多年生草本,高20～30(～40)cm。鳞茎长卵形。叶互生，较紧密地生于植株中部或上部1/3处,叶片窄卵形至卵状椭圆形,长2～7cm,宽1～3cm,先端不卷曲。单花顶生，浅黄色, 具红褐色斑点；外轮花被片长3.2～4.5cm,宽1.2～1.5cm,内轮花被片比外轮的稍长而宽;雄蕊6; 柱头裂片长约1mm。蒴果棱上的翅宽约1mm,缩存花被常多少包住蒴果。花期6～7月，果期8～9月。
阿坝藏族自治州。川贝母ulbus Fritillariae cirrhosae 主产于西藏南部至东部、云南西北部和四川西部。本品是商品川贝母的主要来源之一。主销华东、华南地区和部分出口。甘肃贝母Bulbus Fritillariae przewalskii 主产于甘肃南部、青海东部和南部以及四川西部地区。梭砂贝母 Bulbus Fritillariae delavayi 产于青海玉树，四川甘孜、德格等地者，色白、质实、粒匀,称白炉贝；产于昌都、四川巴塘和云南西部者，多黄色，粒大，质松，称黄炉贝,因具虎皮黄色，亦称虎皮贝，过去集散于打箭炉(今甘孜藏族自治州的康定县)，故名炉贝。主销华北。暗紫贝母Bulbus Fritillariae unibracteatae 主产于四川
(1) 镇咳作用 川贝母具有镇咳作用。采用小鼠氨水引咳法实验，组织培养川贝和野生川贝，3.0g/kg灌胃，30分钟时镇咳作用最强，止咳率大于50%，1小时后作用开始下降，直至2小时仍有显著作用；按1.5g/kg及3.0g/kg给药，止咳效果随剂量加大而增强。组织培养川贝与商品川贝具有相似的止咳化痰效果。
暗紫贝母Bulbus Fritillariae unibracteatae 是商品川贝母的主要来源，主产于四川阿坝藏族自治州。主销华东、华南地区并出口。
甘肃贝母Bulbus Fritillariae przewalskii 主产于甘肃南部、青海东部和南部以及四川西部。
梭砂贝母 Bulbus Fritillariae delavayi 产于青海玉树，四川甘孜、德格等地，色白、质实、粒匀，称白炉贝；产于昌都、四川巴塘和云南西部者，多黄色，粒大，质松，称黄炉贝，因具虎皮黄色，亦称虎皮贝，过去集散于打箭炉(今甘孜藏族自治州的康定县)，故名炉贝。主销华北。
Fritillaria is Fritillaria dark purple Fritillaria Gansu Fritillaria, Fritillaria sand dry bulb shuttle. The first three characters of different learning called respectively "Sumbe" and "Green Bay", which is commonly known as "furnace shell." Produced in Sichuan, Gansu and other places. Sumbe maximum morphological characteristics is the "arms hold on." Arms hold on characteristics: This medicine was class conical or nearly spherical outer scale leaves 2, size disparity, big hug small flap valve not hold part of the crescent-shaped, commonly known as "arms hold on." ; top closure. There are classes cylindrical, slightly pointed tip of the heart and small scale leaf buds from 1 to 2. Apex obtuse or slightly pointed, flat bottom, slightly concave into, the center has a taupe bulb plate, with occasional remnants of fibrous roots. Hard and brittle, section of white, rich pink sex. Gas micro, taste bitter.
Literary 名川贝拉丁 Name Fritillaria cirrhosa nickname Sumbe mother, Wu spent two law Fritillaria Fritillaria cirrhosa world Flora door angiosperm seed plant gate Amon Amon Gang monocots outline Lily lily Suborder suborder families Liliaceae Belong lily family subgenus Fritillaria Fritillaria Fritillaria parent group species distribution area in Sichuan, Qinghai and other places
Contents 1 record Sumbe ▪ ▪ ▪ furnace shell 2 Green Bay plant ▪ original dark purple Fritillaria Fritillaria mother ▪ ▪ ▪ ridge sand Pui Pui Gansu 3 5 6 Pharmacological identification function ▪ basic methods plucking 4 Sumbe ▪ ▪ ▪ Furnace Green Bay Tony ▪ ▪ adulterants fritillary Fritillaria Fritillary ▪ ▪ ▪ Irbesartan 7 adulterants a Fritillaria Fritillaria ▪ ▪ east grass Fritillaria market 9 8 10 recipes and sales effectiveness ▪ 11 ▪ Indications ▪ taboo classic prescription for 12 13 14 food taboos Ancient Literature
Fritillaria Liliaceae Fritillaria dark purple Fritillaria, Fritillaria Gansu, shuttle dry sand Fritillaria bulbs for traditional Chinese medicine blindly lungs and cough. The first three were different traits commonly known as "Sumbe" and "Green Bay", which is commonly known as "furnace shell." Alias fritillary are: horsefly ("Songs"), yellow horsefly ("pipe"), velvetleaf ("Seoul juvenile"), mother of pearl, empty grass ("Classic"), Tony Father, medicine solid ("Guang Ya "), bitter flowers, herbs, ground mother (" Do not record ").
Fritillaria only contained in the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", included in the product. Hongjing said: "shaped like poly Kaiko, named Fritillaria." Su Gong said: "it leaves like garlic, good harvest in April when cooked garlic ....... out Runzhou, Jingzhou, who Xiangzhou best." "Compendium of Materia Medica" with the Fritillaria fritillary clearly separated, that sweet and fill fritillary, Fritillaria is appropriate to internal injuries cough.
Distributed in the vicinity of its past four Songpan County, so called Sumbe. This product is conical in shape class or nearly spherical, high 0.3 ~ 0.8cm, diameter 0.3 ~ 0.9cm. Because such as beans, such as beads, also known as the "pearl", "ezetimibe." Surface white, outer scaly flap two big hug small flap valve not hold part of the crescent-shaped, commonly known as "arms hold on"; the cylindrical inner class, top slightly pointed heart buds or small scale leaves 1 to 2; the top is closed, slightly pointed or rounded, flat bottom, slightly concave in, the center of the bulb plate, with occasional remnants of fibrous roots, commonly known as "garlic point" or "garlic pedicle." Texture is hard and brittle, section of white, rich pink sex. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Its past distribution in the vicinity of Green Bay, said in Qingchuan County, Sichuan. This category flat spherical, high 0.4 ~ 1.4cm, diameter 0.4 ~ 1.6cm. Size and shape of the outer two lobes similar scale, relative cohesion at the top of the formation of cracks. Determined to buds and small scale leaves 2 to 3, and thin cylindrical residual stems, rounded bottom flap inside scales. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Its distribution in the furnace hence the name of the sword fight. This product is elongated conical shape, high 0.7 ~ 2.5cm, diameter 0.5 ~ 2.5cm, the largest individual Chuanbei. The appearance of white or light yellow-brown, some with brown spots, commonly known as "tiger spots." Two outer scales flap, same size, slightly pointed at the top of the gap is formed, there are small scale leaves and buds heart. Solid texture better than the two kinds of fritillary, section rough. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Original plant edit
Dark purple Fritillaria
Perennial herb, 15 to 25 cm. Perennial, high 15 ~ 25cm. Bulb spherical or conical. Stems erect, hairless, dark green or purple. In addition to the lowermost leaves for the students, but are alternate or nearly opposite, sessile; leaf blade linear or linear-lanceolate, length 3.6 ~ 6.5cm, width 3 ~ 7mm, apex acute. Flowers solitary stem tip; dark purple, slightly brown small squares, there are leafy bracts 1, tepals 6, length 2.5 ~ 2.7cm, the outer ring 3 suboblong, width 6 ~ 9mm, within Round 3 obovate-oblong, width 10 ~ 13mm, nectary nest not very obvious; stamens 6, anthers nearly basifixed, filaments sometimes densely papillose; stigma 3-lobed, lobes outreach, long 0.5 ~ 1 (~ 1.5) mm. Capsule oblong, with 6 ribs, have a width of 1mm narrower wings on edge. Flowering in June, fruiting in August.
Born in 3200 ~ 4500m of altitude meadow.
Sichuan Zoige, Xiaojin County, Nanchuan County small-scale cultivation.
Fritillary pictures (19)
Alias: leafroll Fritillaria
Perennial herb, plant morphology changes greatly. Bulb oval. Leaves usually opposite, alternate or whorled minority both in the middle,
Apex not curled or slightly curled. Flowers solitary stem top, purple, light green stripes small squares, squares striped number, also vary widely, and some flower color can be a gradual transition from purple to yellow-green, with purple markings; leaflike bracts 3, apex slightly curly; tepals 6, length 3 ~ 4cm, outer 3 width 1 ~ 1.4cm, the inner wheel 3 width of up to 1.8cm, nectary nest obvious bulge in the back; stigma lobes long 3 ~ 5mm. Capsule broadly on edge 1 ~ 1.5mm of narrow wings. Flowering from May to July, the fruit of 8 to 10 months.
Born in the forest, in thickets, meadows, flood, valleys and other wetland or crevices.
Distributed in Yunnan, Sichuan and Tibet provinces.
Alias: Min Bei
Perennial, high 20 ~ 30 (~ 45) cm. Bulbs conical. 2 lowermost stem leaves are usually opposite, upwards gradually as alternate; leaves linear, long 3.5 ~ 7.5cm, width 3 ~ 4mm, apex usually not curled. Single flower top students, dilute 2 flowers, pale yellow, with dark purple spots; leaflike bracts 1, apex slightly curly or curly; tepals 6, long 2 ~ 3cm, nectary nest obvious; stamens 6, In addition to the top of the outer filaments densely papillae; stigma lobes usually very short, long less than 1mm, rarely up to 2mm. 1mm wide with narrow wings on the capsule edge. Flowering from June to July, fruiting in August.
Born in 2800 ~ 4400m above sea level in the bushes or grass.
Distributed in Gansu, Sichuan and Qinghai provinces.
Sand edges shell
Alias: furnace shell, Deshi Fritillaria, A Pika (Tibet), Tony Snow Mountain (Yunnan).
Perennial, high 20 ~ 30 (~ 40) cm. Bulb long oval. Leaves alternate, more closely to the middle or upper part of the plant was born in 1/3, narrow blade ovate to ovate-elliptic, 2 ~ 7cm, width of 1 ~ 3cm, apex not curled. Single flower top students, pale yellow, with red-brown spots; outer tepals length 3.2 ~ 4.5cm, width 1.2 ~ 1.5cm, the inner wheel slightly longer than outer tepals and wide; stamens 6; stigma lobes ca. 1mm ʱ?? Capsule on the wing edge width 1mm, shrink wrap capsule perianth how often. Flowering from June to July, fruiting from August to September.
Born in elevation of the stream of 3000 ~ 4700m sand beach rock crevices.
Distributed in Sichuan, Yunnan, Qinghai and Tibet provinces.
Bai Fritillaria, perennial herb, high 30 ~ 50cm. Flowers yellow-green, no grid spot, tepals apex edge with purple spots, leaves off bracts not curled. Bulb flat oval or conical, diameter 0.6 ~ 1.2cm, height 4 ~ 8mm. Surface white, smooth. Outer scale leaves near two other large, top cracked, flat bottom. Bitter taste.
Have you ever seen such as large garlic Fritillaria it? It is Aba specialty medicine, it is aptly called "garlic shell" of vabres Fritillaria. The species of Fritillaria by the famous Chinese expert Tangxin Yao (formerly Department of Pharmacy, Sichuan Medical College professor) in the early 1960s found in Maoxian Wabo liangzi and named, after testing, its pharmaceutical active ingredients and Pharmacopoeia Sichuan Fritillaria other Variety is very close, and some biochemical indices significantly higher than other varieties. Then, after a long-term study researchers, wildlife domestication and cultivation test was successful, and to carry out cultivation demonstration and promotion in Maoxian and other places.
August 2009, the State Pharmacopoeia Commission experts thematic review to determine the vabres Fritillaria as a new species from the source income Fritillaria loaded into 2010 version of "pharmacopoeia."
Collect and edit
Dig seasons vary, Northwest more snow melts in the mountains after excavation; Qinghai provinces in the July general excavation; Sichuan, Yunnan and Gansu region of between about May excavation. After dug up, washed with water, wipe the skin alum; also with saline soaked dried or baked with charcoal to dry, then smoked with sulfur and then dried.
Three Snake Chuanbei fluid
Three Snake Chuanbei fluid
Dark purple Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae unibracteatae mainly produced in Sichuan Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Sichuan Fritillaria ulbus Fritillariae cirrhosae mainly produced in southern Tibet to the east, north-west of Yunnan and western Sichuan. This product is one of the main sources of merchandise Fritillaria. Kingpin East and South China, and some exports. Gansu Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae przewalskii mainly produced in southern Gansu, Qinghai, eastern and southern and western region of Sichuan. Shuttle sand Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae delavayi produced in Yushu in Qinghai, Sichuan Ganzi, Dege and other places who, color white, solid quality, uniform grain, known as white furnace shell; produced in Qamdo, Batang, Sichuan and Yunnan west, mostly yellow, grain large, quality pine, Huang said furnace shell, due to a yellow tiger, also known as the Tiger Pibei, distributed in the past Tachienlu (now Kangding County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture), named furnace shell. NORTH kingpin.
】 【Taste of cool, gamping
[Meridian] lungs, stomach
[Effect] lungs and cough and phlegm and asthma, phlegm 
1. Pear (fruit) slice, fritillary to Zacheng powder, then pour on the water boiled with Ruchuan Bei, cook 30-40 minutes just fine, the drink with pears and soup, add a little sugar or honey is best, ( Because sugar is cold in nature, honey already has the role of the lungs)
2. Red pear, red pear removed the top of the fritillary into them and then covered with rhizome 30 grams, 15 grams of dried tangerine peel and cook together, and so put together a good pear stewed pear and Fritillaria eaten together, the concoction together drunk.
3. Chuanbei take powder directly or plain water.
4. For chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma. It may precede the onset of the fritillary + Gecko + ginseng capsules prevent a powder. Good results.
5. Apples, remove the apples on top, in the heart of the apple dig up, and then put Ruchuan Bei and sugar, cooked into the water in drinking cooked together.
Fritillary mother is commonly used Chinese medicine, traditional effect is lungs, cough, phlegm, and since ancient times, only medication whichever underground bulbs. By studying modern pharmacological effects have been found new directions in clinical applications; through the study of alternatives and trace elements, to solve the lack of natural resources, expand medical source has a positive meaning.
1. The effect on the respiratory system
(1) the antitussive effect fritillary mother has antitussive effect. Ammonia induced cough method using mouse experiments, tissue culture and wild fritillary fritillary, 3.0g / kg orally, 30 minutes strongest when antitussive, cough rate is greater than 50%, one hour after the action began to decline, until two hours there is still a significant role; according to 1.5g / kg and 3.0g / kg administered antitussive effect was enhanced with increasing dose. Tissue culture and commodity fritillary Fritillaria cough and phlegm have a similar effect.
Sichuan Fritillaria total alkaloids and non-alkaloids part, orally administered, 0.25 ~ 0.5mg per mouse, have significant antitussive effect. From northwest Sichuan wild and cultivated dark purple Fritillaria Fritillaria proposed total alkaloids and saponins Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ number, sulfur dioxide induced cough method using mouse experiments, no antitussive alkaloids; Fritillaria saponin Ⅱ No. 0.2g / kg orally, can significantly prolong the incubation period of cough, antitussive effect performance.
Another scholar with pentobarbital sodium 15mg / kg sodium pentobarbital and 75mg / kg were anesthetized cat hybrid, electrical stimulation of the laryngeal nerve leads to typical and stable cough response, by intraperitoneal injection of ethanol extract of Anhui shellfish 4g / kg (crude drug), every 20 minutes according to the original conditioned stimulus. The results showed that after treatment cough cough frequency and intensity and cats are subject to different degrees of inhibition, 60 minutes to produce a significant antitussive effect, for 2 to 3 hours. Wan Pui compared with fritillary, no significant difference between the two antitussive effect; and Anhui and Zhejiang Pui Pui comparison, antitussive effect of the former is significantly better than the latter. Wan Pui it can be used as a substitute fritillary.
Fritillary orange lozenges
Fritillary orange lozenges
Experimental studies show that the expectorant effect, home-grown, wild, tissue culture of Fritillaria have significant expectorant effects. The mouse experiment phenol red excretion law, home-grown and wild fritillary mother 200% liquid extract 25ml / kg, Sichuan Fritillaria alkaloids 11.3mg / kg and Fritillaria saponin Ⅰ ~ No. Ⅲ 0.5mg / kg, are more pronounced expectorant effect, in which the role of alkaloids and saponins Ⅲ, stronger. To the mice by intraperitoneal injection 3.9g / kg group 培川贝 and wild Fritillaria agent, also has expectorant effect, one hour after administration of the role of the peak, two hours after the role of decline, according to 1.5g / kg and 3.0g / kg administered its expectorant effect was enhanced with increasing dose.
Wan Pui rats were given alcohol extract 15g / kg (crude drug) orally or total saponin 26mg / kg orally, the results showed a significant increase after administration of respiratory secretion, total saponins minimum effective amount of 12mg / kg, the maximum effective amount of 59mg / kg, an increase in this range expectorant effect with the dose increased.
2. The effect on the circulatory system
Chuanbei base has antihypertensive effect. Fritillaria alkali cat intravenous 4.2mg / kg may produce persistent drop in blood pressure accompanied by a brief respiratory depression; Sibelius base anesthetized dogs have antihypertensive effect; Fritillaria Fritillaria alkali and alkaline rather very small amount of time can make blood pressure rise. A large number of alkaloids can cause blood pressure.
3. antibacterial effect
Fritillary has some antibacterial effect. 2mg / l concentration, can inhibit E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus growth and reproduction. Sichuan Fritillaria alkaline infusion (1:25) to star in vitro inhibition Nocardia.
The side effects
(1) acute toxicity Anhui Fritillaria alcohol extract 0.12mg / kg to cats intraperitoneal injection, observation of breathing, blood pressure and ECG were no abnormal changes. Given large mice Wan Pui alcohol extract (or Wan Pui powder suspension, equivalent to 120 times the clinical amount) 12g / kg orally, observe seven days, the results of a large, all the activities as usual mouse, color, eating all in the normal range. Pui Wan mice fed alcohol extract minimum lethal dose of 40g / kg, clinical dosage of 300 times.
(2) Long-term toxicity test guinea 9, 4 rabbits, with Wan Pui alcohol extract 6g / kg gavage for 20 days, trachea, heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain, esophagus, stomach, pancreas and adrenal gland biopsy for routine, see the trachea and bronchial mucosa goblet cell hyperplasia hypertrophy, luminal secretions significantly thin, other organs showed no abnormal changes.
The basic method
Fritillary mother blindly precious Chinese herbal medicines. Medicinal only contained in the Ming Dynasty "Southern Yunnan Materia Medica," a book. Its main function is suitable for exogenous wind-heat cough, lung deficiency chronic cough, sputum little throat sickness medicine. Due to its remarkable efficacy, medicinal demand, someone to impersonate with counterfeit fritillary, and therefore we must be careful to identify its authenticity.
Sichuan Fritillaria Liliaceae perennial herb, its varieties, can be divided into Sumbe, Green Bay, furnace shell in three sizes, its medicinal properties of each differ.
Oval, uniform particle size, generally not more than one centimeter in diameter. Top a little tip, closed. Flat bottom, can erect it into place. Two outer size disparity scales, small scales was wrapped in a large heart-shaped scales, leaving a portion of the outer crescent known as the "arms hold on." The appearance of pure white, shiny. Brittle texture, foot powder.
Oblate, two outer scales similar size. An open top end, there are a few pieces of small flakes, granules more skewed, not upright into place. Appearance was pale yellowish white, loose texture Sumbe, pink.
Mostly prismatic or conical, large particles, the shape of a horse tooth shape, so-called "horse teeth mouth." Crisp, pink. Fritillaria are three gas micro, taste bitter.
(1) Arrowhead Mountain: aka Bolbostemma, grass Fritillaria, shape and Sichuan Fritillaria similar, but the base of the umbilical-like recess, bearded roots. Surface yellowish white or yellow-brown. Smooth, regardless of valve. Quality hard and difficult to break, the cross section horny. Gas faint taste very bitter and acrid. This product contains colchicine, Department of poisonous herbs, oral overdose can CNS paralysis and death. TCM more topical Metallurgical carbuncles, M. and arthritis embolism, and Fritillaria cough and phlegm, heat Sanjie different.
(2) Light Arrowhead: Yiming light Guzi, herbs conical. Apex acuminate, base rounded flat, central recess. Regardless of the flap. Particles larger than the Sumbe. Surface yellowish white or light brown, smooth. Article longitudinal groove on one side to the top. Hard and brittle. Section of white, pink, has a conical inner heart. Gas micro, tasteless.
Liliaceae Fritillaria dry bulb, also known as shell plate. This product was oblate spherical, high 0.8 ~ 2.2cm, diameter of 0.8 ~ 3.5cm, the surface of white to light brown, scaly outer flap 2, fleshy, slightly kidney-shaped, or the size of the disparity, big hug small flap flap, the top closure or cracking. Scaly leaves within 2 to 6 and shrinkage of residual stems. Base retraction was nest-like, residual light brown skin and a few fibrous roots. Outer leaves are shaped ingot univalve scale, long 2.5 ~ 3.2cm, diameter of 1.8 ~ 2cm. Crisp, white section, rich pink sex. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Liliaceae Fritillaria dry bulb. Goods more from cultivation, the main producing Northeast. This product is a spherical shape flat, shaped like abacus beads, high 0.5 ~ 1cm, diameter of 0.6 ~ 2cm. Surface white or yellowish white, scaly outer leaves two, plump hypertrophy, or a similar large size, hold each other together, the top micro level or slightly concave into, slightly cracking. Central scales small, solid quality and crisp, rich pink sex. The biggest difference is that Fritillary and fritillary Fritillaria Fritillary relatively large, flat-round, color often not white, bitter taste. Useful arabica Fritillary charge Sumbe, its diameter is only about 0.5cm, conical shape of Sumbe, but more rounded top, scale leaves two sizes also extremely poor, large hold small, but small scale leaves only was grain-like only appear in the middle, much less than the base (not like the arms of Sumbe hold Tsukigata). Bitter taste.
Xinjiang to the lily family, or Fritillaria Fritillaria dry bulb. Xinjiang Fritillaria is flat spherical, high 0.5 ~ 1.5cm. Surface white, smooth. Outer scale leaves 2, crescent-shaped, fleshy, and close to the same size. Top flat and cracking, base obtuse, there are large scale leaves and residual stems, heart bud each one. Hard and brittle, section of white, pink. This product is often mixed cropping Green Bay, attention should be identified. Fritillaria conical, large, slightly rough surface, yellowish white. Outer scale leaves heart-shaped, mast, a larger, or nearly as large, cohesion. Top a little tip, little crack, base slightly sunken.
In short, counterfeit goods and fritillary fritillary similar appearance, but their medicinal properties showed the entire block, regardless of the valve. This is to identify the authenticity of the important features of fritillary.
Common adulterants have a fritillary fritillary, Fritillaria East and grass Fritillaria, identification of key points below.
A mother of pearl
A mother of pearl
A mother of pearl
This product is oblate diameter of about 1cm. Surface white or pale yellow. Outer scale flap rounds, hypertrophy, whorled, top cracking. Central has small leaves and heart bud scales. Section of white, pink. Gas micro, bitter, poisonous.
This product is oblate, diameter of 1 ~ 2.5cm, high 1 ~ 1.5cm. Surface white, outer two scale leaves hypertrophy, involution, the central shrinkage of small scale leaves 2 to 3 and the shrinkage of the residual stems. Quality solid and brittle, easily broken, section of white, pink. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Mainly produced in Sichuan and Yunnan, namely Iphigenia bulbs, commonly known as grass Fritillaria. Fritillaria taking bad when accidents resulting in death. Corms were short conical, high 1 ~ 1.5cm, diameter of 0.8 ~ 2cm, top acuminate, the bottom was cut umbilical concave or flat. Surface yellow-white or yellow-brown, smooth; there is a side extending from the base to the top of the longitudinal groove. