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化痰止咳平喘药 expectorant or stop coughing wheezing & asthma herbs

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化痰止咳平喘药

 编辑
包括化痰药和止咳平喘药。凡以祛痰或消痰为主的药物称为化痰药,能缓和或制止咳嗽喘息的药物称止咳平喘药。化痰药主要用于痰多咳嗽、咯痰不爽以及与痰有关的如瘿瘤瘰疬等证。止咳平喘药主要用于治疗症见咳嗽、气喘的多种疾患。
中文名
化痰止咳平喘药
包    括
化痰药和止咳平喘药
适用症状
痰多咳嗽、咯痰不爽
别    称
止咳平喘药

概述编辑

以祛痰、消痰、制止和减轻咳嗽气喘为主要作用的一类中药。

功用编辑

此类药物一般分为化痰药和止咳平喘药。在化痰药中,药性辛而燥者,多有燥湿化痰温化寒痰的作用;药性甘苦微寒者,多有清化热痰、润燥化痰的作用。止咳平喘药中,由于药物性味的不同,分别具有宣肺、降肺、泻肺、清肺、润肺、敛肺止咳平喘的作用。部分药物还有散结消肿、熄风定惊、清热利尿、润肠通便等作用。

分类和适应证编辑

根据药物的不同作用,化痰止咳平喘药可分为温化寒痰药、清化热痰药和止咳平喘药3类。
①温化寒痰药。药性温燥,主要用于寒痰犯肺所致的喘咳痰多、色白、质稀,口鼻气冷,或湿痰犯肺、咳嗽痰多、色白成块、舌苔白腻,以及痰湿阻滞经络所引起的关节酸痛、痰核流注、瘰疬,或痰浊上壅、蒙蔽清窍所致中风痰迷、癫痫惊狂等证。常用药有半夏天南星、白附子、白芥子皂荚、白前、桔梗、旋覆花等。
②清化热痰药。药性寒凉,主要用于热痰壅肺所致的痰多咳喘、痰稠色黄,或燥痰犯肺、干咳少痰、咯痰不爽,以及痰火上扰的心烦不安、痰迷心窍的中风、癫狂,或痰火凝结、瘿瘤瘰疬痰核等证。常用药有前胡、瓜蒌、浙贝母川贝母天竹黄、竹茹、竹沥海浮石海蛤壳瓦楞子海藻昆布胆南星、黄药子、礞石胖大海猪胆汁、罗汉果、木蝴蝶、冬瓜子等。
③止咳平喘药。主要用于各种原因引起的肺失宣降、痰壅气逆的咳喘证。常用的药物有杏仁、紫苏子马兜铃枇杷叶、桑白皮、葶苈子矮地茶鼠曲草洋金花、百部、紫菀款冬花白果等。此外,部分药物还可用治痰热急惊、湿热水肿、肠燥便秘等证。

配伍编辑

使用化痰止咳平喘药时,须根据不同的病情适当配伍。如因外感,当配解表药;如因里热,当配清热药;如兼里寒者,当配温里药虚劳咳喘者,当配补益药;癫痫惊狂者,当配安神、平肝开窍药;中风痰迷者,当配开窍醒神药和熄风药瘿瘤瘰疬者,又当配软坚散结之品。

用药注意编辑

咳嗽兼有咳血者,不宜用强烈而有刺激性的化痰药,以防加重咳血;对麻疹初起的咳嗽,不要急于止咳,尤其不要用温燥性或收涩性的止咳药,以免助热或影响麻疹透发。

现代研究编辑

研究资料表明,此类药部分服后可增加支气管的分泌,使痰液稀释,易于咳出,而有祛痰作用。某些化痰散结药含碘可用于缺碘的病症。止咳平喘药大多有镇咳作用,部分药物能缓解支气管平滑肌痉挛而有平喘作用。有的尚有抗菌、抗病毒及抗肿瘤的作用。化痰止咳平喘药被广泛用于感冒、气管炎、支气管炎支气管哮喘支气管扩张大叶性肺炎肺结核、肺癌等多种肺部疾患,以及甲状腺肿大、中风昏迷、半身不遂、癫痫、精神分裂症、癔病、美尼尔氏综合征等多种疾病的治疗。

