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黄蓮 Coptis (Coptidis Rhizoma) Huang Lian

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黄连

 

(毛茛科植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
黄连,(学名:Coptis chinensis Franch.)别名:味连、川连、鸡爪连,属毛茛科黄连属多年生草本植物,叶基徨,坚纸质,卵状三角形,三全裂,中央裂片卵状菱形,羽状深裂,边缘有锐锯齿,侧生裂片不等2深裂;叶柄长5-12cm。野生或栽培于海拔1000-1900m的山谷凉湿荫蔽密林中。有清热燥湿,泻火解毒之功效。其味入口极苦,有俗语云“哑巴吃黄连,有苦说不出”,即道出了其中滋味。
中文学名
黄连
拉丁学名
Coptis chinensis Franch.
别    称
味连、川连、鸡爪连
二名法
Coptis chinensis
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
原始花被亚纲
毛茛目
毛茛科
亚    科
唐松草亚科
黄连族
黄连属
黄连
分布区域
四川、贵州、湖南、湖北、陕西南部

形态特征编辑

根状茎黄色,常分枝,密生多数须根。叶有长柄;叶片稍带革质,卵状三角形,宽达10厘米,三全裂,中央全裂片卵状菱形,长3-8厘米,宽2-4厘米,顶端急尖,具长0.8-1.8厘米的细柄,3或5对羽状深裂,在下面分裂最深,深裂片彼此相距2-6毫米,边缘生具细刺尖的锐锯齿,侧全裂片具长1.5-5毫米的柄,斜卵形,比中央全裂片短,不等二深裂,两面的叶脉隆起,除表面沿脉被短柔毛外,其余无毛;叶柄长5-12厘米,无毛。
花葶1-2条,高12-25厘米;二歧或多歧聚伞花序有3-8朵花;苞片披针形,三或五羽状深裂;萼片黄绿色,长椭圆状卵形,长9-12.5毫米,宽2-3毫米;花瓣线形或线状披针形,长5-6.5毫米,顶端渐尖,中央有蜜槽;雄蕊约20,花药长约1毫米,花丝长2-5毫米;心皮8-12,花柱微外弯。
蓇葖长6-8毫米,柄约与之等长;种子7-8粒,长椭圆形,长约2毫米,宽约0.8毫米,褐色。2-3月开花,4-6月结果。[1] 

植物形态

  •  
    黄连全株
    黄连全株(2张)
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  •  
    黄连根茎
    黄连根茎(1张)
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  •  
    黄连枝叶
    黄连枝叶(1张)
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  •  
    黄连花果
    黄连花果(1张)

生长习性编辑

黄连
黄连 (6张)
黄连喜冷凉、湿润、荫蔽,忌高温、干旱。一般分布在1200~1800m的高山区,需要温度低、空气湿度大的自然环境。不能经受强烈的阳光,喜弱光,因此需要遮荫。
根浅,分布于5~10cm的土层,适宜表土疏松肥沃,有丰富的腐殖质,土层深厚的土壤,pH5.5~6.5,为微酸性。生海拔1500~2300米间的高山寒湿的林荫下,野生或有时栽培。

地理分布编辑

分布于四川、贵州、湖南、湖北、陕西南部。生海拔500-2000米间的山地林中或山谷阴处,野生或栽培。模式标本采自四川城口。[1] 

繁殖方法编辑

黄连的图片
黄连的图片 (21张)
用种子繁殖。种子底胚后熟类型。5月上旬种子成熟采收后,选择阴凉较平坦的山坡用树枝搭荫棚,雨水能自然淋入棚内,挖20cm深地作窖,将种子与湿沙在窖内层积贮藏。经早晚及秋季低温,
胚逐渐发育形成。10~11月间种子裂口后撒播于高畦,每1hm2播种子22.5~37.5kg,用牛马粪覆盖。次年2月下旬在畦面搭矮棚遮荫,3月初出苗,拣去畦面落叶,并除净杂草。苗期5~6月间应追施速效性氮肥催苗,10~11月间撒细碎牛马粪及火灰腐殖土以利越冬。
传统的栽连技术都采用搭棚遮荫,于冬季砍树搭1.2m高荫棚,荫蔽度70%左右,棚内作1.6m宽高畦(厢)。播种后第3年3月间苗圃幼苗已长出4~6片真叶时移栽,行株距10cm×10cm,栽深3~5cm,每1hm2栽苗75~90万株。有用玉米间作与林间栽连技术,冬季在畦面以行株距1.6m见方,间隔栽植麻、桑等灌木及松、杉等乔木。早春2月末在塑料矮棚中作营养钵培育玉米苗。
苗高30cm左右时,在高畦沟两边以株距30cm,叶对叶定向移栽玉米苗,6、7月份玉米叶封垄后即在行间栽黄连。冬季玉米收获后,用玉米秆编织矮棚,为黄连遮荫。次年复栽玉米,约4~5年后灌木已成林,可为黄连遮荫,不再栽种玉米。
黄连收获后在林间整地,施足底肥,还可再栽连;灌木林栽黄连2~3季后,乔木已成林,便可砍伐灌木,在乔木林下栽连。采用玉米和造林遮荫技术栽连,不但不影响黄连产量,同时省工、省料、节约投资,活立木积蓄量比不栽黄连的树林快1倍。[2] 

栽培技术编辑

栽培方式

黄连-药用部分黄连-药用部分
选择土壤深厚、疏松肥沃、富含腐殖质、排水力强、通透性能良好的油竹杂木林地,土壤以微酸性至中性,地势以早晚有斜光照射不超过30度的缓坡地为宜。忌连作。
黄连的种植需选种、育苗、移栽等过程。一般育苗2年后移栽,春、夏、秋季均可移栽,栽后前3年,应及时补苗、除草。移栽3~4年的黄连,每年除草3或4次。从第2年起,除留种植株外,均应及时摘除花苔。在种植栽培过程中,要根据种植年限和植物的生长要求,调整荫棚的郁蔽度。
栽种
  栽种时期
黄连——药用部分黄连——药用部分
 每年有3个时期可以栽种:第一时期在2~3月雪化后,黄连新叶未长出前,栽后成活率高,移栽后不久即发新叶,长新根,生长良好,入伏后,死苗少,是比较好的栽连时间,群众称为“栽老叶子”。第二个时期是在5~6月,此时新叶已经长成,秧苗较大,栽后成活率高,生长亦好,群众称为“栽登苗”。但不宜迟过7月,因7月气温高,栽后死苗多,脱窝严重,生长亦差。第三个时期在9~10月,栽后不久即进入霜期,扎根未稳,就遇冬春冰冻,易受冰冻拔苗,成活率低,在低暖无冰冻地区,才在此时栽种。
  准备秧苗
  栽前从苗床中拔取粗壮的秧苗。拔苗时用右手的食指和大拇指捏住苗子的小根茎拔起,抖去泥土,放入左手中,根茎放在拇指一面,秧头放整齐,须根理顺,不可弯曲,100株捆成一把。拔苗时须根多已受损,失去生机,栽后须重生新根,故栽前在距头部1厘米处,剪去过长的须根。如果采用“通杆法”移栽,须根应留长一些,约1.2~2厘米。剪须根后,用水把秧苗根上的泥土淘洗干净,栽时操作方便,根茎易与土壤接触诱发新根,同时秧苗吸收了水分,栽时秧苗新鲜,栽后容易成活。通常上午扯秧子,下午栽种,最好当天栽完;如未栽完,应摊放在阴湿处,第二天栽前仍须用水浸湿后再栽。 用钼酸铵1~2∶500千克的水溶液浸根2小时,能促进幼苗发根,加速长势;用高锰酸钾0.5~1∶500千克水溶液浸根2小时,也有加速发根和生长的作用。
栽种方法
黄连
黄连 (6张)
 秧苗须在阴天或晴天栽种,不可在雨天进行,因为雨天会踩紧畦面,使秧苗糊上泥浆,不易成活。栽种方法有3种:一是栽背刀,用具为专用木柄心形小铁铲。栽时右手握铲,并用大、食、中指兼拿秧苗一把,左手从右手中取1株秧苗,用大、食、中指拿住苗子的上部,随即将铁铲垂直插入土中,深4~6厘米,并向胸前平拉2~3厘米,使成一小穴,把秧苗端正地插入穴中,立刻取出小铲,推土向前掩好穴口,用铲背压紧秧苗。由上至下,边栽边退,并随之弄松畦土,弄平脚印。栽苗不宜过浅,一般适龄苗应使叶片以下完全入土,最深不超过6厘米,方易成活,行株距通常为10厘米,正方形栽植,每亩可栽5.5~6万株。二是栽杀刀,即用铁铲压住秧苗须根直插入土。这种栽法栽得快,但成活率不及栽背刀高,一般少采用。三是栽通杆,栽时一手拿秧苗,另一手食指压住根茎,插入土中,食指稍加旋转,抽出手指,随即推土掩盖指孔。此法栽苗较快,成活率也高。

