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連翹 Forsythia (Forsythiae Fructus) Lian Qiao

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连翘

 

(木犀科连翘属植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条介绍的是学名为Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl的植物物种。连翘,亦可指分类学“连翘属”下所有物种的统称。关于后者的介绍,请参阅“连翘属”词条。
连翘(拉丁学名:Forsythia suspensa ):落叶灌木,香港俗称一串金,是木犀科连翘属植物。连翘早春先叶开花,花开香气淡艳,满枝金黄,艳丽可爱,是早春优良观花灌木,株高约3米,枝干丛生,小枝黄色,拱形下垂,中空。叶对生,单叶或3小叶,卵形或卵状椭圆形,缘具齿。花冠黄色,1-3朵生于叶腋;果卵球形、卵状椭圆形或长椭圆形,先端喙状渐尖,表面疏生皮孔;果梗长0.7-1.5厘米。花期3-4月,果期7-9月。
生于山坡灌丛、林下或草丛中,或山谷、山沟疏林中,海拔250-2200米。果实可以入药。
产于中国河北、山西、陕西、山东、安徽西部、河南、湖北、四川。
(概述图参考资料来源:)
中文学名
连翘
拉丁学名
Forsythia suspensa
别    称
黄花条、连壳、青翘、落翘、黄奇丹
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
合瓣花亚纲
捩花目
亚    目
木犀亚目
木犀科
亚    科
木犀亚科
丁香族
连翘属
连翘
分布区域
中国,日本

形态特征编辑

落叶灌木。枝开展或下垂,棕色、棕褐色或淡黄褐色,小枝土黄色或灰褐色,略呈四棱形,疏生皮孔,节间中空,节部具实心髓。叶通常为单叶,或3裂至三出复叶,叶片卵形、宽卵形或椭圆状卵形至椭圆形,长2-10厘米,宽1.5-5厘米,先端锐尖,基部圆形、宽楔形至楔形,叶缘除基部外具锐锯齿或粗锯齿,上面深绿色,下面淡黄绿色,两面无毛;叶柄长0.8-1.5厘米,无毛。花通常单生或2至数朵着生于叶腋,先于叶开放;花梗长5-6毫米;花萼绿色,裂片长圆形或长圆状椭圆形,长(5-)6-7毫米,先端钝或锐尖,边缘具睫毛,与花冠管近等长;花冠黄色,裂片倒卵状长圆形或长圆形,长1.2-2厘米,宽6-10毫米;在雌蕊长5-7毫米花中,雄蕊长3-5毫米,在雄蕊长6-7毫米的花中,雌蕊长约3毫米。果卵球形、卵状椭圆形或长椭圆形,长1.2-2.5厘米,宽0.6-1.2厘米,先端喙状渐尖,表面疏生皮孔;果梗长0.7-1.5厘米。花期3-4月,果期7-9月。[1] 

植物形态

  •  
    连翘全株
    连翘全株(25张)
  •  
  •  
    连翘枝叶
    连翘枝叶(2张)
  •  
  •  
    连翘花果
    连翘花果(10张)

生长习性编辑

连翘喜光,有一定程度的耐荫性;喜温暖,湿润气候,也很耐寒;耐干旱瘠薄,怕涝;不择土壤,在中性、微酸或碱性土壤均能正常生长。
在干旱阳坡或有土的石缝,甚至在基岩或紫色沙
页岩的风化母质上都能生长。连翘根系发达,虽主根不太显著,但其侧根都较粗而长,须根众多,广泛伸展于主根周围,大大增强了吸收和固土能力;连翘耐寒力强,经抗寒锻炼后,可耐受-50℃低温,其惊人的耐寒性,使其成为北方园林绿化的佼佼者;连翘萌发力强、发丛快,可很快扩大其分布面。因此,连翘生命力和适应性都非常强。
据实验表明:连翘可正常生长于海拔250m-2200m、平均气温12.1℃-17.3℃、绝对最高温36℃-39.4℃、绝对最低温-4.8℃-14.5℃的地区,但以在阳光充足、深厚肥沃而湿润的立地条件下生长较好。[2] 

地理分布编辑

产于河北、山西、陕西、山东、安徽西部、河南、湖北、四川。生山坡灌丛、林下或草丛中,或山谷、山沟疏林中,海拔250-2200米。我国除华南地区外,其他各地均有栽培,日本也有栽培。最初是根据栽种在日本庭园中的植物发表的。[1] 

物种分类编辑

物种区别

迎春与连翘的主要区别:
  1)迎春是木樨科茉莉属,植株外形呈灌木丛状,较矮小,枝条呈拱形、易下垂。
  连翘是木樨科连翘属,外形呈灌木或类乔木状,较高大,枝条不易下垂。
  2)迎春的小枝为绿色,连翘的小枝颜色较深,一般为浅褐色。
  3)迎春的枝条是充实的,排有片状髓;连翘枝条中空无髓。
  4)迎春是三小复叶,连翘是单叶或三叶对生。
  5)迎春叶全呈十字形对称生长,叶片较小,卵状椭圆形,全缘,先端狭而突尖。
  连翘叶卵形、宽卵形或椭圆状卵形,叶片较大,边缘除基部以外有整齐的粗锯齿。
  6)迎春有六个花瓣,连翘则只有四个花瓣。
  7)迎春花很少结实,连翘花结实。

下属变型

毛连翘(变型)Forsythia suspensa f. pubescens Rehd.:与原变型区别在于该变型的幼枝、叶柄以及叶片上面均被短柔毛,而叶片下面被柔毛或短柔毛,尤以叶脉为密。花期4月。

栽培技术编辑

选地整地

选地
育苗地最好选择土层深厚、疏松肥沃、排水良好的夹沙土地;扦插育苗地,最好采用砂土地(通透性能良好,容易发根),而且要靠近有水源的地方,以便于灌溉。要选择土层较厚、肥沃疏松、排水良好、背风向阳的山地或者缓坡地成片栽培,以有利于异株异花授粉,提高连翘结实率,一般挖穴种植。亦可利用荒地、路旁、田边、地角、房前屋后、庭院空隙地零星种植。
整地
地选好后于播前或定植前,深翻土地,施足基肥,每亩施基肥3000公斤,以厩肥为主,均匀地撒到地面上。深翻30厘米左右,整平耙细作畦,畦宽1.2米,高15厘米,畦沟宽30厘米,畦面呈瓦背形。栽植穴要提前挖好。施足基肥后栽植。

