon pea species should, cassava stalk crops; after forest can interspecific puzzle, Amomum and other shade of medicinal plants, to improve the soil structure, the role of contributing to income. After the forest canopy, stop intercropping. [7]
Forest tending
Weeding: young stage, a year weeding 2 to 3 times, until the forest canopy so far. November 1 last year cultivator, will eradicate the weed covering the plants around inside, in order to reduce soil moisture evaporation. Cultivator job to be careful, do not hurt the plant stem hoe, so sprout, consumption of nutrients, affecting the growth of the trunk.
Drenching fertilization: after planting within 1 to 2 months to regular watering wet product, to ensure seedling survival, later, as the drought may be. Fertilizer 2-3 times per year, combined with tending conducted the first three years focused on Nitrogen, phosphorus promote growth, plus the first four years of applying potassium fertilizer. Each per plant nitrogen 50g, 50g or phosphate fertilizer 100g.
Pruning shaping: For the plant tall, straight, I want to go Meng pruning, to near the ground sprout collateral and cut off the excess. Post-harvest fruit, to become mature trees of worms branches, weak branches, injured branches, closely spaced branches cut off, in order to ensure the permeability within woodland. First pruning can be 3 to 4 years after transplanting, once every other year after. Pruning intensity, usually 4 years of the tree, should retain the crown accounts for 1/2, 5 to 10 years of green tree height, retaining the crown should account should account for tree height tree height of 1/3, more than 11 years, to retain crown 1/4. Pruning should be carried out in the time period of dormancy. [7]
Disease Prevention
Cinnamon has a major pest shoot blight, anthracnose, root rot, bubble shield bugs, double valve moth, wood moth, leaf insects. Which is mainly composed of cinnamon bubble shield bugs infestation shoot blight caused the largest threat. [7] [8]
Shoot blight
The first is the need to cultivate pest-free seedlings, tending to strengthen management; pruning diseased branches until the base of the litter and clean up underground stone forest susceptible rotten tree, using Dyson amine 600 times spraying to control the spread of pathogen infection. [7] [8]
Anthrax
Strengthen the cultivation and management, improve plant disease resistance; early onset of spraying diluted 700-fold with 50% thiophanate-methyl WP, or 80% carbendazim WP 600 times spraying, spraying every 7 to 10 days 1 times, three times in a row. [7] [8]
Root rot
Good nursery open drains to prevent hydrocephalus; discovery of diseased plants, immediately unplug it, sick watering hole with a 5% lime disinfection; early onset with 50% diluted 500 times tuzet full spray to prevent the disease from spreading. [7] [8]
Bubble shield bugs
Clear winter pests and diseases and has withered cinnamon stems, diseased leaves, concentrated woodland burned out; the peak of the bubble shield to prevent and treat the occurrence of bugs with the 1500 to 2000-fold diluted insect Gui Ling EC; total medication five times a year, once Spraying can maintain the efficacy of 7 to 10 days. [7] [8]
Wood moth
Adult emergence in March of each year, remove infested and has withered cinnamon stems focus away from woodland; larvae hatch in late May to early August, 1500 to 2000-fold diluted Gui Ling EC to prevent and treat insect, every 7 to 10 days and then spray a second, for 2 to 3 times; in the autumn and winter, if found to have new wood trunk discharge, medication cotton dipped in 1:10 times trichlorfon solution to fill the hole, external Wong smoked seal kill larvae. [7] [8]
Zhang red beetles
Amputation victims branches, centralized processing; if found new wood trunk discharge, medication cotton dipped in 1:10 times 90% trichlorfon solution Zhukong stuffed, topical Wong smoked seal kill larvae. [7] [8]
Development history Edit
Qin and Han Dynasties to the understanding and application of the Efficacy
Guizhi as a clinical commonly used drugs, human medicine has a long history. "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" record: "Mu Gui, Weixin temperature, inverse gas main on, knot gas Houbi, Breath, Lee joints, Buzhongyiqi ⋯⋯" from the paragraph written records shows Guizhi have lower gas, Lee joints, deficiency of power. This book will be listed as the top grade, can be physical health, for the various drugs employed through make first, day:. ". Main diseases, raise the spirit, and color Jiufu light not old, unfamiliar brilliance, often as good fawn boy." enough to see the wide range of application lies. Guizhi two prefix seen in the Eastern Han Dynasty, "Febrile Diseases", in this book Guizhi the use of higher frequency, and is not the same with the compatibility of different effects. Guizhi soup is cold beam therapy table and table Camp David is not caused by deficiency, 方中桂 sticks up through camp guard, Jieji published compatibility with peony reconcile business health. Wulingsan with Poria compatibility, reflects the excellence of the gas line water power. Guizhi Fuzi soup, licorice aconite soup, soup tripartite Guizhishaoyaozhimu is effective prescription treatment of rheumatism, Fang Gui warm the meridians with cold pain. Treatment of Diseases palpitations name of party Zhigancao soup, Gui with ginger, sake yang to facilitate blood, yin without delay knot can suffer. GFW is designed for the treatment of Zhongjing woman Zhengjia, abdominal established under the blood. Xin Wen Fang Zhonggui branch line loose, warm-blood. Fang Yang Twig Gui soup is cold pathogen Shangni PL Bentun of treatment, prescription aggravated Gui amount Jiangni flat punch for punch counter to the drug treatment. Ogata be seen from the above with the compatibility of different drugs to make Gui Xin, casual, warm, through the role of its head is indeed a "first for the various drugs employed through make."