田间管理

黄连栽植后,立即撒施少量牛马粪及熏土称刀口肥。每年早春、夏季种子收获后及冬季10~11月间各追肥1次,春夏以氮磷等速效性肥料为主,冬肥以牛马粪及熏土为主,施各肥后应培土。第1、第2年培土约1cm,第3、第4年2~3cm。[2] 
追肥前应除草,移栽后一二年苗小露地孔隙大,易生杂草,每年应拔草4~5次,四五年生黄连已封垄,结合追肥每年拔草3次。搭棚栽连,当年5月种子采收后应揭去盖棚敞阳,抑制叶的生长,促使根茎充实;林间栽连,栽后第3年开始冬季应修枝亮棚,使荫蔽度由栽连时的70%左右降低到20%~30 %。[2] 
补苗
  栽种后常有程度不同的死苗脱窝,栽后第一、二、三年秧苗每年约有10%左右死亡,应及时进行补苗,一般补苗进行两次,第一次在当年的秋季,用同龄壮秧进行补苗,带土移栽更易成活。第二次补苗在第二年雪化以后新叶未发前。在冬季冰冻较大的高山地区,常把头年秋季栽种的秧苗拱出地面,故在雪化后要详细查看,将拱出地面的秧苗用手按人土内,仍能成活。发现死亡秧苗应进行补栽。此后若发现缺苗,应选用与栽苗相当的秧苗带土移栽,使栽后生长一致。
除草
  因采取了苗前除草,故宜与化学除草相结合,在栽种当年和次年,每年除草4~5次,第三、四年每年3~4次,第五年1次,每次在草有2~3片叶时,用扑草净250克、西玛津25~30克、稻田一次净(永川产)2包(三种药施用时,只用其中的一种),与20~30千克沙或磷肥混合,在晴天下午或傍晚,以及阴天均匀撒施于亩黄连土中(只算厢面净面积),用竹竿或树枝扫落入地中。然后,认真观察,若有没有除净的杂草,人工拔除。
追肥
  栽后2~3日内应施一次追肥,用稀薄猪粪水或菜饼水,也可每亩用细碎堆肥或厩肥1000千克左右撤施。这次肥料称“刀口肥”,能使连苗成活后生长迅速。栽种当年9~10月,第二、三、四、五年春季5月采种后和第二、三、四年秋季9~10月,应各施追肥1次,共8次。春季追肥每亩用人畜粪水1000千克和过磷酸钙20~30千克,与细土或细堆肥拌匀撒施,施后以细竹枝把附在叶片上的肥料扫落。秋季迫肥以农家厩肥为主,兼用火灰、油饼等肥料;肥料应充分腐熟弄细,撤施畦面,厚约1厘米,每次每亩用量1500~2000千克;若肥料不足,可用腐殖质土或土杂肥代替一部分。施肥量应逐年增加。干肥在施用时应从低处向高处撒施,以免肥料滚落成堆或盖住叶子,在斜坡上部和畦边易受雨水冲刷处,肥力差,应多施一些。
黄连的根茎向上生长,每年形成茎节,为了提高产量,第二、三、四年秋季追肥后还应培土,在附近收集腐殖质土弄细后撤在畦上。第二、三年撒约1厘米厚,称为“上花泥”;第四年撤约1.5厘米厚,称为“上饱泥”。培土须均匀,且不能过厚,否则根茎桥梗长,降低品质。
平衡施肥
  在追肥上泥的基础上,广大连农为了提高产量,还在每一次除草之后施用化学肥料促其生长。经对比试验,每次每亩施用50千克过磷酸钙和10千克碳铵为最佳比例。

病虫防治

主要病害有白粉病,应降低荫蔽度增加光照并可用石硫合剂防治。虫害有蛴螬、蝼蛄等,可用毒饵诱杀。早春有麂子、锦鸡为害花苔和种子,应围以篱笆,加强人工捕杀,减较为害。[2] 