育苗

连翘可用种子、扦插、压条、分株等方法进行繁殖,生产上以种子、扦插繁殖为主。[3] 
种子繁殖
1、采种:要选择优势母株。选择生长健壮、枝条间短而粗壮、花果着生密而饱满,无病虫害,品种纯正的优势单株作母树。注意观察开花、结实的时期,掌握适宜的采种时间。采集要及时,避免种子成熟后自行脱落。一般于9月中、下旬到10月上旬采集成熟的果实。要采发育成熟、籽粒饱满、粒大且重的连翘果,然后薄摊于通风阴凉处,阴干后脱粒。经过精选去杂,选取整齐、饱满又无病虫害的种子,贮藏留种。
连翘连翘
2、种子贮藏:在不同条件下贮藏连翘种子,对其发芽率影响极大。北京科研单位1977年收连翘种子放鸡心瓶藏室温下,至1979年2月26日测发芽率为43.7%。据海南药物站试验:连翘种子采用干燥器贮存较好。贮存11个月出苗率仍可达85.3%,用于砂贮存7个月,出苗率则降至31.3%,贮存8个月以上则完全丧失发芽力。而用潮砂贮存,在贮存期间种子已陆续发芽,故播种后期出苗率不如干燥器贮存高。
3、种子萌发:连翘种子容易萌发,应该说种子适宜在较高的温度下萌发。依据种子贮存及萌发情况,结合实践经验,栽培时间可安排在春季或冬季,春播在4月上、中旬,冬播在封冻前进行。
4、种子育苗:连翘种子的种皮较坚硬,不经过预处理,直播圃地,需1个多月时间才发芽出土。因此,在播前可进行催芽处理。新引种地区可采用此法。具体方法为:选择成熟饱满的种子,放到30℃左右温水中浸泡4小时左右,捞出后掺湿砂3倍用木箱或小缸装好,上面封盖塑料薄膜,置于背风向阳处,每天翻动2次,经常保持湿润,10多天后,种子萌芽,即可播种。播后8-9天即可出苗,比不经过预处理种子可提前出苗20天左右。如土地干旱,先向畦内浇水,水渗下表土稍松散时播种。春播在“清明”前后,冬播在封冻前(种子不用处理,第二年能出苗)。播时,在整好的畦面上,按行距20—25厘米,开1厘米深的沟,将种子掺细砂,均匀地撒入沟内,覆土搂平,稍加镇压。10-15天幼苗可出土。每亩用种量2-3公斤左右。覆土不能过厚,一般为1厘米左右,然后再盖
草保持湿润。种子出土后,随即揭草。苗高10厘米时,按株距10厘米定苗,第二年4月上旬苗高30厘米左右时可进行大田移栽。
5、大田直播:按行距2米,株距1.5米开穴,施入堆肥和草木灰,与土拌和。3月下旬至4月上旬开始播种,也可在深秋土壤封冻前播种。每穴播入种子10余粒,播后覆土,轻压。注意要在土壤墒情好时下种。
压条繁殖
是在春季将植株下垂枝条压埋入土中,翌年春剪离母株定植。一般以扦插繁殖为主,苗木宜于向阳而排水良好的肥沃土壤上栽植,若选地不当、土壤瘠薄,则生长缓慢,产量低,每年花后应剪除枯枝、弱枝及过密、过老枝条,同时注意根际施肥。
插条繁殖
秋季落叶后或春季发芽前,均可扦插,但以春季为好。选1-2年生的健壮嫩枝,剪成20—30厘米长的插穗,上端剪口要离第一个节0.8厘米,插条每段必须带2-3个节位。然后将其下端近节处削成平面。为提高扦插成活率,可将插穗分扎成30—50根1捆,用500ppmABT生根粉或500—1000ppm吲哚丁酸溶液,将插穗基部(1-2厘米处)浸泡10秒钟,取出晾干待插。南方多于早春露地扦插,北方多在夏季扦插。插条前,将苗床耙细整平,作高畦,宽1.5米,按行株距20×10厘米,斜插入畦中,插入土内深18-20厘米,将枝条最上一节露出地面,然后埋土压实,天旱时经常浇水,保持土壤湿润,但不能太湿,否则插穗入土部分会发黑腐烂。正常管理,扦插成苗率可高达90%。加强田间管理,秋后苗高可达50厘米以上,于次年春季即可挖穴定植。
分株繁殖
在“霜降”后或春季发芽前,将3年以上的树旁发生的幼条,带土刨出移栽或将整棵树刨出进行分株移栽。一般一株能分栽3-5株。采用此法关键是要让每棵分出的小株上,都带一点须根,这样成活率高,见效快。[3] 

定植

栽植前,先在穴内施肥,每穴施腐熟厩肥或土杂肥及适量的复合肥(见选地整地)。栽植时要使苗木根系舒展,分层踏实,定植点覆土要高于穴面,以免雨后穴土下沉,不利成活和生长。为克服连翘同株自花不孕,提高授粉结果率,在其栽植时必须使长花柱花与短花柱花植株定植点合理配置。据有关报导,这两种不同类型花的植株同时生长在不同的环境下结果率差异很大。在相间栽培(行间混交)条件下,结果率为63.9%,在自然情况下
结果较多的地块,结果率仅47%。因此,将相同栽培改为株间混交配置栽植,其结果率要高些,因为株间混交使长花柱花植株与短花柱花植株互相处在包围之中,授粉时比行间混交授粉受风向、坡向、上下坡的影响要小些,能明显提高授粉率。连翘株间混交,相邻两行长花柱植株与短花柱植株配置不同,两者上下左右要错开,即单行与单行、双行与双行配置的植株一致。除花期外,连翘长花柱花植株与短花柱花植株,在外形上不易辨别,特别是幼苗。为适应生产需要,可在其开花时,将其分别采用扦插、压条、分株等方法繁殖,其中主要是扦插,因为其繁殖材料来源广,利用率高,繁殖系数大,能满足造林需要。由此,便可解决两种不同类型的花植株混交栽植种苗不足的问题。[3] 

田间管理

中耕除草
苗期要经常松土除草,定植后于每年冬季在连翘树旁要中耕除草1次,植株周围的杂草可铲除或用手拔除。
施肥
苗期勤施薄肥,也可在行间开沟。定植后,每年冬季结合松土除草施入腐熟厩肥、饼肥或土杂肥,用量为幼树每株2公斤,结果树每株10公斤,采用在连翘株旁挖穴或开沟施入,施后覆土,壅根培土,以促进幼树生长健壮,多开花结果。有条件的地方,春季开花前可增加施肥1次。
在连翘树修剪后,每株施入草木灰2公斤、过磷酸钙200克、饼肥250克、尿素100克。于树冠下开环状沟施入,施后盖土、培土保墒。早期连翘株行距间可间作矮杆作物。
排灌
注意保持土壤湿润,旱期及时沟灌或浇水,雨季要开沟排水,以免积水烂根。
整形修剪
定植后,在连翘幼树高达1米左右时,于冬季落叶后,在主干离地面70—80厘米处剪去顶梢。再于夏季通过摘心,多发分枝。从中在不同的方向上,选择3-4个发育充实的侧枝,培育成为主枝。
以后在主枝上再选留3-4个壮枝,培育成为副主枝,在副主枝上,放出侧枝。通过几年的整形修剪,使其形成低干矮冠,内空外圆,通风透光,小枝疏朗,提早结果的自然开心形树型。
同时于每年冬季,将枯枝、包叉枝、重叠枝、交叉枝、纤弱枝以及徒长枝和病虫枝剪除。生长期还要适当进行疏删短截。对已经开花结果多年、开始衰老的结果枝群,也要进行短截或重剪(即剪去枝条的2/3),可促使剪口以下抽生壮枝,恢复树势,提高结果率。

