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浙貝 Fritillaria (Fritillariae Bulbus) Zhe Bei Mu

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浙贝

 编辑
贝母,川者味甘最佳:西者味薄次之,象山者微苦又次之,一种大而苦者仅能解毒。并去心用。凡肺经药皆当去心,不独贝母也。以前的历代文献,并未明确分立川贝、浙贝、土贝专条,至明《本草正》始于贝母条后,别立上贝母一条,所指即系本品。清《百草镜》始
药品名称
浙贝
别    名
浙贝母象贝、象贝母、大贝母
主要适用症
用于风热、燥热或痰热咳嗽
拉丁文名
Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii
英文名
Bulb of Thunberg Fritillary
功效分类
化痰药
性味归经
味苦;性寒。归经: 归肺;心经

基本信息编辑

药名】: 浙贝
【别名】: 浙贝母象贝、象贝母、大贝母
【拉丁文名】: Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii
【英文名】: Bulb of Thunberg Fritillary
【拉丁植物动物矿物名】: Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. [F.collicola Hance; F. verticillata Willd. Var. thunbergii(Miq.)Baker]
【功效分类】: 化痰药

性味归经

味苦;性寒。归经: 归肺;心经

功效

清热化痰;开郁散结。

应用

1、用于风热、燥热或痰热咳嗽。本品功似川贝母而偏于苦泄。治风热咳嗽,常配伍桑叶,前胡等。治痰热咳嗽,常配伍瓜蒌、知母等。
2、用于瘰疬,瘿瘤,疮痈肿毒 ,肺痈等。本品能苦泄清热毒,开郁散结,治瘰疬痰核,陪玄参、牡蛎等,如消瘰丸。治瘿瘤,配伍海藻、昆布。治疮痈,配伍连翘、蒲公英等。治肺痈,配伍鱼腥草,芦根等。

用法用量

内服:煎汤,3-10克;或入丸、散。外用:适量,研末撒。

用药禁忌

寒痰、湿痰及脾胃虚寒者慎服。反乌头。

药理作用编辑

1.镇咳:浙贝母碱和去氢浙贝母碱4mg/kg灌胃,对小鼠氨气引咳有抑制作用,4mg/kg皮下注射对电刺激麻醉猫喉上神经引咳也有镇咳作用。
2.解痉:贝母生物碱具有阿托品样作用,对兔、猫离体肺灌流表明,低浓度可使支气管松弛,高浓度则对支气管有轻微收缩作用。
3.对中枢神经的作用:浙贝母碱和去氢浙贝母碱2mg/kg皮下注射,使小鼠自发活动减少,4mg/kg灌胃使小鼠戊巴比妥钠引起的小鼠睡眠时间延长,2mg/kg皮下注射,对小鼠醋酸扭体法试验表明有镇痛作用。
4.其它作用:贝母碱和去氢贝母碱的各种药理作用均颇相似。1:5000-1:1000浓度蛙心灌流,可使心率减慢并产生房室完全阻滞;10mg/kg给麻醉猫静脉注射,有降压作用。5mg/kg给兔静脉注射,呈现中等度的血糖升高;10mg/kg时,给麻醉猫静脉注射,有降压作用。5mg/kg给兔静脉注射,呈现中等度的血糖升高;10mg/kg时,则呈现四肢无力,共济失调及震颤;小鼠静脉注射的最小致死量两者均为9mg/kg。贝母碱甙比贝母素甲具有较强的降压作用,开胞狗左冠状动脉注射2mg能增加冠脉血流量。

