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生地黃 Fresh Rehmannia (Rehmanniae Radix) Sheng Di Huang

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生地黄

 编辑
生地黄,别名:地黄、生地、地髓、原生地、干生地、苄、芑、牛奶子、婆婆奶,拉丁文名:Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaetn.) Libosch. ex Fisch. et Mey.玄参科、地黄属植物,地黄的块根,多年生直立草本。喜温和气候及阳光充足之地,怕积水,为清热凉血药。用于温热病热入营血,身热口干、舌绛或红等症状,有清热生津滋阴,养血的功效。中国各地均有生产。
生地黄为玄参科植物地黄的块根。又名地髓(《本经》),原生地(《本草正义》),干生地(《中药志》)。原植物地黄又名:苄(《尔雅》),芑(《别录》),牛奶子(《本草衍义》),婆婆奶(《救荒本草》),狗奶子(《植物名实图考》),山烟、山白菜、酒壶花、甜酒棵、蜜罐棵。有滋阴清热,凉血补血的功效。(鲜地黄:清热凉血,生津润燥。)
中文学名
地黄
拉丁学名
Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaetn.) Libosch. ex Fisch. et Mey.
别    称
生地、地髓、原生地、干生地、苄、芑、牛奶子、婆婆奶
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
合瓣花亚纲
管状花目
玄参科
地黄属
地黄
分布区域
分布于中国大部分地区,朝鲜、日本也有。
英文名
dried rehmannia root

形态特征编辑

体高12-30厘米,密被灰白色多细胞长柔毛和腺毛。根茎肉质,鲜时黄色,
生地叶生地叶
在栽培条件下,直径可达5.5厘米,茎紫红色。叶通常在茎基部集成莲座状,向上则强烈缩小成苞片,或逐渐缩小而在茎上互生;叶片卵形至长椭圆形,上面绿色,下面略带紫色或成紫红色,长2-13厘米,宽1-6厘米,边缘具不规则圆齿或钝锯齿以至牙齿;基部渐狭成柄,叶脉在上面凹陷,下面隆起。花具长0.5-3厘米之梗,梗细弱,弯曲而后上升,在茎顶部略排列成总状花序,或几全部单生叶腋而分散在茎上;萼长1-1.5厘米,密被多细胞长柔毛和白色长毛,具10条隆起的脉;萼齿5枚,矩圆状披针形或卵状披针形抑或多少三角形,长0.5-0.6厘米,宽0.2-0.4厘米,稀前方2枚各又开裂而使萼齿总数达7枚之多;花冠长3-4.5厘米;花冠筒多少弓曲,外面紫红色,被多细胞长柔毛;花冠裂片,5枚,
生地黄植物形态-地黄
生地黄植物形态-地黄 (5张)
 先端钝或微凹,内面黄紫色,外面紫红色,两面均被多细胞长柔毛,长5-7毫米,宽4-10毫米;雄蕊4枚;药室矩圆形,长2.5毫米,宽1.5毫米,基部叉开,而使两药室常排成一直线,子房幼时2室,老时因隔膜撕裂而成一室,无毛;花柱顶部扩大成2枚片状柱头。蒴果卵形至长卵形,长1-1.5厘米。花果期4-7月。[2] 
多年生直立草本。株高10-30cm,全体密被白色长腺毛,根肉质。叶基生成丛,倒卵状披针形,基部渐狭成柄,边缘有不整齐钝齿,叶面皱缩,下面略带紫色。花茎由叶丛抽出,花序总状;萼5浅裂;茎紫红色。也多基生,莲座状,卵形至长椭圆形,边缘锯齿。总状花序顶生,花萼筒状,萼齿5枚,花冠紫红色,长约4cm,2唇形,裂片5枚,两面被毛,花期4-5月,果期7~8月。蒴果卵形至长卵形,种子细小。[2] 
性状鉴别 呈不规则团块或长圆形,
生地黄生地黄
中间膨大,两端稍细,长6-12cm,真径3-6cm,有的细长条状,稍扁而扭曲。表面灰黑色或棕灰色,极皱缩,具不规则的横曲纹。体重,质较软韧,断面灰黑色、棕黑色或乌黑色,微有光泽,具粘性。气微,味微甜。以块大、体重、断面乌黑油润、味甘者为佳。
显微鉴别 根横切面:木栓层为数列木栓细胞。皮层薄壁细胞排列疏松;散有多数分泌细胞,含橘黄色油滴;偶有石细胞,韧皮部分泌细胞较少。形成层成环。木射线宽广;导管稀疏,呈放射状排列。[1] 

生长习性编辑

喜温和气候及阳光充足之地,怕积水,忌连作,其块根在25-28℃时增长迅速。
生于海拔50-1100米之砂质壤土、荒山坡、山脚、墙边、路旁等处。[2] 

地理分布编辑

分布于辽宁、河北、河南、山东、山西、陕西、
生地黄生地黄
甘肃、内蒙古、江苏、湖北等省区。[2]  它原产于中国北京、天津、河南、河北、辽宁、山东、浙江、江苏、安徽、山西、陕西、内蒙古、湖南、湖北、四川等地均有分布,主产地河南、辽宁、河北、山东、浙江。朝鲜、日本也有。[1] 

栽培技术编辑

国内各地及国外均有栽培。[2] 

栽培准备

地黄喜温和稍微有点湿润的气候,喜光、喜肥、忌积水, 载培时宜选择土层深厚、肥沃、排水良好的沙质壤土,粘土地根茎瘦细、质量差,不宜重茬,连作要在三年以上,前茬作物忌萝卜,油料等。