主要价值编辑

经济价值

连翘属于野生植物油料,连翘籽含油率达25%-33%,籽实油含胶质,挥发性能好,是绝缘油漆工业和化妆品的良好原料,具有很好的开发潜力,油可供制造肥皂及化妆品,又可制造绝缘漆及润滑油等,还富含易被人体吸收、消化的油酸和亚油酸,油味芳香,精炼后是良好的食用油[2]  [4] 
连翘提取物可作为天然防腐剂用于食品保鲜,尤其适用于含水分较多的鲜鱼制品的保鲜。连翘提取物能有效抑制环境中常见腐败菌的繁殖,延长食品的保质期,是一种较有希望的成本低而安全的新型食品防腐剂口。

观赏价值

连翘根系发达,其主根、侧根、须根可在土层中密集成网状,吸收和保水能力强;侧根粗而长,须根多而密,可牵拉和固着土壤,防止土块滑移。
连翘萌发力强,树冠盖度增加较快,能有效防止雨滴击溅地面,减少侵蚀,具有良好的水土保持作用,是国家推荐的退耕还林优良生态树种和黄土高原防治水土流失的最佳经济作物。连翘树姿优美、生长旺盛。早春先叶开花,且花期长、花量多,盛开时满枝金黄,芬芳四溢,令人赏心悦目,是早春优良观花灌木,可以做成花篱、花丛、花坛等,在绿化美化城市方面应用广泛,是观光农业和现代园林难得的优良树种。[4] 

药用价值

性味
  苦,凉。
  ①《本经》:味苦,平。
  ②《别录》:无毒。
  ③《医学启源》:《主治秘诀》云,性凉,味苦。
  ④《纲目》:微苦辛。[5]  
归经
  入心、肝、胆经。
  ①《汤液本草》:手足少阳、阳明经。
  ②《纲目》:少阴心经、厥阴包络气分。
  ③《雷公炮制药性解》:入心、肝、胆、胃、三焦、大肠六经。
功能主治
  清热,解毒,散结,消肿。治温热,丹毒,斑疹,痈疡肿毒,瘰疬,小便淋闭。
  ①《本经》:主寒热,鼠痿,瘰疬,痈肿恶疮,瘿瘤,结热。
  ②《别录》:去白虫。
  ③《药性论》:主通利五淋,小便不通,除心家客热。
  ④《日华子本草》:通小肠,排脓。治疮疖,止痛,通月经。
  ⑤李杲:散诸经血结气聚;消肿。
  ⑥王好古:治耳聋浑浑焞焞。
用法用量
内服:煎汤,3-5钱;或入丸,散。外用:煎水洗。
注意
  脾胃虚弱,气虚发热,痈疽已溃、脓稀色淡者忌服。
  ①《本草经疏》:痈疽巳溃勿服,大热由于虚者勿服,脾胃薄弱易于作泄者勿服。
  ②《本草通玄》:久服有寒中之患。[5] 

附方
  ①治太阴风温、温热、温疫、冬温,初起但热不恶寒而渴者:连翘一两,银花一两,苦桔梗六钱,薄荷六钱,竹叶四钱,生甘草五钱,芥穗四钱,淡豆豉五钱,牛蒡子六钱。上杵为散,每服六钱,鲜苇根汤煎,香气大出,即取服,勿过煮。病重者,约二时一服,日三服,夜一服;轻者三时一服,日三服,夜一服;病不解者,作再服。(《温病条辨》银翘散)
  ②治小儿一切热:连翘、防风、甘草(炙)、山栀子各等分。上捣罗为末,每服二钱,水一中盏,煎七分,去滓温服。(《类证活人书》连翘饮)
  ③治赤游癍毒:连翘一味,煎汤饮之。(《玉樵医令》)
  ④治乳痈,乳核:连翘、雄鼠屎、蒲公英、川贝母各二钱。水煎服。(《玉樵医令》)
  ⑤治瘰疬结核不消:连翘、鬼箭羽、瞿麦、甘草(炙)各等分。上为细末,每服二钱,临卧米泔水调下。(《杨氏家藏方》连翘散)
  ⑥治舌破生疮:连翘五钱,黄柏三钱,甘草二钱。水煎含漱。(《玉樵医令》)[5] 

临床应用
  ①治疗急性肾炎
  取连翘6钱,加水用文火煎至150毫升,分3次食前服,小儿酌减。视病情需要连服5-10日,忌辣物及盐。8例患者治疗前均有浮肿,血压在140-200/96-110毫米汞柱之间,尿检有蛋白、颗粒管型及红、白细胞等。治疗后6例浮肿全部消退,2例显著好转;血压显著下降;尿检6例转阴,2例好转。
  ②治疗紫癜病
  取连翘6钱,加水用文火煎成150毫升,分3次食前服,忌辣物。治疗血小板减少性出血性紫癜1例,过敏性紫癜2例。经2~7日治疗,皮肤紫瘫全部消退。连翘对本病所起的作用,可能与其中含有多量芸香甙,具有保持毛细血管正常抵抗力,减少毛细血管的脆性和通透性有关;此外,连翘似乎尚有脱敏作用。
  ③治疗肺脓肿
  将连翘制成注射液,每毫升含连翘1克。采用气管滴入法合并肌肉注射。气管滴入一般用6-10毫升,每日1次;症状好转后隔日1次;趋向萎缩或闭合后则每周2次。治疗25例,治愈14例,好转10例,死亡1例;据18例统计,平均治疗12天退热,气管滴注平均26.8次,最多者50次。
  ④治疗视网膜出血
  取连翘6-7钱,文火水煎,分3次食前服,2例视网膜黄斑区出血,服药20-27天后,均显著吸收,视力有所增强。
药用其叶,对治疗高血压、痢疾、咽喉痛等效果较好。[5] 