中药化学成分编辑

鳞茎含浙贝母碱(verticine)即浙贝甲素(peimine),去氢浙贝母碱(verticinone)即浙贝乙素(peiminine),浙贝宁(zhebeinine),浙贝丙素(zhebeirine),鄂贝乙素(eduardine; ebeinone),浙贝酮(zhebeinone),贝母辛碱(peimisine),异浙贝母碱(isoverticine),浙贝母碱-N-氧化物(verticine-N-oxide),去氢浙贝母碱-N-氧化物(verticinone-N-oxide)、11-去氧-6-氧代-5α,6-二氢芥芬胺(11-deoxo-6-oxo-5α,6-dihydrojervine),12,13-环氧-11-去氧-6-氧代-5α,6-二氢-N,O-二乙酰基芥芬胺(12,13-epoxy-11-deoxo-6-oxo-5α,6-dihydrojervine N,O-diacetate),3β,17,23α-三羟-6-氧-N-,O(3)-二乙酰基-12,13-环氧22s,25s,5α-藜芦碱〔12,13-epoxy-22s,25s,5α-veratramine-3β,17,23α-triol-6-one N,O(3)diacetate〕及胆碱(choline)等多种生物碱,还含浙贝母碱甙(peiminoside),浙贝宁甙(zhebeininoside),贝母醇(propeimine),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol),胡萝卜素(carotene),苦鬼臼毒素(picrpodophyllotoxin),多种二萜类化合物:反式-半日花三烯醇(communol),反式-半日花三烯酸甲酯(communic acid methyl ester),19-异海松醇(isopimaran-19-ol),19-异海松酸甲酯(isopimaran-19-oic acid methylester),对映-16β-17-贝壳松二醇(ent-kauran-16β,17-diol),对映-16β,17-环氧贝壳松烷(ent-16β,17-epoxykaurane),对映-16α-甲氧基-17-贝壳松醇(ent-16α-methoxy-kauran-17-ol),对映-15-贝壳松烯-17-醇(ent-kaur-15-en-17-ol),对映-16α,17-贝壳松二醇(ent-kauran-16α,17-diol)及脂肪酸:消旋-13-羟基-9Z,11E-十八碳二烯酸(coriolic acid),消旋-13-羟基-9Z,11E-十八碳二烯酸(13-hydroxy-9E,11E-octadecadienoic acid),消旋-9-羟基-10E,12E-十八碳二烯酸(α-dimorphecolic acid),消旋-9-羟基-10E,12E-十八碳二烯酸(β-dimorphecolic acid)。 地上部分含生物碱:贝母尼定碱(baimonidine),异贝母尼定碱(isobaimonidine),浙贝母碱及去氢浙贝母碱,还含茄啶3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基-(1→2)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙(solanidine-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside)即β1-查茄碱(β1-chaconine),茄啶3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基-(1→2)-〔β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基(1→4)〕-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙{solanidine-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-〔β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)〕-β-D-glucopyranoside},哈帕卜宁碱3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙〔hapepunine 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside〕等生物碱甙及浙贝素(zhebeiresinol)。[1] 

各家论述编辑

1.《本草正义》:象贝母蓄寒泄降,而能散结。《本经》主伤寒烦热、淋沥邪气;《别录》止烦、热、渴、出汗,皆泄降除热也。疝瘕以热结而言,泄热散结,故能治之。喉痹,热之结于上者也。乳难之乳,即孳乳之乳,指产难也、贝母滑降,且能散结,故催生而治产难。甄权《药性论》谓贝母作末酒服,治产难及胞衣不出;近人保生无忧散一方,为催生保产灵药,内有贝母,程钟龄释之谓贝母滑润,久皆本此。而注《本经》者仅以为下乳汁,恐非真目。主金疮者,苫降清热之功也,不仅可以内服,亦可外作渗药。居人以象贝通治阳证痈疡,消肿退热,殊有捷效,亦本于此。主风痉者,苦寒清热,泄降定风之功也。《别录》疗腹中结实、心下满,皆指邪热窒塞之证,苦泄散结,皆能主之。洗洗恶风寒者,风寒外袭于皮毛,内合于肺,象贝清泄肺气而辛能疏散,其效可知。目眩为肝阳上乘,项直为风邪外感,舌降泄风,辛泄疏散,治之宜也。咳嗽上气,又痰热之侵肺,苦泄清金而又降逆之功用也。象贝母,味苦而性寒,然含有辛散之气。故能除热,能泄降,又能散绪。今人乃以通治风热、温热、时气热邪,则寒能胜热,辛能散邪也。主郁气痰核等证,虽辛散苦泄,开结散郁也,催生下乳,又其泄降之余义。至于治疸、治疡、清喉咽,主吐衄、疗痰嗽、通二便,种种功力,无非清热泄降四中,足以赅之,要之皆象贝之功用,而市肆通行之川贝,淡泊异常,断不足以语此。
2.《本草正》:大治肺痈肺萎,咳喘,吐血,衄血,最降痰气,善开郁结,止疼痛,消胀满,清肝火,阴耳目,除时气烦热,黄疸淋闭,便血溺血;解热毒,杀诸虫及疗喉痹,瘰疬,乳痈发背,一切痈疡肿毒,湿热恶疮,痔漏,金疮出血,火疮疼痛,较之川贝母,清降之功,不啻数倍。
3.《本草从新》:去时感风痰。
4.《纲目拾遗》:解毒利痰,开宣肺气,凡肺家突风火有痰者宜此。
5.《山东中草药手册》:清肺化痰,制酸,解毒。治感冒咳嗽,胃痛吐酸,痈毒肿痛。