药用价值编辑

功效
清热燥湿,泻火解毒。用于湿热痞满,呕吐吞酸,泻痢,黄疸,高热神昏,心火亢盛,心烦不寐,血热吐衄,目赤,牙痛,消渴,痈肿疔疮;外治湿疹,湿疮,耳道流脓。酒黄连善清上焦火热。用于目赤,口疮。姜黄连清胃和胃止呕。用于寒热互结,湿热中阻,痞满呕吐。萸黄连舒肝和胃止呕。用于肝胃不和,呕吐吞酸。[3] 
药理作用
1、抗菌作用 2、抗真菌作用 3、抗病毒作用 4、抗阿米巴作用 5、抗炎、抗腹泻作用 6.、对心血管作用7、解热作用 8、降血糖作用 9、降血脂作用 10、抗氧化作用 11、对血液系统的影响 12、抗溃疡作用[2] 
适合人群
胃虚呕恶,脾虚泄泻,五更肾泻者,均慎服。
药用禁忌
本品大苦大寒,过服久服易伤脾胃,脾胃虚寒者忌用。苦燥伤津,阴虚津伤者慎用。
药方选录
《局方》三黄丸:治丈夫、妇人三焦积热。上焦有热攻冲眼目赤肿头项肿痛 口舌生疮;中焦有热心膈烦躁不美饮食;下焦有热小便赤涩大便秘结五脏俱热即生疽疖疮痍及五般痔疾粪门肿痛或下鲜血:黄连(去须、芦)、黄芩(去芦)、大黄(煨)各十两。上为细末炼蜜为丸 如梧桐子大。每服三十丸 用熟水吞》 如脏腑壅实加服丸数。小儿积热 亦宜服之。
伤寒论》黄连汤:治伤寒,胸中有热,胃中有邪气,腹中痛欲呕吐者:黄连150克,甘草150克(炙),干姜150克,桂枝150克(去皮)人参100克,半夏250克(洗)大枣十二枚(擘)。上七味 以水一斗,煮取六升,去滓。温服 昼三夜二。
《直指方》黄连安神丸:治心烦懊依反复,心乱,怔仲,上热胸中气乱。心下痞闷。食入反出:朱砂20克,黄连25克生甘草12.5克。为细末,汤浸,蒸饼丸如黍米大。每服一十九食后时时津唾咽下。
《局方》泻心汤:治心经实热:黄连35克。水一盏半煎一盏食远温服小儿减之。
本草经集注》:恶菊花、芜花、玄参、白鲜;畏款冬。
《蜀本草》:畏牛膝。
《纲目》:黄连大苦大寒,用之降火燥湿,中病即当止,岂可久服,使肃杀之令常行,而伐其生发冲和之气乎?
《本草正》:黄连善泻心脾实火,虚热妄用,必致格阳,故寇宗荧日:虚而冷者,慎勿轻用;王海藏日:夏月久血痢不用黄连, 阴在内也。
《本草经疏》:凡病人血少气虚,脾胃薄弱,血不足,以致惊悸不眠,而兼烦热躁渴,及产后不眠,血虚发热,泄泻腹痛,小儿 痘疮,阳虚作泄,行浆后泄泻,老人睁胃虚寒作泻,阴虚人天明溏泄,病名肾泄,真阴不足,内热烦躁诸证,法咸忌之,犯之使人危 殆。
神农本草经》:味苦,寒。主治热气,目痛,眦伤,泣出,明目,肠澼,腹痛,下痢,妇人阴中肿痛。久服令人不忘。
《名医别录》:微寒,无毒。主治五藏冷热,久下泄澼、脓血,止消渴、大惊,除水,利骨,调胃,厚肠,益胆,治口疮。
本草拾遗》:主羸瘦气急。
《药性论》:恶白僵蚕,忌猪肉,恶冷水。杀小儿疳虫,点赤眼昏痛,镇肝,去热毒。
《日华子本草》:治五劳七伤,益气,止心腹痛、惊悸、烦躁、润心肺、长肉、止血、并疮疥,盗汗,天行热疾。猪肚蒸为丸,治小儿疳气。
开宝本草》:味苦,微寒,无毒。五脏冷热,久下泄澼、脓血,止消渴,大惊,除水利骨,调胃,厚肠,益胆,疗口疮。
本草图经》:黄连治目方多,而羊肝丸尤奇异。盖眼目之病,皆血脉凝滞使然,故以行血药合黄连治之。血得热则行,故乘热洗也。
本草衍义》:今人多用治痢,盖执以苦燥之义。下俚但见肠虚渗泄,微似有血便,即用之,更不知止。又不顾寒热多少,但以尽剂为度,由是多致危困。若气实初病,热多血痢,服之便止,仍不必尽剂也。或虚而冷,则不须服。余如《经》。
《药类法象》:泻心火,除脾胃中湿热,治烦躁恶心,郁热在中焦,兀兀欲吐。治心不痞满必用药也。仲景治九种心下痞,五等泻心汤皆用之。
药性赋》:味苦,平,气寒,无毒。沉也,阴也。其用有四:泻心火,消心下痞满之状;主肠澼,除肠中混杂之红;治目疾暴发宜用,疗疮疡首尾俱同。
汤液本草》:气寒,味苦。味厚气薄,阴中阳也。升也,无毒。
《象》云:泻心火,除脾胃中湿热,治烦躁恶心,郁热在中焦,兀兀欲吐,心下痞满必用药也。仲景治九种心下痞,五等泻心汤皆用之。去须用。
《心》云:泻心经之火,眼暴赤肿及诸疮,须用之。苦寒者主阳有余,苦以除之。安蛔,通寒格,疗下焦虚,坚肾。
《珍》云:酒炒上行,酒浸行上头。
本草》云:主热气,目痛眦伤泣出,明目。肠澼腹痛下痢,妇人阴中肿痛。五脏冷热,久下泄澼脓血,止消渴大惊,除水利骨,调胃厚肠,益胆,疗口疮。久服令人不忘。
》云:入手少阴,苦燥,故入心,火就燥也。然泻心其实脾也,为子能令母实,实则泻其子。治血防风为上使,黄连为中使,地榆为下使。
海藏祖方,令终身不发斑疮:煎黄连一口,儿生未出声时,灌之,大应。已出声灌之,斑虽发,亦轻。古方以黄连为治痢之最。
衍义》云:治痢有微血,不可执以黄连。为苦燥剂,虚者多致危困,实者宜用之。
本草》又云:龙骨、理石、黄芩为之使,恶菊花、芫花、玄参、白鲜皮,畏款冬花,胜乌头,解巴豆毒。
《本草衍义补遗》:以姜汁炒辛散,除热有功。
本草发挥》:成聊摄云:苦入心,寒除热。大黄、黄连之苦,以导泻心下之虚热。又云:上热者泄之以苦,黄连之苦以降阳。又云:蛔得甘则动,得苦则安,黄连、黄柏之苦以安蛔。
洁古云:泻心火,除脾胃中湿热,治烦躁恶心,郁热在中焦,兀兀欲吐。味苦,气味俱厚,可升可降,阴中阳也。其用有五:泻心热一也,去中焦火二也,诸疮必用三也,去风湿四也,赤眼暴发五也。酒炒则上行。又云:去中焦湿与热,用黄连泻心火故也。眼痛不可忍者,用黄连、当归根,酒浸煎服。宿食不消者,用黄连、枳实。
本草纲目》:黄连大苦大寒,用之降火燥湿,中病即当止。
本草经疏》:黄连禀天地清寒之气以生,故气味苦寒而无毒。味厚于气,味苦而厚,阴也。宜其下泄,欲使上行须加引导。入手少阴、阳明,足少阳、厥阴,足阳明、太阴。为病酒之仙药,滞下之神草。六经所至,各有殊功。其主热气,目痛眦伤泪出,明目,大惊益胆者,凉心清肝胆也。肠澼腹痛下痢。
别录》兼主泄澼。泄者,泻利也;澼者,大肠下血也,俗名为脏毒。除水利骨,厚肠胃,疗口疮者,涤除肠、胃、脾三家之湿热也。久服令人不忘者,心家无火则清,清则明,故不忘。
本草蒙筌》:味苦,气寒。味厚气薄,可升可降。沉也,阴也,阴中微阳。无毒。治诸火邪,依各制炒。
《本草乘雅》:苦寒凌冬,寒水之;有节色黄,中土之制,判为心之用药也。热气上炎,即以炎上作苦之品,异以入之,变易其性,以致和平。
《药性解》:黄连,味苦,性寒,无毒,入心经。主心火炎,目疾暴发,疮疡红肿,肠红下痢,痞满泄泻,小儿疳热,消中口疮,惊悸烦躁,天行热疾。
本草求真》:大泻心火实热。
得配本草》:黄芩、龙肌、理石为之使。畏牛膝、款冬,恶冷水、菊花、玄参、白僵蚕、白鲜皮、芫花。忌猪肉。杀乌头、巴豆、轻粉毒。
本草经解》:黄连气寒,秉天冬寒之水气,入足少阴肾经;味苦无毒,得地南方之火味,入手少阴心经。气味俱降,阴也。 其主热气目痛也,心主火,火气热,心病舍肝,肝开窍于目也,黄连苦寒,所以清火也。手少阴之正脉,出于面,合目内眦,手少阴为心火,火盛,则心系急而泪出;眦伤者,皆心火,黄连清心,所以主之。实则泻其子,心者,肝木之子也,清心则肝邪泻,所以明目也。
神农本草经读》:黄连气寒,秉天冬寒之水气,入足少阴肾经;味苦无毒,得地南方之火味,入手少阴心经,气水而味水,一物同俱,故能除水火相乱,而为湿热之病。
《神农本草经百种录》:味苦寒。主热气,除热在气分者。目痛,眦伤泪出,明目,除湿热在上之病。肠澼腹痛下痢,除湿热。
本经疏证》:黄连根株丛延,蔓引相属,有数百株共一茎者,故名连,其治亦多延淹久之证,如淫疮黄连粉主之是矣,夫名浸淫,则非初起暴得之疾,亦非一治可瘳之候,故伤寒论金匮要略两书,从未有新得之病用黄连者。
本草新编》:黄连,味苦,寒,可升可降,阴也,无毒。入心与胞络。最泻火,亦能入肝。大约同引经之药,俱能入之,而入心,尤专经也。止吐利吞酸,善解口渴。治火眼甚神,能安心,止梦遗,定狂躁,除痞满,去妇人阴户作肿。治小儿食土作疳,解暑热、湿热、郁热,实有专功。
本草分经》:大苦大寒。入心泻火,镇肝凉血,燥湿开郁,能消心窍恶血,亦泻脾火。酒炒治上焦火,姜汁炒治中焦火,水炒治下焦火。
药用毒性
小檗碱的治疗量相当安全,副作用也很少,长期服用也未见任何障碍,一次口服小檗碱2.0g或连用黄连粉100g未见任何副作用。在动物试验中,毒性也很轻,给小鼠口服不易致死,腹腔注射的最小致死量为 0.01g/kg,亦有测得其半数致死量为0.066g/kg(黄柏或黄连则各为0.52,0.73g/kg)。
猫口服0.1g/kg可引起全身抑制,呕吐,于8~10天后死亡,呼吸由兴奋转向麻痹,死亡前可发生惊厥。小鼠腹腔注射硫酸小檗碱的半数致死量为24.3 mg/kg。四氢小檗碱给小鼠灌胃、皮下及静脉注射的半数致死量分别为940mg/kg、790mg/kg及100mg/kg。
盐酸小檗碱腹腔注射对小鼠的半数致死量为24.3mg/kg。小檗碱最严重的毒性为心脏毒性,在临床可出现急性心源性脑缺氧综合征,100mg于葡萄糖溶液中滴注,病人有出现头昏、气急、心律紊乱、循环呼吸吸骤停等,并有死亡病例报道。过敏反应也较多见,小檗碱针剂(0.1%)2~4ml,有出现全身搔痒、荨麻疹、体温升高、心慌、关节疼痛、呼吸迪促、烦躁不安、恶心、呕吐、严重的可致血压下降出现过敏性休克。[2] 