园林应用

常用于公园、小区的花坛种植或花境种植,也可以当做园景树使用。

植物文化编辑

首尔市花

韩国首都首尔市花。

花开二度

初春开花的连翘又在初冬二度绽放。在兴庆宫公园内,大片的连翘枝条翠绿,300 株枝间朵朵嫩黄的连翘花,与初春相似迎着初冬飕飕寒风竞相绽放。
据公园的育花专家讲,连翘属名贵花木,往年均在阳春三月开花,可能由于植物花期后气候与开花的季节相似,导致植物内部规律发生紊乱,诱使连翘反季开花。“二次开花”竞相争艳,实属罕见。

故事传说

在河南新密市岐伯山上,岐伯墓东有一个地方叫大臣沟。沟上沟下遍布连翘,连翘不仅是一剂名贵中药材,而且是一种适宜观赏的景观树,其叶是久传盛名的茶品原料,其果是清热解毒的佳品。说起连翘来,还流传着一个鲜为人知的故事。
相传,五千年前岐伯在这里采药、种药,岐伯有个孙女叫连翘,一日岐伯和孙女连翘在山上采药时,岐伯自品自验一种药物,不幸中毒,口吐白沫,神昏脑胀,双目直视,不省人事,在病情十分严重的情况下,嘴里不停地喊着:连翘、连翘,连翘看爷爷中毒严重,有生命危险,泪流满面的抱着爷爷哭喊着:救命!救命!连翘呼喊了好久无人应答,心急之下她虽无抢救办法,也不忍心看着爷爷离去,无奈之下,她急中生智顺手捋了一把身边的绿叶,在手里揉碎后塞进爷爷的嘴里。稍过片刻,岐伯慢慢苏醒过来,把绿叶咽下肚里,两刻之后,岐伯面舌如常,连翘搀扶着爷爷回到家里,进行药物和膳食的调养,岐伯仙师逐渐恢复健康。从此,他开始研究起这绿叶来,经过多次试验,发现这绿叶有较好的清热解毒作用,效果甚佳,便把这绿叶记入他的中药名录,取名为连翘,以孙女代名,又在他居住的大臣沟里栽种了许多连翘,故事流传至今。

连翘属

以上物种均分布于中国

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

药用植物

 胶冷杉 糖枫 海红豆 猴面包树 欧洲七叶树 石栗 凹叶赤杨
 腰果 刺果番荔枝 杨梅 槟榔 砂糖椰子 波罗蜜 杨桃
 白桦坚桦木 胭脂树 香水树 爪哇橄榄 螃蟹木 番木瓜 阿勃勒
 欧洲栗 大叶栗子 栗豆树 黎巴嫩雪松 木棉 长角豆 柠檬
 香柠檬 马蜂橙 苦橙 橘椪柑 流苏树 油棕榈 锡兰肉桂
 樟树 龙脑树  可乐果 苏丹可乐果 黄牛木 粉色黄牛木
 意大利柏木 榅桲 第伦桃 金色第伦桃 低株第伦桃 榴莲 古柯
 桉树 柠檬桉 干果桉 棉芝老桉 蓝桉 加宁桉 杜仲
 欧洲山毛榉 香灰莉 菩提树 欧纳白蜡树 银杏 买麻藤 南美弯叶豆
 八角 日本大茴香 普通胡桃 欧洲刺柏 铅笔柏 腊肠树 美洲落叶松
 欧洲落叶松 月桂 窄叶月桂 金月桂 尖叶女贞 普通女贞 东方枫香树
 木兰 芒果 茶树 白千层 互叶白千层 绿花白千层 印度楝树
 铁刀木 黄玉兰 含笑花 乳油木 葫芦肉豆蔻 兰花树 辣木
 桑树 黑桑 肉豆蔻 豆胶树 欧洲橄榄 香橄榄 露兜树
 维奇露兜树 阔叶露兜树 马来亚大风子 球花豆 非洲球花豆 树酪梨 海枣
 意大利石松 欧洲赤松 牙买加胡椒 多果香椒 乳香树 鸡蛋花 酸橙
  杏仁 扁桃 野黑樱 黑刺李 苦樱桃 欧洲李
 胶杨 杨树 银白杨 花旗松 番石榴草 草莓番石榴 小叶紫檀
 紫檀 石榴 苏里南苦木 牙买加苦木 夏栎 洋槐 白柳
 垂柳 黄花柳 接骨木 檀香 印度檀香 洋擦木 槐树侧花槐树
 欧洲花楸 安息香 药用安息香 丁香 蒲桃 罗望子 浆果红豆杉
 短叶红豆杉 可可树 东方侧柏 美西侧柏 欧椴 美洲椴 宽叶椴树
 小叶椴 英国榆 加州月桂 牡荆 安古牡荆  美洲花椒
 石灰山花椒 胡椒花椒 释迦 毒鱼豆 檫木 苦楝 木蝴蝶
 侧柏 非洲李 皂荚 白桦 墨水树 黄樟

灌木

草本植物

水生植物

多肉植物

其他植物

参考资料
  • 1.  中国植物志之连翘  .中国植物志[引用日期2015-07-15]
  • 2.  连翘种群生物学特征与种质资源研究 《山西师范大学学报(自然科学版)》 2004年3期 渠晓霞 毕润成
  • 3.  连翘的繁殖方法   .中国农业信息网[引用日期2014-10-25]
  • 4.  连翘的研究现状与展望 《贵州农业科学》 2012年9期 杨雪艳 刘成伦
  • 5.  连翘  .中医药[引用日期2014-10-25]
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/20715/13110310.htm