种植方法

亳州地区以根茎繁殖为主,秋季采挖时,选指头粗细的种根沙埋贮存,
地黄地黄
到来年开春后大地化冻,施足基肥,整平土地,将种根截成3至5厘米的小段,以行株距30×30厘米开穴,每穴大根时放一段,小根放两段,撒少许草木灰(石灰亦可)复土6厘米,15--20℃时10天可出苗,一般亩用种量40至50公斤。苗高5厘米时,结合除草,间苗,每穴留一棵,如有缺苗断垅者可补载,亩留基本苗4000至6000株,土地肥活者,可适当稀些,贫瘠土地可稍稠些,8000到1万也行。试松土、深中耕、苗旁浅松土,垅间深中耕,植株封行后,不宜中耕松土,要施以追肥,以稀人粪尿为主,亩用硫酸铵20公斤,饼肥50公斤,分两次施用,第一次在立夏前后,第二次在处署前后,因处署前后地下根茎正在膨大,所以施肥要及时,施肥后,如遇天气干旱,要急时浇水。切忌大水灌漫,不然要烂根,影响产量,夏季雨水较多,在植株封行前要结合松土培根,以免根部积水。如发生抽苔现象,要及早去苔除蕾,促使养分集中于地下根茎生长,如管理得当,亩产鲜地黄2000--5000公斤。

采收及加工

秋季10月份,地上叶片逐渐枯黄,
生地黄生地黄
选晴天挖出根茎,抖净泥土,除掉须根。如用鲜地黄,即可沙埋贮存待用。干地黄生晒、火烘均可,边烘晒边发汗,至根块无硬心,质地柔软为止。熟地制法:将生地黄洗净凉干,泡入黄酒中,约3至5天,然后放锅内加清水烘煮,每百斤鲜生地用黄酒10斤,清水30斤,待酒味浸入地黄(一般需2至3小时),然后捞出地黄稍凉后放太阳下曝晒,直至干燥即为熟地,一般折干率30%左右。如遇阴雨天不能晒则用急火快烘,边烘边将地黄块茎压扁,小心切勿压烂,以防浆汁外溢,影响产量,降低药材质量。压时要轻,切忌独压,一次压不好,最好要隔一段时间再压,三次五次均可,以后慢慢干燥。因生地含糖性较高,干的程度以手摸不粘、干硬为主,否则为湿货。切记勿用硫磺熏蒸。

采收储藏

秋季采挖,一般10~11月间,采挖根茎,除去芦头、茎叶、须根,洗净泥土,即为鲜地黄。鲜地黄直接置焙床上缓缓烘焙,须经常翻动,至内部逐渐干燥而颜色变黑,根烘焙至八成干,全身柔软,外皮变硬时即可取出,捏成团状,为生地黄;生地加黄酒蒸至黑润,为熟地黄。亦可用晒干法。

常见病害

地黄的病害主要有叶斑病、轮纹病,发病前要用代森锌或波尔多液叶面喷施2至3次,退菌特800倍液灌根一次,蚜虫红蜘蛛蛴螬等可按常规方法防治。

药用价值编辑

根茎药用。[2] 

药材鉴定

呈不规则的圆形或长圆形块状,长6~12厘米,
生地黄-中药材生地黄-中药材
直径3~6厘米;表面灰棕色或灰黑色,全体皱缩不平,具不规则的横曲纹;细小的多为长条状,稍扁而扭曲;质柔软,干后则坚实,体重,不易折断,断面平坦,紫黑色或乌黑色而光亮,显油润,具粘性;气微香,味微甜。以肥大、体重、断面乌黑油润者为佳。主产河南、浙江、河北、陕西、甘肃、湖南、湖北、四川,山西等地亦产,以河南所产者最为著名。河南栽培者,称怀庆地黄Behmannia glutinosa Libosch。F。 Hueichingenis (Chao et Schih) Hsiao,其主要特点为植株较大;根茎较肥大,呈块状、圆形或纺锤形;花不密集于茎顶,成稀疏的总状花序

加工炮制

干地黄:用水稍泡,洗净泥砂杂质,捞出焖润,
生地黄生地黄
切片晒干或烘干。生地黄炭:取洗净的干地黄,置煅锅内装八成满,上面覆盖一锅,两锅接缝处用黄泥封固,上压重物,用文武火缎至贴在盖锅底上的白纸显焦黄色为度,挡住火门,待凉后,取出;或将干地黄置锅内直接炒炭亦可。《纲目》:“《本经》所谓干地黄者,即生地之干者也,其法取地黄一百斤,择肥者六十斤,洗净,晒令微皱,以拣下者洗净,木臼中捣绞汁尽,投酒再捣,取汁拌前地黄,日中晒干或火焙干用。”[1] 
功效:清热生津滋阴,养血。

主治

治阴虚发热,消渴,吐血,衄血,血崩,月经不调,胎动不安,阴伤便秘。
性味:甘苦,凉。

史料记载

①《本经》:“味甘;寒。”
②《别录》“苦,无毒。”
入心、肝、肾经。
李杲:、入手、足少阴,手、足厥阴。”
②《汤液本草》:“入手太阳、少阴经。”
③《雷公炮制药性解》:“入心、肝、脾、肺四经。”
【用法用量】内服:煎汤,15~25克,大剂
地黄地黄
50~100克,熬膏或入丸、散。外用:捣敷。
用药忌宜:
脾虚泄泻、胃虚食少、胸膈多痰者慎服。
①《雷公炮炙论》:“勿令犯铜铁器,令人肾消并白髭发,损荣卫也。”
②《本草经集注》:“得麦门冬,清酒良,恶贝母,畏芜荑。”
③《品汇精要》:“忌萝卜、葱白、韭白、薤白。”
④《医学入门》:“中寒有痞、易泄者禁。”