选方编辑

①治感冒咳嗽:浙贝母、知母、桑叶、杏仁各15克,紫苏10克,水煎服。(《山东中草药手册》)
②治痈毒肿痛:浙贝母、连翘各15克,金银花30克,蒲公英40克,水煎服。(《山东中草药手册》)
③治咽喉十八症:大黑枣每个去核,装入五倍子(去虫,研)一个、象贝(去心,研)一个。用泥裹,煨存性,共研极细末,加薄荷叶末少许,冰片少许,贮瓷瓶内。 临用吹患处,任其呕出痰涎。(《经验广集》吹喉散)
④治对口:象贝母研末敷之。(《杨春涯经验方》)[1] 

动植物形态编辑

浙贝,多年生草本。高50-80cm。鳞茎扁球形,直径1.5-4cm,由2枚白色肥厚的鳞叶对合组成。叶在茎最下面的对生或散生,渐向上常兼有散生、对生和轮生的;叶片近条形至披针形,长7-11cm,宽1-2.5cm,先端不卷曲或稍弯曲。花1-6朵,淡黄色,有时稍带淡紫色,顶端的花具3-4枚叶状苞片,其余具2-4cm,宽1-1.5cm,内外轮相似,内面具紫色方格斑纹,基部上方具蜜腺;雄蕊6,长约为花被片的2/5;花药近基着生,花丝无小乳突;柱头裂片长1.5-2mm。蒴果卵圆形,6棱,长2-2.2cm,宽约2.5cm,棱上有宽约6-8mm的翅。花期3-4月,果期5月。[1] 

资源分布编辑

分布浙江、江苏、安徽、湖南等地。浙江宁波地区有大量栽培。[1] 

生长习性编辑

浙贝喜温和湿润、阳光充足的环境。根的生长要求气温在7-25℃,25℃以上根生长受抑制。平均地温达6-7℃时出苗,地上部生长发育温度范围为4-30℃,在此范围内,生长速度随温度升高,生长加快。开花适温为22℃左右。-3℃时植株受冻,30℃以上植株顶部出现枯黄。鳞茎在地温10-25℃时能正常膨大,-6℃时将受冻,25℃以上时出现休眠。
浙贝鳞茎和种子均有休眠作用。鳞茎经从地上部枯萎开始进入休眠,经自然越夏到9月即可解除休眠。种子则经5-10℃2个月左右或经自然越冬也可解除休眠。因此生产上多采用秋播。种子发芽率一般在70%-80%。 [2] 

栽培技术编辑

选地、整地

浙贝对土壤要求较严,宜选排水良好、富含腐殖质、疏松肥沃的沙质壤土种植,土壤PH5~PH7较为适宜。忌连作,前茬以玉米、大豆作物为好。播种前,深翻细耕,每1000平方米施入农家肥3 000公斤作基肥,再配施150公斤饼肥和40公斤磷肥,耙匀,作成1.2米~1.5米的高畦,畦沟宽25厘米~30厘米,沟深20厘米~25厘米,并做到四周排水沟畅通。