Forsythia (Oleaceae Forsythia) Edit
Statement
This entry describes the scientific name Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl's plant species. Forsythia, also refers to the taxonomy of all species referred to under "Forsythia." About the latter, see "Forsythia" entries.
Forsythia (Latin name: Forsythia suspensa): deciduous shrub, commonly known as a bunch of gold in Hong Kong, it is Oleaceae Forsythia. Forsythia blooming in early spring before leaves, flowers aroma light Yan, Thriving golden, gorgeous and lovely, good early spring flower shrub height of about three meters, tufted branches, twigs yellow, arched sagging, hollow. Leaves opposite, simple leaves or 3 leaflets, ovate or ovate-elliptic, margin dentate. Corolla yellow, 1-3 flowers axillary; fruit ovoid, ovate oval or oblong, acuminate apex beak, surface sparsely lenticellate; 0.7-1.5 cm long stems. Flowering from March to April, fruiting from July to September.
Born in the hillside thickets, forest or grass, or valley, ravine woodland, 250-2200 meters above sea level. Fruit can be used as medicine.
Produced in China, Hebei, western Shanxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Sichuan.
(Overview Figure reference sources :)
Chinese scientific name Latin name forsythia Forsythia suspensa nickname yellow stripe, with the shell, Alice Green, off Alice, Huangqi Dan boundary Flora door Angiosperms Gang Dicotyledon subclass gamopetalous Asia Transition Checklist Osmanthus Flower Suborder suborder Branch Osmanthus Osmanthus Ke Yake Belong subfamily family clove Forsythia species Forsythia distribution area of ​​China, Japan
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 species geographical distribution of species classification ▪ difference ▪ 5 under cultivation technology variants to site preparation ▪ ▪ ▪ seedling planting field management ▪ value ▪ 6 major economic value of medicinal value ▪ ▪ ▪ ornamental garden application 7 Seoul city flower plant culture ▪ ▪ ▪ tales bloom the second time
Morphological characteristics editor
Forsythia
Forsythia (23)
Deciduous shrubs. Branches spreading or drooping, brown, tan or light brown, khaki or beige sprig, slightly four prism, sparsely Picon, between the hollow section, section of the Ministry with real Xinsui. Leaves usually a single leaf, or 3-lobed three compound leaves, leaf blade ovate, broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate to elliptic, 2-10 cm long, 1.5-5 cm wide, apex acute, base rounded , broadly cuneate to cuneate, margin outside except base with sharp serrated or coarsely toothed, dark green above, yellowish green beneath, glabrous; petiole 0.8-1.5 cm long, hairless. Flowers usually solitary or 2 to several flowers with axillary, first opened in leaves; pedicels 5-6 mm; calyx green, lobes oblong or oblong-elliptic, long (5) 6-7 mm, apex obtuse or acute, margin eyelashes, and nearly as long as corolla tube; corolla yellow, lobes obovate-oblong or oblong, 1.2-2 cm wide and 6-10 mm; 5-7 mm in length pistil flowers, stamens 3-5 mm long, 6-7 mm in length stamens of flowers, pistil about 3 mm. Fruit ovoid, ovate oval or oblong, 1.2-2.5 cm long, 0.6-1.2 cm wide, apex acuminate beak shape, surface sparsely lenticellate; 0.7-1.5 cm long stems. Flowering from March to April, fruiting from July to September. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Forsythia whole plant
Forsythia whole plant (25)
 
 
Forsythia branches
Forsythia branches (2)
 
 
Forsythia fruit
Forsythia fruit (10)
Growth habit editor
Forsythia hi light, a certain degree of shade tolerance; likes the warm, humid climate, very cold; resistant to dry and barren, the fear of floods; do not choose the soil, can grow normally in a neutral, acidic or alkaline soils.
In the arid soil of stones sunny or even in bedrock or purple sand
Shale weathering on mother nature can grow. Forsythia root system, although the main root is not significant, but its lateral roots are thick and long, many fibrous roots, is widely spread in the main root around, greatly enhancing the ability to absorb and solid earth; forsythia cold and strong, after cold acclimation, It can withstand -50 ℃ low temperature, its amazing cold, making it the leader in the northern landscaping; forsythia germination and strong, hair clump fast, can quickly expand its distribution surface. Therefore, forsythia vitality and adaptability are very strong.
According to the experimental results show that: forsythia can be grown in normal altitude 250m-2200m, the average temperature of 12.1 ℃ -17.3 ℃, the absolute maximum temperature of 36 ℃ -39.4 ℃, the absolute minimum temperature -4.8 ℃ -14.5 ℃ areas, but in a sunny, It grew better under deep fertile and moist habitats. [2] 
Geographical Distribution Edit
Produced in Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Anhui west, Henan, Hubei, Sichuan. Health hillside thickets, forest or grass, or valley, ravine woodland, 250-2200 meters above sea level. In addition to the southern country, other parts are cultivated, Japan also has cultivated. Originally planted in the Japanese garden is based on the plants in the publication. [1] 
Taxonomic Editor
Species differences

The main difference between spring and forsythia are:
1) Spring is oleaceae Jasmin, bush-like plant in shape, relatively short branches arched, easy to sag.
Forsythia Forsythia is oleaceae, in shape shrub or tree-like class, high large, easy drooping branches.
2) Spring green twig, forsythia twigs darker, usually light brown.
3) Spring branches are full and exclusive flake marrow; forsythia shoots empty marrow.
4) are three small leaf spring, forsythia is a single leaf or three leaves opposite.
5) Spring Leaves entire cross-shaped symmetric growth, small leaves ovate-elliptic, entire, apex narrow and cusp.
Forsythia Leaves ovate, broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate leaves large, neat edge in addition to the base of coarse teeth.
6) Spring has six petals, forsythia only four petals.
7) very little strong jasmine, forsythia pollinated.
Subordinate variants

Mao forsythia (variant) Forsythia suspensa f. Pubescens Rehd .: The difference is that the original variant of the variant shoots, and leaf petioles are pubescent above, and below the blade pubescent or pubescent, especially in the veins of secret. Flowering in April.
Cultivation Technical Editor
Site preparation

Optionally
The best choice for nursery soil deep, loose and fertile, well-drained sand and land; cuttings nursery, preferably sand land (permeability can be a good, easy to root), but also to be close to where there is water for irrigation ʱ?? To select layers thick, loose and fertile, well-drained, sunny leeward mountain or gentle slope into a piece of cultivated land in order to facilitate cross-pollination dioecious, seed rate increase forsythia, general digging planting. Can take advantage of wasteland, roadsides, Tanabe, to corner, around the house, garden voids sporadic planting.
Grounds
Be selected before sowing or before after planting, deep plowing land, Shizujifei Fertilizers 3000 kg per mu to manure-based, spread evenly on the ground. About 30 cm deep plowing, leveling rake thin Zuoqi, Qikuan 1.2 m, height 15 cm, furrow width 30 cm, was Qimian tile back shape. Planting hole to be dug in advance. Shizujifei after planting.
Nursery