药用功效

鲜地黄清热生津,凉后,止血;用于热风伤阴、
地黄粥地黄粥
舌绛烦渴、发斑发疹、吐血、衄血、咽喉肿痛。生地黄清热凉血,养阴,生津;用于热病烦渴、发斑发疹、阴虚内热、吐血、衄血、糖尿病、传染性肝炎。
食疗价值
1.清热凉血。该品味甘苦、性寒而入血分,能清营血分之热而凉血。用于温热病之高热、口渴、舌红绛,处方如清营汤。另外,该品通过凉血尚有止血之功效,可用于血热的各种出血症。
2.养阴生津。该品质润多液能养阴,味甘性寒能生津,有养阴润燥生津作用。用于温热病后期、邪热伤津者。另外,取该品滋阴清热作用,常用于治疗阴虚火旺的口干口渴、头晕目眩,处方如六味地黄丸。消渴病属热盛伤津者亦可用生地治疗。

主要成分

地黄根茎中含有β-谷甾醇(β- Sitosterol)、甘露醇(Mannitol)及少量豆甾醇(Stigmasterol)、微量的菜油甾醇(Campesterol)。亦含地黄素(Rehmannin)、梓醇(Catalpol)、二氢梓醇(Dihydrocatalpol)、乙酰梓醇(Acetylcatalpol)、单密力特甙(Danmelittoside)、密力特甙(Melittoside)、去羟栀子甙(Geniposide)、筋骨草甙(Ajugoside)、胡萝卜甙(Daucosterol)、1-乙基-β-D-半乳糖甙(1-Ethyl-β-D-galactoside)、地黄甙(Rehmannioside)A、B、C、D等环烯醚萜单萜和甙类。 亦含有机酸类, 如: 苯甲酸(Benzoic acid)、苯乙酸(Caprylic acid)、3-甲氧基-4-羟基苯甲酸(3-Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid)、肉桂酸(Cin- namic acid)、油酸(Oleic acid)、亚油酸(Linoleic acid)、棕榈酸(Palmitic acid)、硬脂酸(Stearic acid)、辛酸(Caprylic acid)、
地黄地黄
壬酸(Nonanoic acid)、癸酸(Decanoic acid)、十二烷酸(Lauric acid)、十四烷酸(Tetradecanoic acid)、十五烷酸(Pentadecanoic acid)、十七烷酸(Heptadecanoic acid)、十九烷酸(Nonadecanoic acid)、二十烷酸(Eicosanoic acid)、二十一烷酸(Heneicosanoic acid)、二十二烷酸(Docosanic acid)等。
尚含有水苏糖(Stachyose)、葡萄糖(Glucose)、蔗糖(Sucrose)、果糖(Fructose)、棉子糖(Raffi- nose)、甘露三糖(Mannotriose)、毛蕊花糖(Verbas- cose)、半乳糖(Galactose)以及维生素A类物质。
鲜地黄中含有20多种氨基酸,其中以精氨酸含量最高;干地黄中有15种氨基酸,其中丙氨酸含量最高。地黄中还含有铁、锌、锰、铬等20多种微量元素。[3] 