繁殖方法

主要用鲜茎繁殖,也可用种子繁殖,但因生长年限长,结实率低,生产上较少采用。
(1)鳞茎繁殖:于9月中旬至10月上旬挖出自然越夏的种茎,选磷片抱合紧密、芽头饱满、无病虫害者,按大小分级分别栽种。种植密度和深度视种茎大小而定,一般株距15厘米~20厘米,行距20厘米。开浅沟条播,沟深6厘米~8厘米,沟底要平,覆土5厘米~6厘米。用种量因种茎大小而异,一般为每1000平方米用种茎500公斤~600公斤。
(2)种子繁殖:种子繁殖可提高繁殖系数,但从种子育苗到形成商品需5~6年时间。用当年采收的种子于9月中旬至10月中旬播种,如近期播种则将大大降低出苗率。条播,行距6厘米左右,然后将种子均匀撒在灰土上,薄覆细土,畦面用秸秆覆盖,保持土壤湿润。每1000平方米用种子10公斤~15公斤。

田间管理

(l)中耕除草 出苗前要及时除草。出苗后结合施肥进行中耕除草,保持土壤疏松。植株封行后,可用手拔草。
(2)追肥一般为3次,12且下旬施腊肥,每亩沟施浓人畜粪肥2500千克,施后覆土。到春齐苗时施苗肥,每亩泼浇人畜粪2000千克或尿素15千克。3月下旬打花后追施花肥,肥种和施肥量与苗肥相似。
(3)排灌 生长中后期,需水量较大,如遇干旱应适时浇水,采用泡灌,当土壤湿润后立即排除。雨季积水应及时排除。
(4)摘花打项3月下旬,当花茎下端有2-3朵花初开时,选晴天将花和花蕾连同项稍一齐摘除,打顶长度一般8-10厘米。

病虫害防治

(1)灰霉病 一般4月上旬发生,为害地上部。防治方法:发病前用1:1:100倍波尔多液喷雾预防,清除残体,防止积水降低田间湿度;发病时用50%多菌灵800信液喷施。
(2)黑斑病 4月上旬始发,尤以雨水多时严重,为害叶部。防治方法同灰霉病。
(3)干腐病 一般在鳞茎越复保种期间,土壤干旱时发病严重,主要为害鳞茎基部。防治方法:选用健壮无病的鳞茎种子;越夏保种期间合理套作,以创造阴凉通风环境;发病种茎在下种前用20%三氯杀螨矾1000-1500倍液浸种10-15分钟,或50%托市津300-500倍液浸种10-20分钟。
(4)锯角豆芫菁 成虫咬食叶片。防治方法:人工捕杀;用90%敌百虫1500信液或40%乐果乳剂800-1500倍液喷杀,也可用5%西维因粉剂防治。其它尚有蛴螬、金针虫、螨等为害。[2] 
参考资料
词条标签:
药品  植物  中药
http://baike.baidu.com/view/890228.htm

Fritillaria editor
Fritillaria, Sichuan's sweet Best: Western flavor, followed by a thin, Xiangshan are bitter and second, a big and bitter person only detoxification. And go to the heart with. Where drugs are when lung to the heart, not just Fritillaria also. Previous ancient literature, not explicitly separate fritillary, Fritillaria, soil Pui special section, then to that "Materia Medica" began Fritillaria article, do not stand on a mother of pearl, meaning that is the Department of the goods. Clear "Herbs mirror" before
Drug Name Fritillaria alias Fritillaria, like shellfish, like mother of pearl, large Fritillaria disease is mainly applied for the wind-heat, hot cough or phlegm Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii Latin name English name Bulb of Thunberg Fritillary effectiveness of classification phlegm medicinal taste Meridian bitter; cold. Meridian: Lung; Heart Sutra
Contents 1 Basic Information ▪ Tropism of taste ▪ effectiveness ▪ Applications ▪ Dosage ▪ pharmacological effects of drug contraindications 2 3 4 Various theories of traditional Chinese medicine chemical composition 6 5 election party animal and plant resources distribution form 7 8 9 cultivation technology growth habit ▪ Alternatively, Grounds breeding methods ▪ ▪ ▪ pest control field management
Basic information editing
[Drug name]: Fritillaria
[Alias]: Fritillaria, such as shellfish, like mother of pearl, large Fritillaria
[Latin name]: Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii
[English name]: Bulb of Thunberg Fritillary
[Latin animal mineral name]: Fritillaria thunbergii Miq [F.collicola Hance; F. verticillata Willd Var thunbergii (Miq.) Baker..].
【Category】: phlegm medicine
Tropism of taste

Bitter; cold. Meridian: Lung; Heart Sutra
Effect

Phlegm; Gloomy Sanjie.
Application

1, for the wind-heat, hot or phlegm cough. The product functions somewhat like Sichuan Fritillaria and bitter vent. Wind-heat cough, often compatibility leaf, Peucedanum and so on. Phlegm heat cough, often compatibility Gualou, Anemarrhena.
2, for scrofula, galls, sore carbuncles poisoning, lung abscess and so on. This product can suffer heat vent poison, Gloomy Sanjie, cure scrofula sputum nuclear, accompany Scrophulariaceae, oysters, such as Xiao Lei Pill. Cure gall, compatibility seaweed, kelp. Boils carbuncle, compatibility forsythia, dandelion. Zhifei carbuncle, compatibility Houttuynia, reed rhizome and so on.
Dosage

Oral: Jiantang, 3-10 g; or into pills, powder. Topical: amount sprinkle powder.
Drug contraindications

Han Tan, wet sputum and spleen Deficiency careful service. Anti Aconitum.
Pharmacological effects editor
1. antitussive: Zhejiang Zhejiang Fritillaria Fritillaria alkali and alkaline dehydrogenase 4mg / kg orally to mice inhibited ammonia cited cough, 4mg / kg subcutaneously on electrical stimulation induced cough laryngeal nerve in anesthetized cats also have town cough role.
2. antispasmodic: Fritillaria alkaloids atropine-like effect on rabbits, cats isolated lung perfusion showed that low concentrations can bronchial relaxation, high concentrations of bronchial slight contraction.
3. The effect on the central nervous system: Zhejiang Zhejiang Fritillaria Fritillaria alkali and alkaline dehydrogenase 2mg / kg subcutaneously, so spontaneous activity decrease, 4mg / kg sodium pentobarbital mice fed mice caused by sleep prolonged, 2mg / kg subcutaneously, for mouse acetic acid writhing test showed analgesic effect.
4. Other effects: a variety of pharmacological effects of dehydroepiandrosterone Fritillaria Fritillaria alkali and alkaline are quite similar. 1: 5000-1: 1000 concentration frog heart perfusion, heart rate and can produce complete atrioventricular block; 10mg / kg to anesthetized cats intravenous injection, has antihypertensive effect. 5mg / kg to rabbits intravenously, showing moderately elevated blood sugar; when 10mg / kg, intravenous injection to anesthetized cats, has antihypertensive effect. 5mg / kg to rabbits intravenously, showing moderately elevated blood sugar; when 10mg / kg, is showing weakness, ataxia and tremor; minimum lethal dose of both mice were injected intravenously are 9mg / kg. Fritillaria alkali glycosides than peimine has a strong antihypertensive effect, open cell dog left coronary injection 2mg can increase coronary blood flow.
Chinese medicine chemical composition editor
Zhejiang Fritillaria bulb containing alkali (verticine) A hormone that is Fritillaria (peimine), dehydroepiandrosterone Zhejiang Fritillaria alkali (verticinone) that is Fritillaria prime B (peiminine), Zhejiang Benin (zhebeinine), Fritillaria prop hormone (zhebeirine) , E Tony B prime (eduardine; ebeinone), Fritillaria ketone (zhebeinone), Fritillaria oct base (peimisine), iso Zhejiang Fritillaria alkali (isoverticine), Zhejiang Fritillaria alkali oxides -N- (verticine-N-oxide ), dehydroepiandrosterone Zhejiang Fritillaria alkali oxides -N- (verticinone-N-oxide), 11- deoxy-6-oxo--5α, 6- dihydro-mustard Fen amine (11-deoxo-6-oxo-5α , 6-dihydrojervine), 12,13- epoxy -11- deoxy-6-oxo -5α, 6- dihydro -N, O- diacetyl mustard Fen amine (12,13-epoxy-11-deoxo -6-oxo-5α, 6-dihydrojervine N, O-diacetate), 3β, 17,23α- three hydroxyl oxo -N-, O (3) - diacetyl-12,13-epoxy-22s, 25s, 5α- veratridine [12,13-epoxy-22s, 25s, 5α-veratramine-3β, 17,23α-triol-6-one N, O (3) diacetate] and choline (choline) and other alkaloids, also contains Zhejiang Fritillaria alkali glycosides (peiminoside), Zhejiang Benin glycosides (zhebeininoside), Fritillaria alcohol (propeimine), β- sitosterol (β-sitosterol), carotenoids (carotene), bitter podophyllotoxins ( picrpodophyllotoxin), a variety of diterpenoids: trans - Helianthemum