Forsythia available seeds, cuttings, layering, division and other methods for breeding, the production of seeds, cuttings propagation based. [3]
Seed propagation
1, the seed: To the mother plant selective advantage. Choose robust growth, among the branches short and stout, fruit with green dense and full, no pests, plant varieties pure advantage as the mother tree. Observe the blossom period of time to master the appropriate seed. Collection should be timely, avoid off on their own after seed maturation. Usually in mid-September, early October to late to collect the ripe fruit. To adopt mature, full grain, grain large and heavy forsythia fruit, then spread thin in the shade, dried and threshing. After selection to the complex, select tidy, full of pests and diseases nor seeds, seed storage.
Forsythia
Forsythia
2. Seed Storage: Storage forsythia seeds under different conditions, the effect on the germination rate significantly. Beijing research institutes in 1977 received seed put down heart-shaped bottle forsythia Tibetan room temperature, to February 26, 1979 measured the germination rate of 43.7%. According to the Hainan Drug Test Station: perforatum seed storage better use the dryer. Storage 11 months the germination rate is still up 85.3 percent for sand storage seven months, the germination rate is reduced to 31.3%, store eight months or more, the complete loss of germination ability. But with the influx of sand stored in the seeds have started sprouting during storage, it is better to sow late drier store high germination rate.
3, seed germination: Forsythia seeds germinate easily, it should be said that suitable seed germination at higher temperatures. Based on seed storage and germination, practical experience, cultivation time can be arranged in the spring or winter, spring in April, the mid-winter planting carried out before the freeze.
4, seed breeding: forsythia relatively hard seed coat, without pretreatment, live nursery, you need more than one month time to germinate unearthed. Therefore, in the germination process can be carried out before sowing. Introducing new area can be used for this method. Specific methods: Choose plump ripe seeds, put about 30 ℃ warm water for about four hours, three times after the fish mixed with wet sand or a small wooden cylinder installed above the cover of plastic film, placed leeward Sunningdale , turning 2 times a day, keep moist, over 10 days, seed germination, can be planted. 8-9 days after sowing to emergence, than non-pretreated seeds can be about 20 days earlier emergence. Such as arid lands, 先向 Qinei watering, water seepage under the topsoil is slightly loose when sowing. Spring in the "Qingming" before, in front of the frozen winter planting (seeds without treatment, can the emergence of the second year). When the broadcast, on the whole a good Qimian row spacing 20-25 cm, opening 1 cm deep ditch, the seeds mixed with sand, evenly thrown into the trench, backfill hug flat, little repression. 10-15 days, the seedlings can be unearthed. Per acre seed quantity around 2-3 kilograms. Overburden can not be too thick, usually about 1 cm, and then cover
Grass moist. After the seeds unearthed, then exposing the grass. Height 10 cm, press spacing 10 cm Dingmiao, the second year in early April when about 30 cm height field can be transplanted.
5, Daejeon Live: row spacing 2 m, 1.5 m spacing to open hole, applied into compost and ash, and soil mixing. In late March to early April sowing, can also be sown in late autumn before soil frozen. Dibble into each seed more than 10 tablets, after sowing the casing and press lightly. Note to the good soil moisture nowadays species.
Layering
The plants in the spring pressure in the earth drooping branches, cut from the mother plant planting next spring. Cutting Propagation generally dominated, seedlings suitable for sunny and well-drained fertile soil on planting, if election to improper soil barren, the slow growth, low yield, dead branches should be cut off after flowering every year, weak branches and too close, too old branches, while paying attention to the rhizosphere fertilization.
Cutting propagation
After the fall or spring before the leaves sprout, can cuttings, but in spring as well. Option 1--2 year old robust shoots, cut into 20-30 cm long cuttings, upper notches to 0.8 cm from the first section, cutting each section must take place 2-3. Then whittled at its lower section near the plane. To improve the survival rate of cuttings can root cuttings 30-50 points tied a bundle, with 500ppmABT ABT or 500-1000ppm indole butyric acid solution, the cuttings base (1-2 cm) were immersed for 10 seconds, remove the air dry to be inserted. South than in open cuttings in early spring, mostly in the northern summer cuttings. Before cutting, rake thin leveling the seedbed, as Takakuro, 1.5 meters wide, according to the row spacing 20 × 10 cm, ramp into the plot, the insertion depth of 18-20 cm inside the soil, the uppermost section of the branches above the ground, then buried soil compaction, when drought regular watering, keep the soil moist but not too wet, otherwise the cuttings buried part will be black rot. Normal management, cutting seedling rate can be as high as 90%. Strengthen field management and autumn height up to 50 cm or more, to be digging planting next spring.
Division propagation
Before After "frost" or spring germination, the child shall take place more than three years of the tree with the soil or the entire tree transplanting dig dig transplanting ramets. Generally one can Transplanting 3-5 strains. Using this method the key is to let each of them on the separation of the small strains, all with a little fibrous roots, so the survival rate is high, quick. [3]
Colonization

Before planting, first in the cavity fertilization, fertilizing every rotted manure or farmyard manure and the amount of fertilizer (see site preparation). When planting seedlings to make roots stretch, layered practical, planting is higher than the hole surface casing point, in order to avoid rain cave soil subsidence, unfavorable survival and growth. To overcome forsythia flowers from the same strain of infertility, the rate of increase pollination result, when it is planted must make long and short style style flower planting flower plants dot the rational allocation. According to reports, two different types of plants that flower at the same time the growth of the results in a different environment varies widely. In alternate cultivation (inter-row mixed) conditions, the results was 63.9%, in natural circumstances
The results of more land, the result was only 47%. Therefore, the same mixed configuration between cultivated plants to planting, as a result the rate is higher, because so long between strains mixed style and short style flower plants flower at each other surrounded by plants, pollination between the lines than when mixed pollination by wind , aspect, the impact on the downhill to be smaller, can significantly improve pollination rates. Mixed forsythia strains between two adjacent plants governor style and short style plant configuration is different, both up and down to be staggered, that is one-way and one-way, consistent with the two-line plant double row configurations. In addition to flowering, the plants and flowers of forsythia long style short style flower plants in shape is not easy to discern, especially seedlings. In order to meet production needs, may at the time of flowering, which were used cuttings, layering, division propagation methods, mainly cutting, because of its wide propagation material source, high utilization, reproduction coefficient, to meet the reforestation needs. Thus, we can solve the two different types of flower plants mixed planting seed shortage. [3]
Field management

Weeding
Seedlings should always tillage weeding, planting after every winter in the tree forsythia 1 to weeding, weeds around the plants can eradicate or hand removal.
Fertilize
Seedling Qin Shi thin fat, but also the line between ditching. After planting, tillage weed every winter combined facilities into rotted manure, cake or Tuza Fei, an amount of 2 kg per plant saplings, the result tree 10 kg per plant, the use of open furrow or digging into next forsythia strains After application of the casing, obstruct root earth, in order to promote healthy growth of young trees, more fruit. Wherever conditions permit, increase the spring before flowering fertilization 1.