药理作用

1.对心血管系统的作用
a.对心脏的作用: 实验证明:生地黄流浸膏对蛙心的收缩力有显著增强作用,对衰弱的心脏更显著, 但大剂量能使正常蛙心中毒,大白鼠静脉注射地黄的乙醇提取物、水提取物,对心脏有明显的抑制作用,使心跳变慢甚至停止。因此,大剂量使用地黄时应注意对心脏的毒性。
b.对血压的影响:大鼠腹腔注射怀地黄水、醇、醚提取液,结果表明:水提取液对急性实验性高血压有明显降压作用, 而醇、醚提取液对高血压无明显影响,对寒冷(室温23℃)情况下的血压则有稳定作用。地黄浸膏静脉注射于家兔和狗可使血压上升。蟾蜍后腿灌流时, 中等浓度使血管收缩,高浓度则使血管扩张。给麻醉犬及兔静脉注射怀庆地黄的醇提取液可使血压下降。实验证明:六味地黄汤大白鼠实验性
地黄地黄
肾性高血压有明显的降血压、改善肾功能、降低病死率的作用。
2.对血液的作用 地黄乙醇提取物所得的黄色针状结晶能缩短兔凝血时间, 而其水煎剂的作用不明显。实验证明:生地黄、熟地黄、生地炭、熟地炭的水煎剂都能明显缩短凝血时间,相互之间也无显著性差异
对九种不同的生地黄和熟地黄进行的 DIC 作用研究证明, 中国产熟地黄其中一种有抗凝血酶作用,两种有激活纤溶系统的作用, 能明显对抗凝血酶和内毒素诱发大白鼠DIC 的发生,但均无血小板凝集作用
地黄既有止血作用, 又有抗凝血作用,其机制有待进一步研究。
100%的生地注射液给大鼠腹腔注射, 每天 1ml,连续6天, 能使接受60钴照射所致的血小板损害减轻,回升加快。
3.对血糖的影响 地黄对血糖的作用有待进一步研究。煎剂、浸剂或醇浸膏给家兔灌胃或注射后, 能降低正常血糖和由肾上腺素、氯化胺引起的高血糖。曾有报道,兔皮下注射地黄醇浸膏溶液2g/kg 或灌胃4g/kg均可使血糖下降。注射给药比较明显, 给药后4小时血糖降至最低水平。肌注地黄醇浸膏溶液20g,也可抑制和预防肾上腺素所致的兔血糖升高。单味生地降血糖作用比葛根显著;八味地黄丸的降血糖作用并不强于单味地黄。有人报道八味地黄汤对四氧嘧啶引起的大鼠高血糖有降低作用。另有报道
地黄地黄
地黄水或醇浸出物仅降低正常兔血糖, 而对肾上腺素所致的高血糖无效。
但也有相反报道,用地黄的醇浸膏、煎剂、水浸剂等对家兔进行实验, 未观察到地黄的降血糖作用。
4.对中枢神经系统的作用 怀地黄有明显镇静作用,其作用部位可能在大脑皮层。其水提取液可抑制小鼠的自主活动, 并能加强阈下催眠剂量戊巴比妥钠和硫喷妥钠的催眠作用,同时也能对抗安钠咖的兴奋作用, 但不能对抗硝酸士的宁和戊四氮所致的惊厥作用。地黄的镇静作用有利于缓解高血压病人的症状,明显改善高血压病人引起的失眠,有效率达 94%。有人认为地黄的镇静成分主要为水溶物,口服地黄水煎浸膏剂、醇浸剂或腹腔注射 10g/kg 均能对戊巴比妥钠的催眠效应产生协同作用
5.抗炎、抗过敏作用 地黄煎剂灌胃对大白鼠甲醛性关节炎和蛋清性关节炎有明显的对抗作用,并能抑制松节油皮下注射引起的肉芽肿和组胺引起的毛细血管通透性的增加。地黄水提取液对组胺引起的血管通透性增加和醋酸引起的小鼠腹膜炎有明显抑制作用,对蛋清所致急性炎症也有抗炎作用, 而地黄的醇及醚提取液则无抗炎作用。
有报道认为,干地黄水提取物能显著增加外周血液中的T淋巴细胞,干地黄醇提取物能明显促进抗SRPC抗体-溶血素生成, 减少外周血液T淋巴细胞,熟地黄水提取物则无此作用。
6.抗真菌作用 地黄水浸剂对须疮癣菌、石膏样小芽胞癣菌、羊毛状小芽胞癣菌
地黄地黄
及奥杜盎小芽胞癣菌等多种真菌的生长有抑制作用。
7.对内分泌的影响 地黄具有对抗地塞米松对垂体-肾上腺皮质系统的抑制作用, 并能促进肾上腺皮质激素的合成。临床观察发现,地黄与糖皮质激素合用可减少激素引起的阴虚阳亢的副作用。生地与地塞米松合用, 能使家兔皮质酮浓度逐渐上升,但病理学观察则显示其对兔的垂体和肾上腺皮质形态学未见明显改变, 从而提示生地能减轻由糖皮质激素对兔垂体-肾上腺皮质系统功能和形态的影响。动物实验表明: 地黄能对抗连续服用地塞米松后血浆皮质酮浓度下降,并能防止肾上腺皮质萎缩。地黄煎剂灌胃能显著降低大白鼠肾上腺维生素 C 的含量。
8.抗肿瘤作用 六味地黄汤能明显对抗N-亚硝基氨酸乙酯诱发小鼠前胃鳞状上皮细胞癌(类似人的食管癌)的作用。一般认为, 地黄的抗肿瘤作用与增加免疫功能有关,地黄具有促进机体淋巴母细胞的转化、增加 T 淋巴细胞数量的作用, 并能增强网状内皮系统的吞噬功能,特别对免疫功能低下者作用更加的明显。
9.其他作用 有报道麻醉犬静脉注射地黄浸膏后, 单位时间内尿量有增加,利尿原理可能与其强心和扩张血管等作用有关;但亦有报道, 地黄水煎浸膏和醇浸膏对大鼠的利尿作用未能被证实。[3] 

考证出处编辑

【考 证】出自《神农本草经》;
生地黄生地黄
①《纲目》:“今人惟以怀庆地黄为上,亦各处随时兴废不同尔,地黄初生塌地,叶如山白菜而毛涩,叶面深青色,又似小芥叶而颇厚,不叉丫,叶中撺茎,上有细毛,茎梢开小筒子花,红黄色,结实如小麦粒,根长三、四寸,细如手指,皮赤黄色,如羊蹄根及葫萝卜根,曝干乃黑。生食作土气,俗呼其苗为婆婆奶。古人种子,今惟种根。王?《山居录》云,地黄嫩苗摘其旁叶作菜,甚益人。《本草》以二月、八月采根,殊未穷物性,八月残叶犹在,叶中精气,未尽归根,二月新苗已生,根中精气已滋于叶,不如正月、九月采者殊好,又与蒸曝相宜。”
②《本草乘雅半偈》:种植地黄之后,其土便苦,次年止可种牛膝,再二年可种山药,足十年上味转甜,始可复种地黄,否则味苦形瘦,不堪药也。”