药理作用编辑

这类药物主要有以下药理作用。  (1)化痰作用:桔梗、前胡、皂荚、南星、贝母煎剂或流浸膏有祛痰作用,动物实验证明这药物均能使呼吸道分泌增加,桔梗和前胡的作用较强,皂荚次之,在给药1小时后分泌量较多,以后逐渐减少。款冬花效果较差。家种、野生川贝母醇流浸膏均有显著祛痰作用,两者无明显差异。由川贝母提出的生物碱及贝母皂甙2、3,对小鼠有非常明显的祛痰效果,剂量减半,祛痰作用则不明显。家兔口服南星煎剂能显著增加呼吸道分泌,可持续4小时以上。半夏制剂给兔腹腔注射,对毛果云香碱唾液分泌有显著抑制作用。
(2)镇咳平喘作用:实验证明,半夏、桔梗、款冬花、苦杏仁等有镇咳作用:半夏煎剂对碘溶液注入猫右肋膜引起的咳嗽有明显的镇咳作用,药效能维持五小时以上,可能由于直接抑制咳嗽中枢之故。桔梗镇咳作用较强。款冬花给猫灌胃后半小时有显著的镇咳效力,款冬花与等量冰糖治疗大人咳嗽、小儿吼嗽或外感风寒咳嗽有效。服用小量杏仁,在体内慢慢分解,产生微量氰氢酸,对呼吸中枢有轻微抑制作用,使呼吸运动趋于安静,从而有镇咳平喘的效果。 川贝母、浙贝母的流浸膏及煎剂对鼠、猫均无镇咳作用;亦有报道川贝母对小鼠有较强的镇咳作用。浙贝母甲碱有扩张家兔及猫的肺支气管平滑肌作用,与阿托品相似。用离体家兔、豚鼠气管肺灌流法证明,款冬花醚提取物小剂量灌流后,灌流滴数略有增加,用较大剂量后,滴数反而减少,且不能对抗豚鼠由组胺引起的支气管痉挛,其醇浸膏呼吸频率及深度有减慢加深作用。款冬花醇浸膏对哮喘患者(支气管哮喘哮喘性支气管炎合并肺气肿者),多数有效,但远期疗效较差。
(3)其他作用:半夏各种制剂均有一定的镇吐作用,对犬只能减少阿朴吗啡所致的呕吐次数,不能完全抑制呕吐,半夏的镇吐活性与栽培条件有关,含氮肥区的产品活性强。半夏对小鼠离体早孕、晚孕子宫有抑制作用;半夏蛋白(从半夏中分离出的一种植物蛋白)有抗早孕作用,利用辣根过氧化物酶标记定位表明,半夏蛋白抗早孕可能是由于它在小鼠子宫和胚胎上有一定的结合部位,这种专一的结合,导致了细胞功能的改变,进而终止了妊娠。款冬花能引起中枢兴奋,升压,兴奋呼吸,抑制胃肠道平滑肌。动物实验证明,桑白皮煎剂给家兔口眼6小时内,尿量及其中氯化物含量均较显著增加,桑白皮为中医常用消水肿方剂五皮饮大腹皮、桑白皮、茯苓皮、陈橘皮生姜皮)的组成部分。
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Huatanzhike asthma drug Editor
Including drugs and cough and phlegm and asthma drugs. Where an expectorant or phlegm-based drug called phlegm medicine, can ease or stop coughing wheezing cough and asthma drugs called drugs. Phlegm medicine mainly used for phlegm cough, sputum expectoration unhappy as well as related galls scrofula and other evidence. Cough and asthma medicine for the treatment of Zheng Jian cough, asthma variety of disorders.
Chinese name Huatanzhike asthma drugs include drugs and cough and phlegm symptoms of asthma drugs applicable phlegm cough, expectoration unhappy nickname cough and asthma medicine
Contents 1 Overview 2 function 3 Classification and indication 4 Compatibility 5 6 modern drug research note 7 pharmacological action
Overview Edit
Expectorant, Phlegm, deter and mitigate cough, asthma is the main role of a kind of traditional Chinese medicine.
Function Editor
Such drugs are generally divided into phlegm cough medicine and asthma drugs. In phlegm drugs, drug Sheen and dry, the more there is dampness and phlegm, warm the role of Han Tan; herbs joys slightly cold, the more heat there Thanh Hoa phlegm, phlegm and moistening effect. Cough and asthma medicine, because the taste of different drugs, each having Xuanfei, reducing lung, Xiefei, lung, lungs, convergence lung cough and asthma effect. There are some drugs Sanjie swelling, Xifeng be scared, heat diuretic, laxative and so on.
Classification and indications edit
Depending on the effect of drugs, asthma drugs can be divided into warm Huatanzhike Han Tan medicine, Thanh Hoa heat sputum cough and asthma medicine and medicine three categories.
① Wen Han Tan drugs. Temperature and dry cough, phlegm herbs, mainly due to Han Tan Fanfei, color white, of thin, mouth and nose air-cooled or wet Fanfei phlegm, cough, sputum, white into blocks, greasy tongue coating, and phlegm joint pain caused by blocked meridians, the sputum nuclear streamer, scrofula, or phlegm obstruct, blind orifices induced sputum fans stroke, epilepsy Frantic other evidence. Commonly used drugs have Pinellia, Arisaema, white tuber, Mustard Seed, acacia, former white, bellflower, Inula like.
② Thanh Hoa heat phlegm medicine. Herbal cold, mainly for heat-induced lung phlegm cough, phlegm, thick yellow sputum, or phlegm Fanfei dry, dry cough with little sputum, expectoration unhappy, upset and disturbed by interference on pyrophlegm, sputum minded fans stroke, mania, or pyrophlegm coagulation, gall scrofula sputum nuclear and other evidence. Commonly used drugs have imperatorin, Trichosanthes, Fritillaria, Fritillaria, day Zhuhuang, Zhuru, Zhu Li, sea pumice, sea clam shell, corrugated son, seaweed, kelp, gall Southern Star, xanthate son, mineral stones, Panda Hai pig bile, Mangosteen, wood butterfly, melon and the like.
③ cough and asthma medicine. Mainly used for lung failure declared down a variety of causes, phlegm gas against the cough syndrome. Commonly used drugs are almonds, perilla, Aristolochia, leaves, Morus alba, Tinglizi, dwarf to tea, Gnaphalium, Yangjinhua, one hundred, Aster, Coltsfoot, ginkgo. In addition, some medications can also be used Phlegm heat anxious shock, heat edema, constipation, dry bowel syndrome.
Compatibility edit
When using Huatanzhike asthma drugs shall be appropriate depending on the condition of compatibility. As a result of exogenous, when with relieving drugs; as a result in the heat, when with antipyretic; and in such cold person, when the temperature in the drug distribution; consumptive cough who, when equipped tonics; epilepsy Frantic who, when equipped soothe the nerves, Liver, resuscitation medicine; stroke sputum fans who, when equipped with resuscitation Stasis drugs and Xifeng medicine; gall scrofula person, and when the goods with Endometriosis.
Note Editing medication
Cough, hemoptysis were both strong and should not use irritating phlegm medicine, to prevent the increase hemoptysis; measles since the beginning of cough, do not rush to cough, especially not with warm dry or astringent nature of cough medicine, so as not to help heat or impact of measles through the hair.
Modern research editor
Research data show that these drugs increase the secretion of bronchial clothing section, so that diluted sputum, easy to cough, and have expectorant effects. Some phlegm drugs containing iodine can be used to iodine deficiency disorders. Cough and asthma medicine mostly antitussive effect, some drugs can relieve bronchial smooth muscle spasm and has asthma. There are some anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-tumor effect. Huatanzhike asthma drugs are widely used for colds, bronchitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, multiple lung disease bronchiectasis, lobar pneumonia, tuberculosis, lung cancer, as well as goiter, stroke, coma, hemiplegia, epilepsy , schizophrenia, hysteria, Meniere's syndrome and other diseases treatment.
Pharmacological effects editor
Such drugs are the following pharmacological effects. (1) phlegm: bellflower, Peucedanum, acacia, Southern Star, Fritillaria decoction or liquid extract has expectorant effects, animal experiments show that these drugs are to make respiratory secretion, the role of Kikyo and imperatorin stronger, acacia followed, at 1 hour after administration secrete large amounts, then gradually reduced. Coltsfoot poor results. Home-grown, wild fritillary mother alcohol liquid extract significantly expectorant effect, there was no significant difference. Presented by the Sichuan Fritillaria Fritillaria alkaloids and saponins 2,3, the mice have a very significant expectorant effects, dose halved, expectorant effect is not obvious. Southern Star rabbits oral decoction can significantly increase respiratory secretions, more sustainable 4 hours. Banxia preparation to rabbits by intraperitoneal injection of saliva secretion Mao fruit rue alkali significantly inhibited.