tocotrienols (communol), trans - Helianthemum triene methyl (communic acid methyl ester), 19- isopimaric alcohol (isopimaran-19-ol ), 19- isopimaric methyl (isopimaran-19-oic acid methylester), enantiomer -16β-17- kauri diol (ent-kauran-16β, 17-diol), enantiomer -16β, 17- ring Oxygen kauri alkyl (ent-16β, 17-epoxykaurane), enantiomer -16α--methoxy-17-kauri alcohol (ent-16α-methoxy-kauran-17-ol), enantiomer -15- kauri ene 17-ol (ent-kaur-15-en-17-ol), enantiomer -16α, 17- kauri diol (ent-kauran-16α, 17-diol) and fatty acid: rac-13-hydroxy - 9Z, ​​11E--octadecadienoic acid (coriolic acid), racemic 13-hydroxy -9Z, 11E--octadecadienoic acid (13-hydroxy-9E, 11E-octadecadienoic acid), rac -9- hydroxy -10E, 12E--octadecadienoic acid (α-dimorphecolic acid), rac-9-hydroxy -10E, 12E--octadecadienoic acid (β-dimorphecolic acid). Aerial parts contain alkaloids: Fritillaria Nepal Alkali (baimonidine), different Fritillaria Nepal Alkali (isobaimonidine), Zhejiang, Zhejiang Fritillaria Fritillaria alkali and alkaline dehydroepiandrosterone, also contains solanidine 3-O-α-L- topiramate Nom rhamnose group - (1 → 2) -β-D- glucopyranoside (solanidine-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1 → 2) -β-D-glucopyranoside) i.e. β1- check eggplant base (β1-chaconine), solanidine 3-O-α-L- rhamnopyranosyl- yl - (1 → 2) - [β-D- glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)] - β-D- glucopyranoside {solanidine-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1 → 2) - [β-D-glucopyranosyl- (1 → 4)] - β-D-glucopyranoside}, Hapaboning base 3 -O-α-L- rhamnopyranosyl group (1 → 2) -β-D- glucopyranoside [hapepunine 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1 → 2) -β-D-glucopyranoside ] and other alkaloids and glycosides zhebeiresinol (zhebeiresinol). [1] 
The treatise editor
1. "Herbal justice": as Fritillaria drawdown cold storage, but can Sanjie. "The Classic" main typhoid Fanre, leaching Lek evil; "Do not record" dead tired, hot, thirsty, sweating, all drawdown heat removal also. Hernia Zheng Jia hot junction, the Xiere relieves congestion, and it could rule. Houbi, hot knot on also. Difficulty breast milk, the milk that is Ziru means travail also, Fritillaria downhill, and can Sanjie, it spawned and rule travail. Zhen right to "resistance" that the late mother of pearl for wine service, governance and afterbirth not travail; Baosheng carefree casual one neighbor for birth insurance products elixir, there Fritillaria, Cheng Chung-age interpretation of that mother of pearl and smooth, long all of this here. And note the "Classic" are only for the next milk, Kongfei really mesh. Main gold sores, thatch down power heat also, not only can be taken orally, the drug can also be outside for infiltration. Habitat people with like Tony Michiharu yang carbuncle ulcers, swelling and fever, there are special Jie effect, also present here. Main wind spasm who bitter cold heat, drawdown Wind power is also given. "Do not record" treatment firm belly, the heart is full, all means evil blinding heat of the card, bitter vent relieves congestion, able to master it. Wash those bad cold, cold outside attack in fur, within close in the lung, lung and Sheen as Tony Qingxie can evacuate its effect known. Dizziness superior liver-yang, items straight to exogenous pathogenic wind, wind vent tongue down, Xin vent evacuation rule should also. Upper airway cough, phlegm and the invasion of the lung, bitter vent Qingjin but Jiangni function also. Like mother of pearl, bitter and cold, and then the gas containing Xinsan. You can remove heat, to drawdown, but scattered threads. People today are based Michiharu wind hot, hot, hot evil when gas is cold to win the heat, Xin energy spread evil also. Master Yu gas sputum nuclear and other evidence, although Xinsan bitter vent, open end San Yu also gave birth under the breast, and its drawdown of more than justice. As for jaundice treatment, cure ulcers, clear hypopharynx, the main spit nosebleed, treatment Tansou, through two stools, a variety of skill, nothing but heat drawdown Fourth, Gai's enough to function like the shell of all, while the passage of the River City restaurants Tony, indifferent exception, not enough to break the language here.