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/view/301248.htm

REHMANNIAE editor
Rehmanniae, Alias: yellow, habitat, land marrow, natively, dry habitat, benzyl, dioxin, milk child, mother milk, Latin name:.. Rehmannia glutinosa (. Gaetn) Libosch ex Fisch et Mey Scrophulariaceae. rehmannia plants, ground yellow root, erect perennial herb. Thermophilic and sunny climate and the land, fear of water, as Qingreliangxue medicine. For febrile disease heat penetrating the blood, fever, dry mouth, tongue purple or red and other symptoms, there is heat Sheng Jin Yin, nourishing effect. Have production throughout China.
Scrophulariaceae Rehmannia Rehmannia plant roots. Also known as ground pulp ("Classic"), the original habitat ("Materia Medica of justice"), dry habitat ("Chinese Medicine Chi"). The original plant to yellow AKA: benzyl ("Ya"), dioxin ("Do not record"), milk child ("Ben Cao Yan Yi"), mother milk ("Shortage of Materia Medica"), the dog breast ("plant name, map test "), mountain tobacco, mountain cabbage, jug flowers, rum trees, trees honeypot. Ziyin heat, cooling blood effect. (Fresh ground yellow: heat and cooling blood, moistening fluid.)
Chinese scientific name dihuang Latin name Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaetn.) Libosch. Ex Fisch. Et Mey. Nickname habitat, to pulp, the original habitat, dry habitat, benzyl, dioxin, milk, child, mother milk sector Flora door Angiosperms Gang Twins leaf plant Subclass gamopetalous Asia outline tubular flowers. Branch Scrophulariaceae genera farming Huang Huang territorial distribution area distributed in most parts of China, Korea, Japan, too. English dried rehmannia root
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 Geographical distribution of cultivation techniques cultivation preparation ▪ ▪ ▪ harvesting and processing methods of cultivation harvest storage ▪ ▪ ▪ Common Diseases 5 medicinal herbs processing processing identification ▪ ▪ ▪ Indications ▪ Historical records medicinal properties ▪ ▪ main component of the pharmacological effects of 6 research references
Morphological characteristics editor
Body height 12-30 cm, densely gray multicellular villous and glandular hairs. Fleshy roots, when bright yellow,
Habitat leaf
Habitat leaf
Under cultivation conditions, up to 5.5 cm in diameter, purple stems. Leaves usually integrated in the stem base rosette, up strongly reduced to bracts, or gradually reduced and alternate on stem; leaf blade ovate to oblong, green above, below or to purplish mauve, long 2-13 cm, 1-6 cm wide, with irregular edges scalloped or even blunt serrated teeth; base tapering to stalk, veins sunken above, below uplift. 0.5-3 cm of flowers with long stems, stems, thin, curved and then rose slightly at the top of the stem are arranged in racemes or almost all solitary and axillary and dispersed in the stem; calyx length 1-1.5 cm, densely multicellular villous and white long-haired, with 10 raised veins; calyx teeth 5, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate Or how many triangles, 0.5-0.6 cm long, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, thin front two each and cracking leaving Calyx teeth as much as a total of seven; corolla 3-4.5 cm long; corolla tube much bowing, purple outside, are multicellular villous; corolla lobes, 5,
REHMANNIAE plant morphology - to yellow
REHMANNIAE plant morphology - to yellow (5)
 Apex obtuse or slightly concave inner surface of yellow and purple, purple outside, both sides are multicellular villous, 5-7 mm long, 4-10 mm wide; stamens 4; medicine room oblong, 2.5 mm wide 1.5 mm, base splayed, leaving the two drugs chambers are arranged in a straight line, ovary childhood room 2, when old torn from a room because the diaphragm, glabrous; style top expanded into two sheet-like stigmas. Capsule ovate to ovate, 1-1.5 cm long. Fruit period from April to July. [2] 
Perennial erect herb. Height 10-30cm, all densely white long glandular hairs, fleshy root. Leaf base to generate plexus, obovate-lanceolate, base tapering into a stalk, margin irregular blunt teeth, wrinkled foliage, purplish below. It stems from the foliage extraction, inflorescence racemose; calyx 5-lobed; stem purple. Also many basal rosette, ovate to oblong, jagged edges. Racemes, tubular calyx, calyx teeth 5, Corolla purple, about 4cm, 2-lipped, lobes 5, on both sides of the coat, flowering from April to May, fruiting from July to August. Capsule ovate to ovate, small seeds. [2] 
Character identification irregular clumps or oblong,
REHMANNIAE
REHMANNIAE
Intermediate enlargement, ends a little thin, long 6-12cm, really diameter 3-6cm, some thin strips, a little flat and twisted. Surface gray-black or brown-gray, very wrinkled, with irregular cross curved lines. Weight, soft quality and tough, gray-black section, brown or black black, slightly shiny, with tack. Gas micro, slightly sweet taste. Large blocks, weight, section black oily, sweet preferred.
Microscopic identification root cross-section: cork layer several columns cork cells. Cortical parenchyma cells were loose; a majority scattered secretory cells, containing orange oil droplets; occasional stone cells, phloem cells secrete less. Cambium into the ring. Wood ray broad; catheter sparse, radially arranged. [1] 
Growth habit editor
Thermophilic and climate and abundant sunshine, the fear of water, avoid continuous cropping, its roots growing rapidly at 25-28 ℃.
Born 50-1100 meters above sea level sandy loam, barren hillside, at the foot of the wall, roadsides, etc.. [2] 
Geographical Distribution Edit
Distributed in Liaoning, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi,
REHMANNIAE
REHMANNIAE
Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Hubei and other provinces. [2] It originated in China are distributed in Beijing, Tianjin, Henan, Hebei, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan and other places, the main origin of Henan, Liaoning, Hebei , Shandong, Zhejiang. Korea, Japan, too. [1] 
Cultivation Technical Editor
They are cultivated around the country and abroad. [2] 
Cultivation ready

Dihuang thermophilic and somewhat humid climate, like light, like fertilizer, avoid stagnant water, should select the soil deep, fertile, well-drained sandy loam is uploaded culture, fine clay rhizome thin, poor quality, not cropping, continuous cropping want more than three years, the previous crop bogey radish, oil and the like.
Cultivation method