(2) the role of cough and asthma: Experiments show that Breit, bellflower, Coltsfoot, bitter almonds antitussive effects: cough Pinellia decoction of iodine solution is injected cat Youlei film caused a significant antitussive effect, medicine Effectiveness maintained for more than five hours, it may be due to the direct inhibition of the cough center. Bellflower antitussive stronger role. Coltsfoot to half an hour after the cat has a significant oral antitussive effect, with the same amount of sugar Coltsfoot cough treatment of adults, children or exogenous cold cough cough roar effective. Taking a small amount of almond, break down slowly in the body, produce small quantities of hydrogen cyanide, a slight inhibitory effect on the respiratory center, respiratory motion tends to quiet, so there is asthma antitussive effect. Fritillaria Zhejiang Fritillaria liquid extract and decoction of rats, cats no antitussive effect; fritillary mother also reported to have strong antitussive effect in mice. Zhejiang Fritillaria azomethine have smooth muscle dilatation in rabbits and cats bronchopulmonary, similar to atropine. Isolated rabbit, guinea pig tracheal lung perfusion proof, Coltsfoot ether extract small doses after perfusion, perfusion slight increase in the number of drops, after using large doses, however, reduced the number of drops, and not against guinea pigs caused by histamine bronchospasm, its alcohol extract on respiratory rate and depth have slowed deeper role. Coltsfoot alcohol extract of asthma (bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis and emphysema), most effective, but less long-term efficacy.
(3) Other effects: Banxia various formulations have some antiemetic effect on dogs only reduce apomorphine-induced vomiting often can not be completely suppressed vomiting, town Banxia spit active and cultivation conditions, including Nitrogen area product activity is strong. Banxia of mice in vitro pregnancy, late pregnancy uterus inhibited; pinellin (isolated from a plant protein Ternata) has the role of anti-pregnancy, the use of horseradish peroxidase-labeled positioning showed Banxia protein anti-pregnancy may be because it has a certain binding sites on the mouse uterus and the embryo, this specific combination, led to changes in cell function, thereby terminating the pregnancy. Coltsfoot can cause central nervous system stimulation, boost, excited breathing, inhibit gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Animal experiments show, Morus alba decoction for six hours inside the mouth and eyes of rabbits, and the chloride content in urine increased significantly in, Morus alba Common eliminate edema TCM prescription five skin drink (Dafu Pi, Morus alba , Poria skin, Chen orange peel, ginger, leather) component.











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