Sui and Tang Dynasties on the Efficacy of understanding
Sui herbal medicine and prescriptions rapid development, Gui efficacy of a new supplement on the basis of previous. "Newly Revised Materia Medica", "Gui, sweet, acrid, hot, toxic. Lee hepatopulmonary gas, confidant of cold and heat," At this point, Gui Mei basis of sexual Sheen adds sweet taste, made into a warm hot. Yun "Virtual and more cold-Gui Xin, Evodia, monkshood, Aconitum ⋯⋯" the Guizhi aconite and other classified Evodia hot drugs and the like, seen at the time Guizhi and cinnamon are the same drug, emphasis on therapeutic applications thermal warming effect. And proposed taking Guizhi taboo: "Gui Xin avoid raw onions, lettuce."
Tang previous medical literature monograph "Prescriptions" in Gui prescriptions, mostly with Gui word, when Gui, Gui Xin, cinnamon different names for the same drug. Sun Simiao when governance "heat" large number of applications Guizhi, breaking Zhang, "there is prima facie evidence" of application areas, such as the "guts 葛根龙 soup", used to treat the "Treatise three, four I; 1 does not recover from illness, the body is tired and poison hot. " "All wind" chapter, Guizhi recipe for stroke hemiplegia by drug compatibility to play expelling evil, Meridian, Lee joint effect of such Xiaoxuming soup, this side by the Gui, ephedra, Chuanxiong other drugs. Wind poison beriberi articles in "Wind cited soup" "mending Dendrobium Gentiana scattered" and other prescription Guizhi, whichever divergence skin moisture, qi meridians pass intended. "Taiwan nostrums" will be widely used Guizhi warm diseases, multiple drug compatibility with cold homes warmed the nature, whichever meridians, power through the camp of publication.
Ming and Qing dynasties of the Efficacy of understanding
Ming Dynasty medical scientist Li Guizhi comprehensive summary of the effectiveness of the application of Guizhi also proposed new ideas, "Compendium of Materia Medica," says: "Treating addiction Wind aphonia pharyngitis, Yang bleeding, ulcer sore Neto pox, can lead blood of sweat fester, solution poison snake belly. "he noted Guizhi have entrusted poison pus, solution poison snake belly effect. "Materia Medica prepared to" words "can benefit lung, threatening wind is the liver, Kwai Pinggan" prompt Guizhi both Lee lung, but also benefit the liver. "Materia Medica truth," saying:. "Threatening wind belonged to the liver, where the rule of wind threatened the card, when the level of hepatic Gui" Gui classified as the liver, liver adjustable level wind; "warm Diseases identified "That is in compliance with Guizhi usage Jhongjing law, another new play. "Cover febrile disease bogey Khan, most hi Jieji, Gui this is Jieji and Fangxianghuazhuo ⋯⋯" noted Guizhi have Jieji Huazhuo effect. Wuling plus Menispermaceae Guizhi soup Yiyiren marked with: "⋯⋯ it in Wuling and cholera among Guizhi Wenjingtong ⋯⋯" Gui asked for cholera transferred tendons, with effect warm tendons. White Tiger Guizhi decoction on focal temperature and malaria, with Guizhi cited evil out, claims that "heat gain due to wonderful use of heat." Qing Dynasty "medical wholehearted participation in the West recorded" Day: "The inverse gas Nizhe more due to liver" "it can Jiangni who, with its spicy, and China in the autumn, the gold and the good level of the wood where the gas against the gas. it comes from the liver and the Nizhe, Gui Jieneng drop it. " Fully discussed Guizhi Lee hepatopulmonary gas, Jiangni gas, scattered power of evil. Little Dragon Decoction Fang severe asthma and not to go ephedra Almond Guizhi, Guizhi have lower gas intended Dingchuan role. And said: "" The Classic "on Mu Gui, began to air their statement on the main Keni, like again can Jiangni gas for long Guizhi of various home herbal few words and who can Jiangni gas, is used. Guizhi and abandon its director too. "
Modern "pharmacy" teaching to the Efficacy summarized as follows: sweating Jie Ji, warm meridians, to help warm yang, greatly weakened the Guizhi range of applications, through the historical development of the Efficacy of carding, find Guizhi Many have effectively ignored the effect, therefore, if a good variety efficacy study Guizhi, not only can make the best use, saving drug source, but also provide resources for modern clinical medicine and drug development.
Geographical Distribution Edit
Origin China Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Yunnan and other provinces. India, Laos, Vietnam to Indonesia and other places also have distribution. [1] 
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. Cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia Presl. Flora of China [reference date 2013-12-3]
2. cinnamon oil | compound. Dictionary [reference date 2014-03-24]
3. Sujin Jiang. Cinnamon Cultivation Techniques of Guangdong Forestry Science and Technology, 2008,24 (1)
4. Where the fly, use value Kuang United States. Cinnamon and cultivation. Special Economic Animal, 2009, (06).
5. Recent Guizhi adequate supply market conditions stabilize. China Hui rural network. 2015-01-27 [reference date 2015-03-2]
6. attending Guizhi effect;. Convenient service network [reference date 2015-04-1]
7. Laiwen An efficient cultivation techniques cinnamon Guangxi Agricultural Service, 2008,25 (11): 122,127
8. Feng Li, Li Dunsong, Zhang Baoxin, Liu Jianfeng. Cinnamon fast growing cultivation techniques. Tropical Agricultural Sciences, 2003,23 (1).









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