Bozhou region to the main rhizome propagation, autumn excavation, choose finger thickness and seed storage root sand burial,
To yellow
To yellow
The arrival of spring after the thaw of the earth, Shizujifei, leveling land, the kinds of root cut into small pieces 3-5 cm to row spacing 30 × 30 厘米 open hole, put some large roots per hole, the small root put in two, sprinkle a little ash (lime also) complex soil 6 cm, 15--20 ℃ 10 days emergence, general mu seed quantity from 40 to 50 kg. Height 5 cm, the combination of weeding, thinning, leaving one per hole, if Deficiency off the ridge may fill load, leaving acres of planting density 4000-6000, land fertilizer live, may be appropriate dilute some barren land available some slightly thick, 8000-10000 is required. Try ripper, deep cultivators, seedlings beside shallow tillage, ridge between deep cultivators, after the plant closure line, not Row crop cultivators, to impose fertilizer, human waste to dilute the main mu 20 kg ammonium sulfate, cake 50 kg, administered twice, the first time around the beginning of summer, the second in front of the department, because the front and rear of the Department of underground rhizomes are swollen, so fertilizer should be timely, after fertilization, in case of dry weather to be anxious when watering. Never pour large diffuse, or to rot, affecting production, more rain in summer, in front of the plant closure line to combine ripper Bacon, in order to avoid stagnant water the roots. In case of bolting phenomenon, except to try to go moss bud, prompting the nutrient concentration in the underground rhizomes grow, properly managed, fresh ground yellow 2000--5000 kg per mu.
Harvesting and processing

Autumn in October, on the ground leaves gradually yellow,
REHMANNIAE
REHMANNIAE
Election sunny dug roots, shake net soil, remove fibrous roots. As with fresh yellow, you can sand buried storage stand. Huang dry in the sun, a fire can bake, bake sun side edge sweating, to the root block no hard heart, soft so far. Foxglove Method: Wash REHMANNIAE dry, soak into the rice wine, about 3-5 days, and then put the pot and add water to bake and cook, with wine every hundred pounds of fresh raw land 10 pounds, 30 pounds of water, to be immersed in alcohol to yellow ( normally takes 2-3 hours), then remove to yellow after cooler put sun exposure, until dry is foxglove, general discount of about 30% dry. In case of rainy days, you can not use the emergency fire fast drying bake, bake side edge tubers will be yellow squash, being careful not to crush it, to prevent the juice spills, affecting production, reduce the quality of medicine. When the pressure should be light, avoid single pressure once the pressure is not good, it is best to periodically re-voltage, three of five can, after slowly dried. Habitat due to higher sugar content, degree in hand touch dry stick, mainly dry and hard, otherwise wet goods. Remember not to fumigation with sulfur.
Harvest Storage

Fall excavation, generally 10 to November, excavation roots, remove reed head, leaf, fibrous roots, wash the soil, is the fresh ground yellow. Fresh ground roasted yellow placed directly on the bed slowly baking, must often turning to gradually dry the interior color black, roasted root to eighty percent, soft body, can be removed when the skin hardens, shape dough for REHMANNIAE; habitat add rice wine steamed to black-run, as Rehmannia. It can also be used to dry method.
Common Diseases

To yellow leaf spot diseases are, ring rot, before the onset of use Zineb or Bordeaux mixture foliar 2-3 times, 800 times tuzet IRRIGATING once, aphids, spider mites, grubs and other available conventional control methods.
Medicinal value edit
Medicinal roots. [2] 
Medicine identification

Irregular round or oblong block, 6 to 12 cm long,
REHMANNIAE - Chinese herbal medicine
REHMANNIAE - Chinese herbal medicine
3 to 6 cm in diameter; surface gray-brown or gray-black, all wrinkled uneven, with irregular horizontal curved lines; mostly small elongated, slightly flat and twisted; soft, dry the solid, weight, easy broken, section smooth, black and bright purple or black, which was oily, with viscosity; gas slightly fragrant, slightly sweet taste. In hypertrophy, weight, oily black section is preferred. Production of Henan, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shaanxi, Gansu, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Shanxi and other places are also produced in order to Henan by the middle of the most famous. Henan growers, says Huai Rehmannia Behmannia glutinosa Libosch. F. Hueichingenis (Chao et Schih) Hsiao, the main features of the larger plants; rhizome relatively hypertrophy, was massive, round or fusiform; spend less dense at the top of the stem, into a sparse racemes.
Processing Processing

Dry yellow: a little bubble of water, wash sediment impurities, fish stew Run,
REHMANNIAE
REHMANNIAE
Sliced ​​dried or drying. REHMANNIAE charcoal: Take Wash dry yellow, set calcined pot fitted Bacheng full, cover pot top, two pan sealing seams with Wong, the ballast, with civil and military fire satin to stick on the bottom of the pot lid The white paper was burnt yellow for the degree, blocked fire doors, let cool, remove; or the dry yellow fried carbon can also set the pot directly. "Outline": "" by "so-called dry yellow, that is habitat of dry who is also its method to take dihuang a hundred pounds, six pounds fat person selected, washed, sun make microfold to pick the next person washing wood mortar pound wringer do, throw wine and then pound, juice before mixing yellow, Japan dried or drying by the fire. "[1]
Efficacy: heat Sheng Jin Yin, nourishing.
Indications

Governance Yin fever, thirst, vomiting, epistaxis, vaginal bleeding, menstrual disorders, fetal irritability, constipation, vaginal injuries.
Taste: bittersweet, cool.
Historical records

① "The Classic": "sweet; cold."
② "Do not record" "bitter, non-toxic."
Into the heart, liver and kidney.
① Li Gao:, start, foot Shao, hand, foot Jue Yin. ʱ??
② "Herbal Decoction": "start with the sun, Shaoyin."
③ "Thunder concocted herbal solution": "into the heart, liver, spleen, lung Four Classics."
Dosage Oral: Jiantang, 15 to 25 grams, a large dose
To yellow
To yellow
50 to 100 g, Aogao or into pills, powder. Topical: pound deposited.
Medication bogey should:
Spleen diarrhea, eat less empty stomach, mediastinoscopy phlegmatic were careful service.
① "Treatise on Thunder Gun": "Wuling guilty of copper and iron, a cause renal elimination and white mustache hair loss Rong Wei also."
② "Annotations of Materia Medica": "get Ophiopogonis, sake good, evil mother of pearl, fear wu weed."
③ "Collection of Essentials": "bogey radish, light blue, white leek, scallion white."
④ "Medicine": "in the cold there is swelling of the liver, easy to vent ban."
Medicinal effects