鉴别编辑

性状鉴别
根茎多簇状分枝,弯曲巨抱,形似倒鸡爪状,习称鸡爪黄连;单枝类圆柱形,长3~6cm,直径2~8mm。表面灰黄色或黄棕色,外皮剥落处显红棕色,粗糙,有不规则结节状隆起、须根及须根残基,有的节间表面平滑如茎杆,习称过桥;上部多残留褐色鳞叶,顶端常留有残余的茎或叶柄。质坚硬,折断面不整齐,皮部橙红色或暗棕色,木部鲜黄色或橙黄色,髓部红棕色,有时中空。气微,味极苦。[2] 
显微鉴别
根茎横切面:
鳞叶组织常脱落。木栓层为数列木栓细胞。皮层宽广,有的可见根迹和叶迹维管束;石细胞黄色,单个散在或数个成群。纸管束外韧型,呈断续的环状排列,束间形成层不明显。韧皮部外侧有纤维束,大小不等有数个至数十个或上百个纤维;有的还伴有黄色石细胞。木质部黄色,均木化;木纤维较发达。髓部薄壁细胞间有时可见少数单个或成群存在的石细胞。薄壁细胞均含淀粉粒。[2] 
粉末特征
黄棕色或黄色。
①石细胞鲜黄色,类圆形、类方形、类多角形或稍延长,直径25~64μm,长约至102μm,壁厚9~28μm,纹孔明显,有的层纹明显。
②木纤维众多,黄色,细长;直径10~13ctn,壁稍厚,木化,纹孔稀疏。
③韧皮纤维鲜黄色,纺锤形或长梭形,长136~185μm,直径25~40μm,壁较厚,纹孔较稀。
④导管主为孔纹和螺纹导管,直径8~20μm。
⑤淀粉粒多为单粒,长圆形、肾形、类球形或卵形,直径1~10μm;复粒少数,由2~4分粒组成。鳞叶表皮细胞绿黄色或黄棕色,略呈长方形,壁微波状弯曲。[2] 
理化鉴别
(1)本品折断面在紫外光灯下显金黄色荧光,木质部尤为显着。[2] 
(2)取本品粉末约1g,加乙醇10ml,加热至沸腾,放冷,滤过,取滤液5滴,加稀盐酸1ml与漂白粉少量,即显樱红色;另取滤液5滴,加5%五倍子酸的乙醇溶液2~3滴,蒸干,趁热加硫酸数滴,即显深绿色。(检查小檗碱)[2] 
(3)取本品粉末或切片,加稀盐酸或30%硝酸1滴,片刻后镜检,可见黄色针状结晶簇,加热结晶显红色并消失。(检查小檗碱)
(4)薄层色谱 取本品粉末约1g,加甲醇10ml,加热至沸腾,放冷,过滤,滤液作为样品溶液。另以盐酸小檗碱、盐酸掌叶防己碱、盐酸药根碱及盐酸木兰花碱为对照品,加甲醇制成每1ml各含2mg的混合液作为对照溶液。在硅胶薄层板上点样品溶液1~2μm,对照溶液5μl,以氯仿~甲醇~氨水(15:4:1)展开,取出,晾干。所得色谱图,在自然光下小檗碱及掌叶防已碱显黄色,药根碱在有氨存在时显红棕色,木兰花碱无色。在紫外光(254μm)下小檗碱和掌叶防已减显亮黄绿色,木兰花减显亮蓝紫色,药根碱显暗斑。[2] 
商品规格
味连一等:多聚集成簇,分枝肥壮坚实,间有过桥,长不超过2cm。无不到1.5cm的碎节、残茎、焦枯、杂质、霉变。二等:条较一等瘦小,有过桥。间有碎节、碎渣、焦枯。余同一等品。[2] 

化学成分编辑

根状茎为著名中药“黄连”,含小檗碱、黄连碱、甲基黄连碱、掌叶防己碱等生物碱,可治急性结膜炎、急性细菌性痢疾、急性肠胃炎、吐血、痈疖疮疡等症。[1] 
根茎含小檗碱(berberine)5.56%~7.25%,黄连碱(coptisine),表小檗碱(epiberberine),小檗红碱(berberrubine),掌叶防已碱(palmatine),非洲防己碱(columbamine),药根碱(jatrorrhizine),甲基黄连碱(worenine),木兰花减(magnoflorine),阿魏酸(ferulic acid),黄柏酮(obakunone),黄柏内酯(obakulactone)。[2] 

历史编辑

黄连始载于《神农本草经》,列为上品。《本草纲目》中记载:“其根连珠而色黄,故名。”自古以来即认为四川为主产地,例如《名医别录》上说:“黄连生巫阳及蜀郡大山,二月八月采。”而巫阳及蜀郡均指四川。此外,本草记载在长江以东以及湖南、安徽诸省也产,如唐本草记载:“蜀道者粗大,味极浓苦,疗渴为最,江东(即今长江以东)者节如连珠,疗痢大著,今澄州(即今湖南澧县)者更胜。”再参阅重修政和经史证类备用本草中“澧州黄连”和“宣州(即今安徽宣城)黄连”以及《植物名实图考》中的黄连附图,特别是后二者可以清晰地鉴定即系黄连属(Coptis)植物无疑。因而可以认为我国自古以来即以四川一带的黄连 C. chinensis 及长江流域下游一带的短萼黄连 C. chinensis var. brevisepala 同时一并药用。[1] 

植物文化编辑

黄连
黄连 (2张)
相传,很久以前,石柱县黄水坝老山上的一个村子里,住着一个姓陶的医生。他妻生下二男二女。有一年遇天灾,妻子和两个儿子相继病死,因家境贫寒,无力抚养,三女儿也送给了别人家,只留下幺女,父女相依为命。陶医生雇请了一名叫黄连的帮工,替他栽花种草药。黄连心地善良,勤劳憨厚。
没过多久,黄水坝一带的老山上不少人都得了一种相似的疾病,患者多属高热烦燥、胸闷呕吐、泄泻瘌疾、肿痛,渐渐地一个个身强力壮的人都失去了劳动能力。懂事的陶家幺女,算是个幸运儿,她没染上这种怪病,还力所能及地做一些家务。
有一年春天,陶幺女踏青外出,在山坡上,她忽然发现一种野草的叶边沿具有针刺状锯齿,长有很多聚伞花序,有黄色的、绿色的,也有黄绿色的,好看极了,顺手拔起这些野草,乍看草根节形似莲珠,或似鸡爪,或似弯曲的过桥杆,她兴奋地带回家种在园子里。
黄连每次给花草上肥浇水,也没忘记给那野草一份。天长日久,野草越发长得茂盛,葱绿滴翠。
次年夏天,陶医生外出治病,十多天没回家,其间,陶幺女也卧病在床,厌食不饮,一天天瘦下去,只剩得皮包骨头了。陶医生的几位同乡好友煞费苦心想尽办法,也没治好陶幺女的病。
黄连心想,陶姑娘在园子里种下开黄绿色小花的野草,怎么不可以用来试一试?于是他就将那野草连根拔起,洗干净,连根须叶一起下锅,煮了一会儿功夫,他揭开锅盖一看,锅中的野草和汤全都煮成黄色的了。
这时黄连拿起汤勺舀了一碗,正想给幺女送去,突然想到,万一有毒,岂不是害了陶姑娘?不如自己先尝一下,只要自己没被毒死,就让陶姑娘喝这汤。他随即一饮而尽,只是觉得味道好苦。
隔了两个时辰,黄连见自己还活着,手脚都动得,话说得,耳听得,眼见得,方信这野草无毒,这才端一碗让陶幺女服下,说来也怪,陶幺女喝下这野草汤,病竟然就好了,她对黄连说:“这是一味好药,就是太苦了。”此时,已暗恋陶幺女许久的黄连听后黯然神伤地说:“我苦等一个人儿,却没等到,也许和我的命一样苦吧!”

黄连属

以上物种均分布于中国

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%BB%84%E8%BF%9E/406087

Coptis (Ranunculaceae) Edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Berberine, (scientific name: Coptis chinensis Franch.) Alias: taste even, Kawatsure, even chicken feet, is a Ranunculaceae, berberine is a perennial herb, leaf base helpless, Kennedy papery, ovate-triangular, three full-lobed, central lobe ovate diamond, pinnatipartite, sharp serrated edge, lateral lobes unequal 2 parted; petiole length 5-12cm. Wild or cultivated valley at an altitude of 1000-1900m cool wet shaded jungle. There is heat and dampness, purging fire detoxification. Its entrance very bitter taste, there is the saying goes, "哑巴吃黄连, suffering not to say," that revealed the taste.
Chinese scientific name berberine Latin name Coptis chinensis Franch. Nickname taste even, Kawatsure, chicken and even two law Coptis chinensis community Flora door Angiosperms Gang Dicotyledon subclass original metachlamydeae outline Ranunculales Ranunculus Keya Ke Branch Thalictrum subfamily ethnic belonging of berberine berberine berberine species distribution area in southern Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Shaanxi
Contents 1 Morphology 2 3 geographical distribution of growth habit 4 5 cultivation techniques breeding methods ▪ Cultivation management ▪ pest control ▪ Field 6 7 Identification of the medicinal value of the chemical composition 8 9 10 plants and cultural history
Morphological characteristics editor
Berberine
Berberine (7)
Yellow rhizome, often branching, most dense fibrous roots. Ye have long handle; blade slightly leathery, ovate-triangular, 10 cm wide, three-wide crack, the whole central lobe rhombic ovate, 3-8 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, apex acute, long 0.8 -1.8 cm shank, 3 or 5 pairs pinnatipartite in the division below the deepest, deep lobes 2-6 mm from each other, with raw edges sharp thorns finely serrated, lateral lobes with full length 1.5-5 mm handle, obliquely ovate, lobes shorter than the central whole, ranging from two-parted, the veins bulge on both sides, in addition to the outer surface along the veins are pubescent, and the rest glabrous; petiole 5-12 cm long, hairless.
Scapes 1-2, 12-25 cm high; dichotomous or dichasium 3-8 flowers; bracts lanceolate, three or five pinnatipartite; sepals yellow-green, oblong-shaped egg shape, length 9-12.5 mm, 2-3 mm wide; petals linear or linear-lanceolate, 5-6.5 mm long, apex acuminate, the central groove honey; stamens about 20, anthers ca. 1 mm, filament length 2-5 mm; carpels 8-12, style slightly curved outside.
Follicles 6-8 mm long, with handles approximately equal length; seeds 7-8 tablets, oblong, ca. 2 mm, a width of 0.8 mm, brown. February to March flowering, from April to June results. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Berberine whole plant
Berberine whole plant (2)
 
 
Rhizome
Rhizome (1)
 
 
Berberine foliage
Berberine foliage (1)
 