After the tree pruning forsythia, ash 2 kg per plant was applied, superphosphate 200 g, 250 g cake fertilizer, urea, 100 grams. Summer open into the ring under the canopy, after applying mulch, earth soil moisture. Spacing between the early forsythia can intercropping dwarf crops.
Irrigation and drainage
Keep the soil moist, or dry furrow of timely watering, drainage ditch during the rainy season to avoid stagnant water rot.
Pruning
After planting, when the forsythia saplings up to about one meter, after the winter leaves, the trunk from the ground 70-80 cm cut tops. Then in the summer by topping, multiple branches. Which in different directions, choose 3-4 substantial collateral development, training to become the main branch.
After re-elected to stay on the main branch 3-4 strong branches, training to become deputy main branch, deputy main branch in emit collateral. Through years of pruning, to form a low dry short crown cylindrical inner space, air and light, twigs Lichtung, early results naturally happy-shaped tree.
At the same time in every winter, the branches, the package fork branches, overlapping branches, crossing branches, delicate branches and leggy branches and pest branches cut off. Growing also appropriately sparse delete stub. To have borne fruit for many years, beginning aging branch group results, but also cutting back or re-cut (ie, cut branches 2/3), can contribute to the notches of the following sprouted strong branches, restore vigor, increase the rate results.
The main value edit
Economic Value

Wild plants belonging to oil forsythia, forsythia seed oil rate of 25% -33%, seed oil containing gum, volatility can be good, be good insulating materials paints and cosmetics industry has good development potential, oil for manufacturing soap and cosmetics, but also the manufacture of insulated paint and lubricants, but also rich in easily absorbed, digested oleic and linoleic acids, greasy aroma, good cooking oil after refining. [twenty four] 
Forsythia extract as a natural preservative used in food preservation, especially for the preservation of water containing more fish products. Forsythia extract can effectively inhibit spoilage bacteria commonly environment reproduction, extend shelf life of food, is low and safe costs a more promising new food preservative mouth.
Ornamental value

Forsythia root system, its main root, lateral roots, fibrous roots in the soil densely into a network, strong water absorption and retention; lateral thick and long, fibrous roots and dense, can stretch and anchor the soil, clods prevent slippage.

Forsythia germination and strong, canopy cover increased rapidly, can effectively prevent raindrops splash ground, reduce erosion, soil and water conservation has a good effect, the State Grain recommended good ecological species and prevention of soil erosion in the Loess Plateau Best cash crops. Forsythia Shuzi beautiful, vigorous growth. Early spring before leaves flowering and long flowering period, the amount spent much time Thriving golden bloom, fragrant, pleasing, is an excellent concept of early spring flowering shrubs, flowers can be made into fence, flowers, flower beds, etc., in terms of greening and beautifying the city widely used, sightseeing agriculture and modern gardens rare fine species. [4]
Medicinal Value

Taste
Bitter, cold.
① "The Classic": bitter, flat.
② "Do not record": non-toxic.
③ "Medical Kai source": "Indications secret" cloud, cool, bitter taste.
④ "outline": slightly bitter. [5]
Meridian
Into the heart, liver and gall bladder.
① "Herbal Decoction": Hand, Foot Shaoyang, Meridian.
② "outline": Shao Yin Heart Sutra, Jueyin envelope gas separation.
③ "Thunder concocted herbal solution": into the heart, liver, gall bladder, stomach, triple burner, six by the large intestine.
Indications
Detoxification, relieves congestion, swelling. Governance warm, erysipelas, rash, swollen poison carbuncle ulcers, scrofula, urine poured off.
① "The Classic": the main cold and heat, rat atrophy, scrofula, malignant sore carbuncles, gall, knot hot.
② "Do not record": go white worms.
③ "medicinal theory": the main Tom Lee Wulin, urination, heart home off heat removed.
④ "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": through the small intestine, abscess. Cure boils, pain, through menstruation.
⑤ Li Gao: scattered all blood knot gas accumulation; swelling.
⑥ good old king: cure deafness muddy Junjun.
Dosage
Oral: Jiantang, 3-5 money; or into pills, powder. External: washed fried.
Note
Spleen and stomach, Qi fever, ulcer has ulcer, pus dilute pale Jifu.
① "Ben Cao Jing Shu": ulcer Pat clothes do not collapse, because the virtual Convicted hot clothes, easy to make stomach weak vent Convicted of service.
② "Tong Xuan Materia Medica": Jiufu have cold in the suffering. [5]

With side
① governance lunar air temperature, warm, plague, winter temperature, heat is not the beginning but the chill Erke by: forsythia twelve, Yinhua twelve, bitter Campanulaceae six money, six money mint, bamboo four money, licorice five money, mustard spike four money, five money Semen, Arctium six money. The pestle as a casual, each serving six money, reed root soup fried fresh aroma big out, that is to take clothing, do not over cook. Seriously ill persons, about two one service, day three, a night; three one light clothes, day three, a night; puzzled by the disease, as then serve. ("Warm Diseases identified" Yinqiaosan)
All heat ② treat children: forsythia, wind, licorice (Sunburn), mountain gardenia each decile. The pound Luo end, each serving two money, water, a medium cup, fried seven, to sediment, warm clothes. ("Class Certificate living book" Forsythia drink)
③ Governance red swim plaques poison: forsythia blindly, Jiantang drink. ("Yu-chiao Medical Order")
④ cure mastitis, milk nucleus: forsythia, male feces, dandelion, Fritillaria the second money. Decoction. ("Yu-chiao Medical Order")
Needless ⑤ cure scrofula tuberculosis: forsythia, Euonymus alatus, Qumai, licorice (Sunburn) each decile. On for the next go-between, each serving two money, the Pro lying Mi Ganshui tune. ("Young Tibetan home side" Forsythia Powder)
⑥ governance tongue sores break: forsythia five money, three money Treats, licorice II money. Decoction gargle. ("Yu-chiao Medical Order") [5]

Clinical application
① treatment of acute nephritis
Take forsythia 6 money, add water simmer and simmer till 150 ml, three times before taking food, children reduce. Depending on the condition of patients and even served 5-10 days, avoid spicy things and salt. Eight patients had pre-treatment edema, blood pressure between 140-200 / 96-110 mm Hg, urine has protein, granular casts and red and white blood cells. After treatment, 6 cases of edema dissipated, two cases significantly improved; significant decrease in blood pressure; urine six cases negative, improved in 2 cases.
② treatment purpura
Take forsythia 6 money, add water, simmer fry 150 ml, 3 minutes ago food service, avoid spicy things. Thrombocytopenia purpura hemorrhagic one case, two cases of allergic purpura. 2 to 7 days after treatment, the skin purpura dissipated. Forsythia The role of disease, which may contain large amounts of Rutin, has maintained normal capillary resistance, reduce capillary fragility and permeability related; in addition, there seems forsythia desensitization.
③ treatment of lung abscess
The injection is made forsythia, forsythia 1 gram per ml. With tracheal instillation merger intramuscular injection. Intratracheal instillation general use 6-10 ml, 1 day; symptoms improved after every other day; tend to shrink or close it after 2 times a week. Treatment of 25 cases, 14 cases were cured, improved in 10 cases, 1 death; 18 cases, according to statistics, the average treatment of 12 days of fever, intratracheal instillation average 26.8 times, up by 50 times.
④ treatment of retinal hemorrhage
Take forsythia 6-7 money, simmer decoction, three times food service before, two cases of macular hemorrhage, taking 20-27 days, were significantly absorbed, vision has improved.
Medicinal its leaves, the treatment of high blood pressure, diarrhea, sore throat and other better. [5]
Landscape Application

Commonly used in parks, community planting flower beds or flower border planting, you can also use as a garden tree.
Plant Culture Editor
Seoul City Flower