Fresh ground yellow heat fluid, cool, bleeding; for hot Shangyin,
To yellow porridge
To yellow porridge
Tongue purple polydipsia, hair patches rash, vomiting, epistaxis, sore throat. Rehmanniae Qingreliangxue, Yin, Sheng Jin; for fever, polydipsia, hair patches rash, deficiency heat, vomiting, epistaxis, diabetes, infectious hepatitis.
Therapeutic value
1. Qingreliangxue. The taste joys, cold infiltration Blood can Qingying blood per heat and cooling. For fever of warm disease, thirst, red purple, at 方如清 camp soup. In addition, the product still bleeding through the cooling effect, can be used in a variety of hemorrhagic blood heat.
2. YangYinShengJin. The quality Run more liquid can Yin, sweet and cold can be fluid, there is the role of nourishing yin and moistening fluid. For warm late disease, evil heat disability allowance by. Also, take the goods Ziyinqingre, commonly used in the treatment of wang dry mouth and thirst, dizziness, prescriptions, such as Liu Wei Di Huang Wan. Diabetes is a hot Sheng disability allowance Zheyi treatment available habitat.
The main ingredient

To yellow rhizome containing β- sitosterol (β- Sitosterol), mannitol (Mannitol) and a small amount of stigmasterol (Stigmasterol), small amounts of vegetable oil sterol (Campesterol). Also containing flavin (Rehmannin), catalpol (Catalpol), dihydro catalpol (Dihydrocatalpol), acetyl catalpol (Acetylcatalpol), single secret special force glycosides (Danmelittoside), secret special force glycosides (Melittoside), didanosine Gardenia glycosides (Geniposide), Ajuga glycosides (Ajugoside), daucosterol (Daucosterol), 1- ethyl -β-D- galactosidase (1-Ethyl-β-D-galactoside), to yellow glycosides (Rehmannioside) A, B , C, D, etc. iridoid monoterpenes and glycosides. Also contain organic acids, such as: benzoic acid (Benzoic acid), acid (Caprylic acid), 3- methoxy-4-hydroxy acid (3-Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid), cinnamic acid (Cin- namic acid), oleic acid (Oleic acid), linoleic acid (Linoleic acid), palmitic acid (Palmitic acid), stearic acid (Stearic acid), caprylic (Caprylic acid),
To yellow
To yellow
Azelaic acid (Nonanoic acid), capric acid (Decanoic acid), lauric acid (Lauric acid), myristic acid (Tetradecanoic acid), pentadecanoate (Pentadecanoic acid), Heptadecanoic (Heptadecanoic acid), nonadecanoic acid (Nonadecanoic acid), eicosanoids (Eicosanoic acid), heneicosanoic acid (Heneicosanoic acid), behenic acid (Docosanic acid) and the like.
Still contains stachyose (Stachyose), glucose (Glucose), sucrose (Sucrose), fructose (Fructose), raffinose (Raffi- nose), mannose trisaccharide (Mannotriose), mullein sugar (Verbas- cose), galactose (Galactose) and vitamin A substances.
Fresh ground yolk contains 20 kinds of amino acids, of which the highest concentrations of arginine; dry yellow has 15 kinds of amino acids, including alanine highest content. Rehmannia also contains iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and other 20 kinds of trace elements. [3]
Pharmacological effects