 
Berberine fruit
Berberine fruit (1)
Growth habit editor
Berberine
Berberine (6)
Huanglian Xi cold, wet, shade, avoid high temperature, drought. General distribution in the high mountains of 1200 ~ 1800m, require low temperature, air humidity of the natural environment. We can not withstand strong sunlight, like low light, and therefore need shade.
Shallow roots, distributed in the soil 5 ~ 10cm, suitably loose and fertile topsoil, humus rich, deep soil, pH5.5 ~ 6.5, is acidic. Under Health elevation alpine alpine tree-lined between 1500 to 2300 m, sometimes wild or cultivated.
Geographical Distribution Edit
Distributed in Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, southern Shaanxi. Health and altitude between 500-2000 meters mountain forest or valley shade, wild or cultivated. The type specimen was collected from the port city of Sichuan. [1] 
Reproduction Method Editor
Berberine pictures
Berberine pictures (21)
Propagation by seed. After the end of the embryo cooked seed type. In early May the seeds after harvesting, choose a cool hillside relatively flat ride with tree branches shade, rain Drizzle naturally shed, 20cm deep to dig pits for the seeds with wet sand in the cellar stratification storage. Sooner or later, and after the fall of temperature,
Gradually formed embryo development. 10 to 11 months after the gap between seed sowing in Takakuro, every child 1hm2 sown 22.5 ~ 37.5kg, covered with cow manure. In late February the following year to take short Qimian shed shade emergence early in March, to pick Qimian leaves and weeds in addition to the net. Seedlings should be between 5 to 6 months reminder seedlings topdressing fertilizer quick result, between 10 to 11 months sprinkle finely cow manure and ashes humus to benefit the winter.
Even the traditional planting techniques are used scaffolding shade, in winter, cutting down trees to take shade 1.2m high, about 70 percent shade degree, shed for 1.6m wide Takakuro (car). The first three years after planting between March seedling nursery has grown from 4 to 6 true leaves, transplant, row spacing 10cm × 10cm, planted deep 3 ~ 5cm, 75 ~ 90 万株 per 1hm2 Zaimiao. Useful intercropping between corn and forest planting technique even in winter in Qimian row spacing 1.6m square, spaced planting hemp, mulberry bushes and pine, fir and other trees. Early spring in late February for nutritional bowl seedling cultivation of corn in a plastic dwarf shed.
When the height of about 30cm in height on both sides to furrow spacing 30cm, the leaves of maize seedling transplanting leaf orientation, 6, July corn leaves after sealing ridge between rows planted berberine. After the winter maize harvest, corn stalks woven short shelf for berberine shade. The following year re-planted corn, about 4 to 5 years after the bush has become a forest, for berberine shade, no longer planted corn.
Berberine in the forest after harvesting the land, enough base fertilizer, can be planted even then; shrubbery planted Coptis 2-3 postseason, has become a forest of trees, shrubs can be cut, even tilted downward and crashed in forest trees. Planting shade technique using corn and even planted, not only does not affect berberine yield, labor, and material, save and invest, live trees are not planted berberine savings than twice as fast in the woods. [2] 
Cultivation Technical Editor
Cultivation

Berberine - medicinal parts
Berberine - medicinal parts
Select the soil deep, loose and fertile, humus-rich, draining power, permeability can be good oil bamboo weed, the soil is slightly acidic to neutral, the terrain in order to sooner or later have oblique light irradiation does not exceed 30 degrees gentle slope appropriate. Avoid continuous cropping.
Growing demand berberine selection, seeding, transplanting process. Usually 2 years after seedling transplanting, spring, summer, autumn can be transplanted three years ago after transplanting, should promptly fill the gaps, weeding. Transplanting 3 to 4 years of berberine, weeding 3 or 4 times per year. From the second year, in addition to stay outside planting plants, flowers moss should be promptly removed. Planting cultivation process, according to the age and growth of plants planted requirements, adjust the degree of shade of Yu shield.
Plant
Planting time
ʱ??
Berberine - medicinal parts
Berberine - medicinal parts
There can be planted every year three times: the first time in 2 to 3 months after snow, before berberine not grow new leaves, high survival rate after transplanting, shortly after transplanting hair new leaves, grows new roots grow well into the V After Simiao less is even better planting time, the people known as "old plant leaf." The second period is in May and June, when the new leaves have grown into large seedlings, transplanting survival rate is high, growth is also good, the people known as "Deng planted seedlings." But not later than July, due to high temperatures in July, after transplanting Simiao more serious off nest, growth is also poor. The third period in September and October, soon after transplanting into the frosty, rooted fledgling, on the case of winter frost, frozen vulnerable pull seedlings, the survival rate is low, at low warm ice-free area, was planted at this time.
Prepare seedlings
Stout extractor before planting seedlings from seedbed. When pulling seedlings with his right index finger and thumb and pinch small seedling roots uprooted, shaking off the soil, into the left hand, thumb on one side of rhizomes, seedling first place tidy, fibrous roots straightened out, can not bend, 100 bundled into one the. When pulling seedlings fibrous roots have been damaged, lost vitality, to be reborn after transplanting new roots before planting it at a distance of 1 cm at head, cut long fibrous roots. If the "through-bar method" transplanting, fibrous roots should stay longer, about 1.2 to 2 cm. After cutting fibrous roots, soil water to the roots of seedlings washing clean, when planted easy to operate, easy to induce new rhizome root contact with the soil, while the seedlings to absorb moisture, when freshly planted seedlings, transplanting easy to survive. Usually pull Sicko morning, afternoon, planting, planting the best finish that day; if not planted finished, should lay it in wet places, still soaked in water before planting the next planting. With ammonium molybdate aqueous solution of 1 to 2:500 kg root dipping 2 hours, can promote seedling root, accelerate growing; 1:500 0.5 kg of potassium permanganate solution Baptist roots two hours, there are hair roots and accelerate growth effect.
Planting method
ʱ??
Berberine
Berberine (6)
 Seedlings should be planted in a sunny or cloudy day, it can not be carried out in the rain, because rain will tramping Qimian paste the seedlings on the mud, not easy to survive. Planting methods are three kinds: one is planted back knife, utensils dedicated small heart-shaped wooden handle shovel. When planted right hand shovel, and a left hand to take a seedling from the right hand with a large, food, middle finger and take the seedlings, with a large, food, middle finger hold the upper part of seedling, then the shovel vertically into the soil, depth of 4 ~ 6 cm, flat chest to pull 2 ​​to 3 cm, to make into a vesicle, the seedlings correct insertion hole, and immediately remove the small shovel, dozer good Xuekou forward cover, pressing with back of shovel seedlings. From top to bottom, side planted side back, and subsequently stretch to loosen the soil, flatten footprints. Zaimiao should not be too shallow, generally less blade-age seedlings should be completely buried, most no more than 6 cm square easy to survive, usually 10 cm row spacing, planting square, can be planted per acre 5.5 to 60,000. Second, planted the sword, that with a shovel seedling pressed fibrous line buried. This hydroponic plant faster, but the survival rate is less than planted back knife high, generally less use. The third is planted through the rod in one hand and planted seedlings when the other hand index finger pressed against the roots, into the soil, the index finger a little rotation, out of fingers, then bulldozing cover finger hole. This method Zaimiao faster, the survival rate is high.
Field management