Seoul flower.
Bloom the second time

Early spring flowering forsythia bloom again in early winter two degrees. In the Imperial palace park, large forsythia branches green, yellow blossoming between the 300 branches of forsythia flowers, similar to greet the winter and early spring bloom wind whiz.
According to the park's fertile flowers experts say, Forsythia rare flowers are blooming in the spring in March last year, possibly due to climate and flowering plants after flowering season similar to the internal laws lead to plant disorder, to induce off-season flowering forsythia. "Second flowering" competing blooming, it is rare.
Tales

Xinmi in Henan Qi Bo hill, Qibo tomb east there is a place called the minister ditch. Ditch ditch around the forsythia, forsythia is not only a valuable medicines agent, and is a suitable ornamental landscape tree, its leaves are the raw material tea famous long pass, and its fruit is detoxification share. Speaking of forsythia come, also spread a little-known story.
According to legend, five thousand years ago Qibo here herbs, kinds of drugs, Qi Bo has a granddaughter named forsythia, when day and granddaughter forsythia Qibo herbs in the mountains, Qibo from a drug product from experience, unfortunately poisoning, vomit foam, coma, brain swelling, eyes look, unconscious, under the condition is very severe cases, his mouth kept shouting: forsythia, forsythia, forsythia see grandpa poisoning serious, life-threatening, holding grandfather cried tears: Help! Help! Forsythia unanswered cries for a long time, although no rescue her impatient under way, also not bear to see my grandfather left, desperation, she Jizhongshengzhi easily stroked a leafy side after crumple into the hands Grandpa's mouth. A few moments, Qibo slowly regained consciousness, the green leaves swallow stomach, after two engraved, Qibo surface of the tongue as usual, forsythia totter grandfather back home, drug and diet nursed back to health, Qibo Immortal gradually restored to health. From then on, he began to study this leafy ago, after several tests, found that the green leaves have a good detoxification effect, the effect is very good, put it into his mind leafy herbal directory, named forsythia to granddaughter Generation name, and he lived in the ditch minister planted a lot of forsythia, the story has spread.
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Fifteen
Forsythia
▪ Qin Lijiang forsythia forsythia ▪ ▪ ▪ Singular forsythia forsythia northeast
Forsythia ovata Forsythia ▪ ▪ ▪ Bell Flower
Above species are distributed in China
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Medicinal Plants
Tree
▪ ▪ Sugar Maple Abies balsamea Ceibo ▪ ▪ ▪ baobab stone chestnut Aesculus ▪ ▪ concave leaf alder
▪ ▪ soursop cashew arbutus ▪ ▪ ▪ Paramita betel ▪ ▪ carambola coconut sugar
▪ ▪ birch birch Kennedy perfume annatto tree ▪ ▪ ▪ Java olive wood crab papaya ▪ ▪ Cassia fistula
▪ European chestnut leaf chestnut ▪ ▪ large chestnut tree beans kapok ▪ ▪ ▪ Lebanese cedar carob ▪ lemon
Bergamot orange wasp ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ orange citrus bitter orange tree fringed ▪ ▪ ▪ Ceylon cinnamon oil palm
▪ ▪ borneol camphor tree Coconut ▪ ▪ ▪ Sudan kola kola nut ▪ ▪ cochinchinens pink cochinchinens
Italian cypress ▪ ▪ ▪ dillenia indica quinces ▪ ▪ Low golden dillenia indica strain dillenia indica ▪ ▪ coca durian
▪ ▪ Dried lemon eucalyptus eucalyptus Eucalyptus ▪ ▪ ▪ cotton Chi old Eucalyptus Eucalyptus Eucalyptus ▪ ▪ gutta Cleveland
European beech ash Li ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ONA ash linden tree Ginkgo ▪ ▪ ▪ Gnetum South Bend leaf beans
Japanese star anise anise ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Juglans regia Europe Juniperus Sabina ▪ ▪ ▪ American larch kigelia
European larch lauryl ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Yeyue Gui Jin Yuegui ▪ narrow pointed leaves privet Ligustrum ▪ ▪ ordinary Oriental sweetgum tree
Magnolia ▪ ▪ ▪ mango tea ▪ Melaleuca Melaleuca ▪ ▪ ▪ Niaouli neem
▪ wenge Huang Yulan ▪ ▪ ▪ Shea smiling flower gourd nutmeg ▪ ▪ ▪ Moringa tree orchid
Mulberry black mulberry ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ nutmeg bean gum ▪ Europe ▪ fragrant olive olives ▪ pandanus
▪ Albion pandanus pandanus leaved ▪ ▪ ▪ Malaya chaulmoogra cones cones beans beans ▪ Africa ▪ ▪ date palm tree Avocado
Italian stone pine Pinus sylvestris ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ more fruity pepper Jamaica pepper mastic tree ▪ ▪ ▪ lime Plumeria
Peach Almond ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ wild black cherry almond Blackthorn ▪ ▪ ▪ bitter cherry Prunus
▪ glue ▪ Young poplar Populus ▪ ▪ ▪ Douglas fir grass strawberry guava guava ▪ ▪ lobular red sandalwood
Rosewood pomegranate ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Jamaica Suriname quassia bitter acacia wood ▪ ▪ ▪ summer white willow oak
Weeping willow yellow ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Indian sandalwood sandalwood elderberry ▪ ▪ ▪ Ocean Sassafras Ash side flower tree
▪ Europe ▪ Sorbus medicinal benzoin benzoin ▪ ▪ ▪ SYZYGIUM clove tamarind ▪ ▪ yew berries
▪ brevifolia cacao ▪ ▪ ▪ Oriental arborvitae Thuja plicata European linden ▪ ▪ ▪ broad leaf linden American linden trees
▪ Tilia cordata English elm ▪ ▪ ▪ California laurel Vitex Vitex ▪ ▪ An ancient date ▪ Americas pepper
▪ limestone mountain pepper pepper pepper ▪ ▪ ▪ poisonous fish Shakya beans Melia ▪ ▪ ▪ sassafras wood butterfly
Lee arborvitae ▪ ▪ ▪ African acacia birch ▪ ▪ ▪ sassafras tree ink
Bush
Herb
Aquatic plants
Succulent plants
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Reference material
1. Flora of China forsythia. Flora of China [reference date 2015-07-15]
2. forsythia population biology characteristics and Germplasm Research "Journal of Shanxi Normal University (Natural Science)" 2004 three canal Xiaoxia Birun Cheng
3. forsythia breeding methods. China Agricultural Information Network [reference date 2014-10-25]
4. Status and Prospects forsythia "Guizhou Agricultural Sciences" 2012 9 杨雪艳 Liu Chenglun
5. forsythia. Chinese medicine [reference date 2014-10-25]



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