1. The effect on the cardiovascular system
a effect on the heart: The experiment proved that: REHMANNIAE fluidextract frog heart contractile force has significantly enhanced the role of the weakened heart more significant, but large doses can make normal heart poison frog, rat intravenous injection of ethanol Huang extracts, water extracts significantly inhibited the heart, the heart slows down or even stop. Thus, large doses should be yellow note on heart toxicity.
b effect on blood pressure: intraperitoneal injection of Rehmannia water, alcohol, ether extract, results showed: water extract on acute experimental hypertension have significant antihypertensive effect, but alcohol, ether extract had no significant hypertension effects on blood pressure cold (room temperature 23 ℃) in the case of the stabilizing effect. Dihuang extract intravenous injection in rabbits and dogs can make blood pressure rise. Toad hind legs when perfusion, moderate concentrations vasoconstriction, high concentrations cause blood vessels to dilate. To anesthetized dogs and rabbits intravenously Huai Rehmannia alcohol extract blood pressure can drop. Experimental results show: Liu Wei Di Huang Tang on experimental rats
To yellow
To yellow
Renal hypertension significantly lower blood pressure and improve kidney function, reduce the role of mortality.
2. The role of the blood on the ground yellow ethanol extracts obtained yellow needles can reduce the clotting time in rabbits, but its role is not obvious decoction. Experimental results show: Rehmannia, Rehmannia, habitat charcoal, charcoal foxglove water decoction can significantly shorten the clotting time, and no significant difference between them.
DIC effect study of nine different Rehmannia Rehmanniae and were proved in domestic Rehmannia One anti-thrombin, the two have a role to activate the fibrinolytic system, can significantly antithrombin and endotoxin-induced DIC occurs in rats, but no platelet aggregation.
Dihuang both hemostatic effect, another anti-clotting effect, the mechanism needs further study.
100% of the habitat injection to rats by intraperitoneal injection daily 1ml, six days in a row, can accept the 60 cobalt irradiation-induced platelet damage mitigation, rebounded quickly.
3. Impact on blood sugar glucose to yellow for further study. Decoction, infusion or alcohol extract to rabbits orally or injected, can reduce normal blood sugar and high blood sugar from the adrenaline caused by ammonium chloride. There have been reports, rabbits subcutaneously to retinol extract solution 2g / kg or orally 4g / kg can make blood sugar dropped. Injection is more obvious, four hours after administration of blood glucose levels to a minimum. Intramuscular injection of retinol extract solution 20g, can be suppressed, and the prevention of adrenaline-induced rabbit blood sugar. Single herb Pueraria habitat hypoglycemic effect than significantly; hypoglycemic effect Ba Wei Di Huang Wan is not stronger than a single flavor to yellow. Ba Wei Di Huang Tang was reported in rats hyperglycemic alloxan induced lowering effect. Another report
To yellow
To yellow
To yellow water or alcohol extract only reduce blood sugar normal rabbit, while adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia is invalid.
But there are also contrary to reports, land yellow alcohol extract, decoction, flooding experiments on rabbits, etc., were not observed to hypoglycemic effect yellow.
4. The role of the central nervous system of Rehmannia significant sedation, its site of action may be in the cerebral cortex. Its water extract can inhibit locomotor activity in mice, and can enhance the hypnotic effects of subliminal hypnotic dose of pentobarbital sodium thiopental, but also against the excitatory effects of sodium benzoate, but not against nitrate disabilities Ning and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsant effect. Yellow sedation to help ease the symptoms of hypertensive patients, significant improvement in insomnia patients with hypertension caused by the effective rate of 94%. Some people think that to yellow sedation composed mainly of water-soluble material, oral Dihuang decoction extract agent, alcohol infusion or intraperitoneally 10g / kg could hypnotic effect of pentobarbital sodium to produce a synergistic effect.
5. anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic effects to yellow decoction on rat formaldehyde arthritis and arthritis egg white has obvious antagonism, and can inhibit capillary permeability and histamine turpentine subcutaneous granuloma caused due of the increase. Increased vascular permeability in mice and acetate yellow water extract of histamine-induced peritonitis caused significant inhibition of egg-induced acute inflammation also have anti-inflammatory effects, and to the yellow of alcohol and ether extract had no anti-inflammatory effects ʱ??
There are reports that dry yellow water extract can significantly increase the peripheral blood T lymphocytes, dry yellow alcohol extract could promote anti SRPC antibody - hemolysin, reduce peripheral blood T lymphocytes, no water extract of Rehmannia this effect.
6. The anti-fungal effect dihuang flooding agent for Trichophyton mentagrophytes, plaster-like small spores rubrum, wool-like small spores rubrum
To yellow
To yellow
And Audubon Ang small spores rubrum and other fungal growth inhibition.
7. The impact of endocrine ground yellow effective against dexamethasone on the pituitary - adrenal system inhibition, and can promote the synthesis of adrenal hormones. Clinical observations, to yellow in combination with glucocorticoids may reduce the side effects of hormone-induced hyperactivity. Habitat and dexamethasone in combination, can make rabbits corticosterone concentration gradually increased, but the pathological examination is displayed their pituitary and adrenal cortex morphology of the rabbit did not change significantly, suggesting habitat can be reduced by a glucocorticoid on rabbit pituitary - adrenal system function and morphology. Animal experiments show that: dihuang can fight back for taking dexamethasone plasma corticosterone concentrations decreased, and prevent adrenal atrophy. Dihuang decoction can significantly reduce the amount of vitamin C in the adrenal gland in rats.
8. The anti-tumor effect Liuweidihuang soup can obviously fight Ethyl N- nitroso-induced effects in mice before gastric squamous cell carcinoma (similar human esophageal cancer) is. Generally believed that the anti-tumor effect to yellow and increase immune function related to Huang has transformed lymphoblastoid cell body to promote and increase the role of T lymphocytes, and can enhance the phagocytic function of the reticuloendothelial system, especially the role of immunocompromised persons more obvious.
9. Other effects have been reported in anesthetized dogs after intravenous injection of Huang extract, increased urine output per unit of time, may be associated with cardiac diuretic principle and dilation of blood vessels and other effects; but there are reports, to yellow decoction extract and alcohol extract diuretic effect on rats could not be confirmed. [3]
Provenance research editor
】 【Research from "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic";
REHMANNIAE
REHMANNIAE
① "outline": "people today but to Huai Huang on the ground, but also at any time throughout the Rise and Fall of different Seoul, to yellow newborn collapse, the leaves of cabbage and hair astringent as a mountain, deep blue foliage, leaf mustard deemed small and quite thick do not fork Ah, throw leaves stems, fine hairs, stems shoot open a small cone flowers, red and yellow, solid grains such as wheat, root length three or four inches, as thin as a finger, red skin yellow, such as sheep hoof root and carrot roots, exposed dry is black. raw food as rustic, vulgar call their seedlings as mother milk ancients seed, now but three root Wang? "Mountains recorded" cloud, to yellow tender shoots off its side leaves as vegetables, and even benefits to the people. " Materia Medica "In February, adopted in August root, special properties are not poor, Utah in August Grottoes, leaf essence, entirely owned by root, Miao was born in February, it has been nourishing essence roots than leaves, as the first month September picking by special good, but also affordable and steam exposure. "
② "Herbal multiply Ya Banji": after planting to yellow, its soil will be bitter, can be kind of Achyranthes year only, then two years can be kind of yam, turn sweet taste on foot decade, before they can be cropping to yellow, otherwise bitter form thin, bear medicine also. ʱ??
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Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. to yellow. China Plant Gallery. 2014-01-25 [reference date 2014-01-25]
2. dihuang habitat. Flora of China. 2014-01-25 [reference date 2014-01-25]
3. REHMANNIAE of modern research. Medical Education Network [reference date 2013-12-2]






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