Berberine after planting, a small amount of cow manure applicator immediately and said knife smoked soil fertilizer. Each year in early spring, after the summer and winter seed harvest between 10 to 11 months and each dressing 1, the spring and summer to nitrogen and phosphorus-based fertilizers and other quick result, winter fat cattle manure and smoked soil, should be applied after each earth fertilizer. Article 1, Section 2 of earth about 1cm, 3rd, 4th year 2 ~ 3cm. [2] 
Before dressing should be weeding, 2012 after transplanting small seedlings exposed to large pores, prone to weeds, weeding each year should be 4 to 5 times, four or five students berberine has sealing ridge, combined with weeding fertilizer three times a year. Scaffolding planted even after seed harvest in May that year should be thrown open sun canopy cover, inhibit the growth of leaves, roots prompted substantial; forest planting company, beginning the third year after transplanting winter pruning should shed light, so Shadings about 70% by the plant even when reduced to 20% to 30%. [2] 
Fill the gaps with seedlings
After planting different degrees of Simiao often nest removal, transplanting the first two or three years, about 10% of the seedlings die each year, should be timely fill the gaps, generally Bumiao twice, the first time in the autumn of the year, with seedling age were Bumiao, with soil easier to survive transplanting. Second Bumiao not made before the new leaves after the second year of snow. In winter, the frozen alpine region larger, often head seedlings planted in autumn arch out of the ground, so when the snow detail view, the arch out of the ground the seedlings by hand in the human soil, still survived. Planting monthly seedlings should be found dead. Thereafter if found Deficiency, should be used with considerable Zaimiao transplanting seedlings with soil so that consistent growth after transplanting.
Weeding
Due to take a pre-emergence herbicide, it should be combined with chemical weed control in the planting year and next year, weeding 4-5 times per year, and the third, three to four times a year for four years, the first five times, each time in the grass 2 to 3 leaves, with prometryne 250 grams, simazine 25 to 30 grams, rice once net (Yongchuan production) 2 packs (three drugs when administered with only one of them), and 20 ~ 30 one thousand Kashagan or fertilizer mixed in the sunny afternoon or evening, and cloudy evenly applicator in acres of soil berberine (counting only the net surface area of ​​the car), with bamboo sticks or branches fall to the sweep. Then, careful observation, if there is no net addition to weeds, manual removal.
Top dressing
2 to 3 days after transplanting should be applied once dressing with thin shavings of water or water pig manure can also be finely divided compost or manure per acre with about 1000 kg withdraw facilities. The fertilizer called "knife-edge fat", can survive even after the seedlings grow rapidly. Planted in September and October that year, the second, third, four or five years in the spring May seed and the second, third, four autumn 9 to 10 months, should the facilities dressing 1, a total of eight times. Ren Chufen spring fertilizer per acre with 1000 kg of water and 20 to 30 kg superphosphate, and fine soil or fine compost mix applicator, after applying to the thin bamboo leaves attached Saola fertilizer. Fall forced to farm manure-based fertilizer, used along with ashes, cakes and other fertilizers; fertilizer should get fine full maturity, withdrawal Shi Qimian, 1 cm thick, the amount per acre from 1500 to 2000 kg; if fertilizer is insufficient, the available humus instead of part of the earth or farmyard manure. Fertilization should be increased year by year. Dry fertilizer applicator when applying upward from the lower to avoid piles of manure or cover leaf rolling, vulnerable to rain erosion at the slope of the upper and side plot, poor fertility, should be applied several.
Berberine roots grow upward, forming a internode per year, in order to increase production, the second, third, four years after the fall of dressing should be earth, humus soil collected in the vicinity of the plot to get a fine retreat. Second, three years sprinkle about 1 cm thick, known as the "flower mud"; the fourth year of the withdrawal of about 1.5 cm thick, known as the "full of mud." Earth shall be uniform and not too thick, otherwise the roots stems long bridge, lower the quality.
Balanced Fertilization
On the basis of the dressing on the mud, even the majority of farmers in order to increase production, still every chemical fertilizers promote its growth after the weeding. By comparison test, administered 50 kg superphosphate per acre and 10 kg of ammonium bicarbonate is the best ratio.
Pest control