2. "Materia Medica is": big Zhifei carbuncle lung wilt, cough, vomiting, epistaxis, most down phlegm, stagnation good start, stop pain, eliminate puffiness, clear anger, cloudy eyes and ears, except when gas Fanre, jaundice shower closed, female blood in the stool; antipyretic drugs, kill parasites and treatment pharyngitis, scrofula, mastitis hair back, everything carbuncle swollen ulcer drug, heat malignant sore, anal fistula, bleeding sores gold, fire sores pain, compared fritillary Mother, clear drop of power, as good several times.
3. "new Materia Medica": go when feeling the wind phlegm.
4. "Checklist Supplements": detoxification Lee sputum, open Xuanfei gas, where sudden wind, fire, phlegm lung family advised this.
5. "Shandong Herbal Medicine Handbook": clearing the lungs phlegm, acid, detoxification. Colds cough, stomach pain spit acid, poison carbuncle throat.
Election party editor
① governance cold cough: Fritillaria, altogether, mulberry, almond 15 grams, 10 grams basil, decoction. ("Shandong Herbal Medicine Handbook")
② cure poison carbuncle throat: Fritillaria, forsythia 15 grams, 30 grams of honeysuckle, dandelion 40 grams, decoction. ("Shandong Herbal Medicine Handbook")
③ cure sore eighteen disease: Big Prune each to the core, load gallnut (to insects, Research) a, like Tony (to heart, and research) a. Mud wrap, simmer existence, were very fine, with added mint leaves a little late, a little borneol, porcelain receptacle. Pro blow-affected area, let it vomit phlegm. ("Gather experience" blowing jets bulk)
④ rule counterparts: like mother of pearl powder apply it. ("Yang Ya experience side") [1]
Animal and plant morphology editor
Fritillaria, perennial herb. High 50-80cm. Bulb flat spherical diameter of 1.5-4cm, the two white scales hypertrophy leaflets together components. Leaves in the bottom of the stem opposite or scattered, getting up often scattered both on students and whorled; leaf blade near the bar to lanceolate, long 7-11cm, width 1-2.5cm, apex not curl or slightly curved. Flowers 1-6 flowers, pale yellow, sometimes slightly mauve, top flowers with 3-4 pieces of leafy bracts, and the rest with 2-4cm, wide 1-1.5cm, inside and outside wheel similar markings inside the box purple mask above the base with nectary; stamens 6, about 2/5 of tepals; anthers borne near base, filaments no small papillae; stigma lobes long 1.5-2mm. Capsule oval, 6-sided, long 2-2.2cm, width 2.5cm, there are 6-8mm wide wings on the edges. Flowering from March to April, fruiting in May. [1] 
Resource distribution Editor
Distribution of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, Hunan and other places. Ningbo, Zhejiang region has a large number of cultivation. [1] 
Growth habit editor
Fritillaria thermophilic and humid, sunny environment. Root growth requires temperatures 7-25 ℃, 25 ℃ or more root growth inhibition. The average ground temperature of 6-7 ℃ when the emergence, shoot growth temperature range of 4-30 ℃, in this context, the growth rate increases with temperature, growth accelerated. Flowering optimum temperature is about 22 ℃. -3 ℃ cold when the plant, more than 30 ℃ at the top of the plant appear yellow. Bulbs in the ground temperature 10-25 ℃ when normal enlargement, when the cold and -6 ℃, sleep occurs when more than 25 ℃.
Fritillaria bulbs and seeds are dormant role. Bulbs from the ground by the blight began to enter dormancy, through natural summering to September can be lifted to sleep. Seeds were put 5-10 ℃ 2 months or can be lifted by the natural winter dormancy. Therefore, use of autumn production. Seed germination rate is generally 70% -80%. [2]
Cultivation Technical Editor
Alternatively, site preparation

Fritillaria more stringent requirements on the soil, should choose drained, humus-rich, loose and fertile, sandy loam planting soil PH5 ~ PH7 more appropriate. Avoid continuous cropping, Previous Crops to corn, soybeans as well. Before sowing, plowing deep plowing fine, per 1000 square meters was applied as basal manure 3 000 kg, 150 kg matched Shi Cake and 40 kg fertilizer, rake uniform, made 1.2 m to 1.5 m Takakuro, furrow width 25 cm ~ 30 cm, Goushen 20 cm to 25 cm, and to do four weeks drains flow.
Breeding methods

The main stem with fresh breeding, seed multiplication can also be used, but the growth years long, strong and low production less used.
(1) Bulb Reproduction: in mid-September to early October excavated natural summering species stems, selected flake cohesion tight bud full, no pests who were graded according to the size of the plant. Planting depth depends on the density and types of stem size, generally 15 cm to 20 cm spacing, line spacing 20 cm. Open shallow trench drilling, Goushen 6 cm to 8 cm, the ditch should be flat, casing 5 cm to 6 cm. With the kind of volume due to seed stem size varies, usually per 1000 square meters with the kinds of stem 500 kg to 600 kg.
(2) Seed Propagation: Seed propagation can improve propagation coefficient, but the seed nursery to form trade takes five to six years. By mid-year harvest of seeds sown in mid-September to October, such as the recent planting will greatly reduce the rate of emergence. Drilling, spaced about 6 cm, then sprinkle the seeds evenly on the dust, the thin coating of fine soil, Qimian with straw mulch to keep the soil moist. Seed per 1000 square meters with 10 kilograms to 15 kilograms.
Field management

Before (l) to timely emergence weeding weeding. After emergence with fertilizer were weeding, keep the soil loose. After the plant closure line can be hand weeding.
(2) dressing is generally 3 times, 12 and the late Prince fertilizer applied per acre Summer Ren Chufen concentrated fertilizer 2500 kilograms, applied after casing. When applied to the spring Qimiao Miaofei, sprinkling Ren Chufen 2000 kg per mu, or 15 kg of urea. In late March after a flower dressing fertilizers, seed and fertilizer and manure Miaofei similar.
(3) the growth in the late irrigation and drainage, water demand is large, such as in case of drought should be timely watering, using foam filling, immediately ruled out when the soil moist. Rainy water should be immediately removed.
(4) The term defloration hit in late March, when the lower stems of 2-3 flowers early on, choose a sunny day along with the flowers and buds together slightly removed items, topping the general 8-10 cm length.
Pest Control

(1) the occurrence of Botrytis general in early April, damage aboveground. Control methods: prior to the onset of 1: 1: 100 times Bordeaux mixture spray to prevent, remove debris, reducing the field to prevent water and humidity; spraying with 50% carbendazim 800 letter was when the disease.
(2) black spot early April of origin, especially in the rain for a long time serious damage leaves. Control methods with botrytis.
(3) dry rot during bulb generally more complex conservation, soil drought serious disease, major damage bulb base. Control methods: a robust selection of disease-free seed bulbs; intercropping reasonable period summering conservation in order to create a cool and ventilated environment; seedcane before the onset of the next species with 20% alum 1000-1500 tetradifon times soaking 10-15 minutes , or 50% prop Tianjin 300-500 times soaking 10-20 minutes.
(4) sawing angle Epicauta adult chomping blades. Control methods: artificial hunting; 90% between 1500 letter solution or 40% dimethoate emulsion 800-1500 times Pensha, it can also be 5% carbaryl dust control. Others are still grubs, wireworms, mites and other damage. [2] 
Reference material
1. Fritillaria
2. Fritillaria
Word Tags: drugs, plants, traditional Chinese medicine








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