The main diseases are powdery mildew, should be reduced to increase the degree of light and shade available lime sulfur control. Pests are grubs, mole crickets, etc., can bait trap. There Jizi early spring, golden pheasant damage moss and flower seeds, should be enclosed by a fence, strengthen artificial hunting, more harm reduction. [2] 
Medicinal value edit
Effect
Heat dampness, purging fire detoxification. For hot and humid fullness, vomiting Tunsuan, dysentery, jaundice, fever, coma, Firelight hyperactivity, upset insomnia, blood heat spit bleed at the nose, red eyes, pain, diabetes, carbuncles boils; external treatment of eczema, eczema, ear pus. Qing Huang Lianshan wine on hot coke. For red eyes, mouth sores. Ginger berberine stomach vomiting and stomach. Each node for cold and heat, damp heat resistance, fullness and vomiting. Dogwood berberine Shugan vomiting and stomach. For liver and stomach, vomiting Tunsuan. [3]
Pharmacological effects
1, 2 antibacterial, antifungal effect 3, 4 anti-viral, anti-amoeba effect 5, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhea effect 6, 7, 8 antipyretic effect on cardiovascular effect, hypoglycemic effect 9, fat the role of 10, 11 antioxidant effects on the blood system 12, anti-ulcer effect [2]
For the crowd
Oue empty stomach, spleen diarrhea, kidney just before dawn diarrhea who were careful service.
Medicinal taboo
This product is great bitterness Big Chill, over service Jiufu easily hurt the stomach, spleen and stomach were hanged. Bitter dry disability allowance, Yin-chun injured caution.
Prescription selection
"Bureau" three yellow pill: governance husband, woman triple burner heat accumulation. Focus on the red eyes red hot tapping items swollen head swollen mouth sores; coke enthusiastic diaphragm irritability US diet; under the coke heat constipation, urinary astringent internal organs all heat that is born gangrene boils wound like hemorrhoids and five Dung Gate swelling or lower blood: berberine (to the subject, Lo), skullcap (go Lo), rhubarb (simmer) for each twelve. For the fine refining honey for the pill, such as the Indus sub-major. Each serving thirty pills with boiled water swallow "such as solid organs obstruct pills plus service number. Pediatric service of heat accumulation should be matched.
"Treatise on the" Coptis soup: cure typhoid fever, chest hot, there is evil in the stomach, belly pain, vomiting desire: berberine 150 grams, 150 grams of licorice (Sunburn), ginger 150 grams, 150 grams Guizhi (peeled) 100 grams of ginseng, Pinellia 250 grams (wash) jujube twelve (break). On Qiwei a bucket of water, Zhuqu six liters, to sediment. Warm clothes day and three nights II.
"At the party," Huang Lianan Shishenwan: governance according to repeatedly upset Oh, fretting, Zheng Zhong, the hot gas chaos chest. Xin Xiapi stuffy. Ingestion Anti-out: cinnabar 20 grams, berberine 25 grams of raw licorice 12.5 g. Fine, Soup, Zhengbing Wanru millet big. Each serving food after a nineteen-chun always swallow saliva.
"Council" Xiexintang: excess heat treatment Heart Sutra: berberine 35 grams. Water a half a fried food away warm clothes Save the children.
"Annotations of Materia Medica": evil chrysanthemum, Wuhu flower, Scrophulariaceae, fresh white; fear coltsfoot.
"Shu Materia Medica": fear bidentata.
"Outline": berberine bitter Big Chill, dampness with the pathogenic fire, the disease that, when the stop, how can long take, so chill of the Standing Order, while cutting its gas germinal impulse and peace?
"Materia Medica is": Huang Lianshan diarrhea Heart and real fire and Hot abused, will come to Georgia yang, so Zong Ying Kou Day: virtual and cold person, Shen Wu light use; Wang possession date: summer month long bloody diarrhea without berberine, including Yin also ʱ??
"Ben Cao Jing Shu": Where the patient less blood deficiency, weak stomach, lack of blood, so that fright, insomnia, and Fanre impatient and thirsty, and postpartum insomnia, anemia, fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, pediatric smallpox, Yang for leaks, line after pulp diarrhea, stomach Deficiency wide open for the elderly diarrhea, Yin people dawn pond vent, vent kidney disease name, really yin deficiency, heat irritability all evidence, law salty bogey, invading people in critical condition.
"Shen Nong's Herbal Classic": bitter, cold. Indications heat, eye pain, canthus injury, weeping out of eyesight, intestinal bleach, abdominal pain, diarrhea, woman Yin throat. Jiufu forget.
"Doctors do not record": slightly cold, non-toxic. Indications Wu Zang cold, long discharged bleach, sepsis, only diabetes, shocked, in addition to water, Lee bone, Tiaowei, thick intestine, bile benefit, cure mouth sores.
"Herbal Supplements": Main Leishou shortness of breath.
"Medicinal theory": evil white silkworm, avoid pork, bad cold. Malnutrition in children kill insects, point faint red eye pain, liver town, go hot poison.
"Japan Hanako Materia Medica": governance debility, Qi, stop heart pain, palpitation, irritability, Run cardiopulmonary, flesh, bleeding and sores, night sweats, hot illness day trip. Pork bellies steamed for the pill, cure infantile malnutrition gas.
"Kai Bao Materia Medica": bitter, slightly cold, non-toxic. Five internal organs hot and cold, long discharged bleach, sepsis, only diabetes, shocked, in addition to water conservancy bone, Tiaowei, thick intestine, bile benefits, treatment and mouth sores.
"The sketches by": Coptis governance objectives party more, and goat liver pills Youqi different. Cover the eyes of the disease, all the blood stagnate dictates, so as to xue medicine Huanglian rule. Blood is too hot line, it can also take the hot wash.
"Ben Cao Yan Yi": more people today with the anti-malaria, cover of execution to justice bitter dry. Vulgar under virtual leaked to the whole intestinal micro seems bloody stool, ready to use it, but I do not know stop. And regardless of how much cold and heat, but to make the agent for the degree, the cause is more doom and gloom. If the gas real early disease, heat more bloody diarrhea, they stop serving it, still do not have to make the agent also. Or empty and cold, not to be served. I like "warp."
"Act like a drug class": diarrhea Firelight, in addition to stomach the heat, cure irritability, nausea, swelter in the coke, Wu Wu Yu Tu. Fullness will not cure heart medication also. Zhongjing rule nine kinds Xin Xiapi, five and so Xiexintang all use it.
"Medicinal Fu": bitter, flat, cold air, non-toxic. Shen also, yin. Its use has four: Full of like diarrhea Firelight, elimination Xin Xiapi; primary intestinal bleach, in addition to the mix of red intestines; cure eye disease outbreak is appropriate, treatment with sore all inclusive.
"Herbal Decoction": air cold, bitter. Wei Hou thin air, Yin Zhongyang also. L also non-toxic.
"Like" Cloud: diarrhea Firelight, in addition to stomach the heat, cure irritability, nausea, swelter in the coke, Wu Wu Yu Tu, Xin Xiapi full medication will also. Zhongjing rule nine kinds Xin Xiapi, five and so Xiexintang all use it. To have to use.
"Heart" goes: Xiexin by fire, storm swollen red eye sore Jizhu shall use it. Bitter cold were the main positive surplus, bitter to remove it. An roundworm, through cold cells, treatment under the coke true, strong kidney.
"Jane" goes: Jiuchao up, Jiujin top row.
"Materia Medica" Cloud: Main heat, head pain canthus injury weeping out of eyesight. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, intestinal bleach, woman Yin throat. Five internal organs hot and cold, long pus discharged bleach, only diabetes was shocked, in addition to water conservancy bone, Tiaowei thick intestine, bile benefits, treatment and mouth sores. Jiufu forget.
"Solution" goes: start Shao, bitter dry, so into the heart, the fire was too dry. However Xiexin fact spleen also, for the child make a real mother, actually spilled his son. Windbreak for the treatment of blood on the make, berberine is manipulation, Burnet for the next make.
Tibetan ancestral sea side, so life is not made sore spot: when fried berberine bite, children born not out loud, filling the big should. She has been filling it out loud, although spot hair, but also light. Cuban side to berberine most anti-malaria.
"Yan Yi" Cloud: anti-malaria micro blood, unenforceable berberine. Desiccant is bitter, empty were more doom and gloom caused, it is appropriate to the real person.
"Herbal" Yun: keel, marble, skullcap whom make, evil chrysanthemum, Daphne, Scrophulariaceae, fresh white skin, fear Coltsfoot wins aconite, Croton toxic solution.
"Ben Cao Yan Yi Addendum": fried with ginger Xinsan, heat removal active.
"Herbal play": a chat camera goes: into the heart of bitter, cold heat removal. Rhubarb, berberine bitter to the heart under Hot catharsis. Yun: vent the heat by bitter, bitter Coptis dynasties yang. Yun: roundworm is moving too willing to give pain is safe, berberine, Treats pain to security roundworm.
Jie Gu Yun: diarrhea Firelight, in addition to stomach the heat, cure irritability, nausea, swelter in the coke, Wu Wu Yu Tu. Bitter, smell all thick, may go up or down, Yin Zhongyang also. Its use has five: Xiexin hot one too, to the coke fire two also, such sores will also use three, four also went to rheumatism, five outbreaks of red eye also. Jiuchao the upside. Yun: go coke wet and hot, with berberine diarrhea Firelight it is also. Eye pain can not ninja, with berberine, angelica root, Jiujin decoction. Sushi Needless who, with berberine, citrus aurantium.
"Compendium of Materia Medica": berberine bitter Big Chill, dampness with the pathogenic fire, the disease that is when the stopper.
"Ben Cao Jing Shu": intrinsic world berberine raw cold gas to generate, so the smell of bitter cold and non-toxic. Wei Hou in air, bitter and thick yin. Should it discharged, purports to be added upstream guide. Starting Shao, Yangming, foot Shaoyang, Jue Yin, foot Yangming, lunar. Xianyao disease as wine, god grass under stagnation. Six by actions, each Shugong. Its main heat, head pain hurt canthus tears out, eyesight, who shocked the benefits guts, cold heart and gallbladder are clear. Abdominal pain, diarrhea and intestinal bleach.
"Do not record" and the main vent bleach. Who vent, diarrhea Lee also; bleach who is also the large intestine of blood, commonly known as dirty drug. In addition to water conservancy bone, thick stomach, cure mouth sores who eliminate intestine, stomach, spleen three of the hot and humid also. Jiufu not forget who is the heart of home fire no clear, clear the next, so forget it.
"Ben Cao Meng Quan": bitter, cold air. Wei Hou thin air, can go up or down. Shen also, yin, yin yang micro. Non-toxic. Fire cure all evil, according to each system fry.
"Herbal Take Ya": Ling bitter cold of winter, the cold water; the yellow section, Turkey's system, also sentenced to heart medication. Hot on inflammation, inflammation of the work that is suffering the goods, with the differences, the varying changes of the resistance, so that peace.
"Herbal solution": berberine, bitter, cold, non-toxic, into the heart. Main heart flame, eye disease outbreak, sore swelling, bowel red diarrhea, fullness, diarrhea, infantile malnutrition heat elimination in mouth sores, palpitation, irritability, Sky heat illness.
"Materia Medica truth": Great diarrhea Firelight excess heat.
"I was equipped with Materia Medica": skullcap, Long muscle, marble whom make. Fear Achyranthes, coltsfoot, bad cold, chrysanthemum, Scrophulariaceae, white silkworm, fresh white skin, Daphne. Avoid pork. Kill aconite, Croton, light pink poison.
"Ben Cao Jing solution": Coptis cold air, cold winter days, the water vapor Bing, into the kidney meridian; bitter, non-toxic, have fire flavor to the South, starting Shao Yin Heart Sutra. Smell all down, yin. Its main hot head pain also, Heart fire, fiery hot, heart disease Scotia liver, liver opens into the eyes also, berberine bitter cold, so clear the fire. Shao positive pulse hand, for face, within close canthus, hand Shao as Firelight, H.-S., the anxious heart and tears out; canthus wounded, all Firelight, berberine heart, so Lord. Actually spilled his son, heart, wood is also the son, a pure heart is liver Xie Xie, so eyesight also.
"Shen Nong's Herbal Classic Reading": Coptis cold air, cold winter days, the water vapor Bing, into the kidney meridian; bitter, non-toxic, have fire flavor to the South, starting Shao Yin Heart Sutra, gas and water and flavored water, a with all things, it can remove water and fire chaos, and the heat of the disease.
"Shennong one hundred kinds of record": taste bitter. Primary heat, heat removal in the gas separation by. Eye pain, tears out canthus injury, eyesight, in addition to the disease on the hot and humid. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, intestinal bleach, in addition to hot and humid.
"Sutra card": Coptis Roots Cong Yan, Man cited with the case, a total of one hundred stems several who even named its governance resembles flooded long delay of the card, such as prostitution sore berberine powder is Lord of men, husband name steeped, the non-violence was the beginning of the disease, nor a cure can heal the candidate, so the Golden Chamber Treatise on two books, never get sick with berberine by the new.
"New Materia Medica": berberine, bitter, cold, may go up or down, Yin is also non-toxic. Into the heart and cellular network. Most purging fire, also the liver. About the same cited by the drug, all to get into it, into the room the heart, especially designed by the well. Lee Tunsuan antiemetic, benevolent thirsty. Governance FireCam even God, can feel at ease, only nocturnal emissions, will be manic, except fullness, to the woman as swollen vulva. Treatment of Infantile rickets soil for food, hot weather heat, heat, swelter, there is a special function.
"Herbal divided by": big bitter Big Chill. Into the heart and purging fire, Zhengan cooling, dampness Gloomy, can eliminate minded bad blood, but also diarrhea spleen fire. Jiuchao rule on the coke fire, ginger fried governance in the coke fire, the next water treatment fried coke fire.
Medicinal toxicity
Therapeutic amount of berberine quite safe, side effects are rarely, long-term use is also no any obstacles, or used in conjunction with an oral berberine berberine 2.0g 100g powder did not show any side effects. In animal studies, toxicity is also very light, easy oral lethal to mice, the minimum lethal dose intraperitoneal injection of 0.01g / kg, also measured obtaining the median lethal dose of 0.066g / kg (cork or berberine were each 0.52 , 0.73g / kg).
Cat oral 0.1g / kg can cause systemic suppression, vomiting, at 8 to 10 days after the death, the excitement turned to breathing paralysis, seizures can occur before death. Berberine sulfate mice by intraperitoneal injection of lethal dose of 24.3 mg / kg. Tetrahydroberberine fed to mice, subcutaneous and intravenous median lethal dose was 940mg / kg, 790mg / kg and 100mg / kg.
Berberine hydrochloride in mice by intraperitoneal injection of lethal dose of 24.3mg / kg. The most serious toxic berberine cardiac toxicity, in clinically acute cardiogenic cerebral hypoxia syndrome, 100mg infusion in glucose solution, patients have dizziness, shortness of breath, heart rhythm disorders, circulatory and respiratory arrest absorption, etc. and deaths have been reported. Allergies are more common, berberine injection (0.1%) 2 ~ 4ml, there are systemic itching, hives, fever, palpitation, joint pain, breathing Di promoting, irritability, nausea, vomiting, severe can decrease in blood pressure caused by anaphylactic shock. [2] 
Identification editor
Character identification
Rhizome multi tufted branches, bent giant hug, pour chicken-like shape, commonly known as chicken berberine; single branch class cylindrical, long 3 ~ 6cm, diameter 2 ~ 8mm. Surface greyish yellow or yellow-brown, the skin peeled position was reddish brown, rough, irregular nodular uplift, fibrous roots and fibrous residue, among some sections smooth surface such as stems, Xi said the bridge; the upper multiresidue brown scales Ye, the top often leaving residual stem or petiole. Quality hard, irregular fracture surface, sheath or dark brown orange red, Kibe bright yellow or orange, pith red-brown, sometimes hollow. Gas micro, taste very bitter. [2] 
Microscopic identification
Rhizome cross-section:
Scale leaf tissue often fall off. Cork layer of cork cells several columns. Cortex wide, some visible traces roots and leaf trace vascular bundles; yellow stone cells, a single or a few scattered groups. Paper bundle outside the tough type, arranged in a ring intermittently, between the beam-forming layer is not obvious. Outer phloem fiber bundles, ranging in size to several tens or hundreds of fiber; some accompanied by yellow stone cells. Xylem yellow, all-wood; wood fiber is developed. Room pith parenchyma cells sometimes visible minority groups exist in single or stone cells. Parenchyma cells inclusive of starch grains. [2] 
Powder characteristics
Yellow-brown or yellow.
① stone cells bright yellow, round, class square, polygonal or slightly extended, diameter 25 ~ 64μm, about to 102μm, wall thickness 9 ~ 28μm, pits obvious, some laminated obvious.
② many wood fiber, yellow, slender; diameter 10 ~ 13ctn, thicker wall, wood-based, pits sparse.
③ bast fibers bright yellow, spindle or fusiform, long 136 ~ 185μm, diameter 25 ~ 40μm, wall thicker than the thin pit.
④ catheter Lord pitted and thread pipe diameter 8 ~ 20μm.
⑤ starch grains more than a single grain, oblong, kidney-shaped, spherical or oval, diameter 1 ~ 10μm; complex particles minority from 2 to 4 points grain composition. Scale leaf epidermal cells greenish yellow or yellow-brown, slightly rectangular, curved walls of the microwave. [2] 
Physical and chemical identification
(1) This product fracture surface under ultraviolet light was yellow fluorescence, xylem is particularly significant. [2] 
(2) take the powder about 1g, plus ethanol 10ml, heated to boiling, let cool, filtered, the filtrate 5 drops of dilute hydrochloric acid 1ml with a small amount of bleach, which was cherry red; another 5 drops of the filtrate, add 5 ethanol% gallic acid 2 to 3 drops, evaporated, add a few hot drops of sulfuric acid, which was dark green. (Check berberine) [2]
(3) take the powder or slices, add dilute hydrochloric acid or nitric acid 1 drop of 30%, after a moment microscopy, visible yellow needles cluster, heating crystallization was red and disappear. (Check berberine)
(4) take the powder TLC approximately 1g, add methanol 10ml, heated to boiling, let cool, filtered, and the filtrate as the sample solution. Another berberine hydrochloride palm leaf Tet, hydrochloric acid and hydrochloric acid jatrorrhizine Magnolia base as reference substance, add methanol 1ml each containing 2mg of the mixture as a control solution. Silica gel thin layer at the point of sample solution plate 1 ~ 2μm, control solution 5μl, chloroform - methanol - aqueous ammonia (15: 4: 1) to expand, remove, dry. The resulting chromatogram, in natural light and palmatine berberine has alkali show yellow, jatrorrhizine in the presence of ammonia was reddish brown, magnolia base colorless. UV (254μm) under berberine and palmatine has been reduced significantly bright yellow-green, magnolia minus was bright blue and purple, jatrorrhizine noticeable dark spots. [2] 
Product specifications
Even first-class taste: more clustering of branching solid fat, between the bridge and not longer than 2cm. No less than 1.5cm broken section, residual stems, scorch, impurities, mildew. Second: First Article relatively thin, there is the bridge. Inter have broken section, slag, scorch. More than in the same and other goods. [2] 
Chemical composition editor
Rhizome is a famous traditional Chinese medicine, "berberine" containing berberine, berberine, methyl coptisine, palm leaf tetradrine other alkaloids, can cure acute conjunctivitis, acute bacterial dysentery, acute gastroenteritis, vomiting, carbuncle boils ulcers embolism. [1] 
Roots containing berberine (berberine) 5.56% ~ 7.25%, coptisine (coptisine), table berberine (epiberberine), berberrubine (berberrubine), palm leaves have anti-alkali (palmatine), palmatine (columbamine ), jatrorrhizine (jatrorrhizine), methyl coptisine (worenine), Magnolia minus (magnoflorine), ferulic acid (ferulic acid), Cork ketone (obakunone), Cork lactone (obakulactone). [2] 
Edit History
Berberine only contained in the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" as a top grade. "Compendium of Materia Medica" records: "The root Pente and yellow, hence the name." Since ancient times, namely that the Sichuan-based origin, for example, "doctors do not record", he said: "Huang Liansheng Wu and Yang Shujun mountains, February 8 Mining month. "And Yang and Wu Shujun refer Sichuan. In addition, in the east of the Yangtze River as well as herbal record Hunan, Anhui provinces also produced, such as Tang Materia Medica records: "Quiet Night's thick, very strong bitter taste, treatment for the most thirsty, Koto (now the Yangtze River to the east) by section as Pente, Spa dysentery big with, today Cheng State (now Hunan Lixian) were surpassed. "Referring again rebuilt by the history of governance Syndrome spare herbal medicine," Li Zhou berberine "and" Xuanzhou (now Xuancheng) berberine "and" plant name, map test "in the berberine drawings, and particularly the latter two can be clearly identified namely the Department of Coptis (Coptis) plant doubt. It can be assumed in our country since ancient times Sichuan area of ​​berberine C. chinensis and short calyx downstream along the Yangtze River Basin berberine C. chinensis var. Brevisepala simultaneously be medicinal. [1] 
Plant Culture Editor
Berberine
Berberine (2)
According to legend, a long time ago, Shizhu yellow old mountain dam in a village, there lived a surname Dr. Tao De. His wife gave birth to two male and two female. One year in case of natural disaster, his wife and two sons died one after another, because of a poor family, unable to raise three daughters gave of someone's home, leaving only the youngest daughter, father and daughter had each other. Dr. Tao hired a journeyman named berberine, for his flowers and herbs. Berberine good-hearted, hard-working and honest.
Before long, yellow dams along the old mountain many people have had a similar disease, mostly in patients with high fever irritability, chest tightness, vomiting, diarrhea, scabies disease, pain, and gradually one by one able-bodied people have lost the ability to work. Tao sensible youngest daughter, considered lucky, she did not pick up this strange disease, but also within its power to do some housework.
One spring, pottery youngest daughter outing to go out on the slopes, she suddenly found the edge of a leaf weeds have needle-like serrated, having a lot of cymes, yellow, green, or yellow-green, very nice , and easily pull these weeds, at first glance the shape of lotus roots festival beads, or like chicken feet, or like a curved rod bridge, she excitedly Strip home and plant in the garden.
Berberine on each watering to fertilizer plants, did not forget to give it a weed. Over time, weeds grow more lush, verdant Dicui.
Next summer, Dr. Tao out treatment, days did not go home, meantime, Tao youngest daughter is also confined to bed, do not drink anorexia, lean down day by day, only too skinny. Dr. Tao several fellow friends took pains to find ways, there is no cure Tao youngest woman disease.
Berberine thought, pottery girl open yellow-green flowers in the yard garden weed species, how not to give it a try? So that he will weed uprooted, washed, leaves pot with roots shall, cook a little while, he opened the lid and saw the pot of soup all boiled grass and the yellow.
Then pick up the spoon fetched a bowl berberine, youngest daughter was going to be sent, and suddenly thought, if toxic, would not harm the pottery girl? As their own to taste it, as long as they have not been poisoned, let Tao girl drink this soup. He then drained, but it tasted bitter.
After a two hour, berberine see he still alive, hands and feet are moving too, words were, ears to hear, and perceived, side letters that toxic weeds, this end of the bowl to make pottery youngest daughter dose, strange to say, Tao youngest daughter drink this soup weeds, disease actually like, she berberine said: "This is good medicine blindly, that is bitter." At this point, the youngest daughter of Tao crush a long time to say sorry for berberine hear : "I'm waiting for a man child, did not wait until, perhaps, and my life as bitter it!"
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Rhizome
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Coptis
Berberine ▪ ▪ ▪ deltoidea Emei Coptis
▪ Five Leaves five-lobed berberine berberine ▪ ▪ teeta
Above species are distributed in China
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. berberine. Flora of China [reference date 2013-12-4]
2. berberine. China Medical Network [reference date 2013-12-4]
3. berberine. China Medical Network [reference date 2013-12-4]




















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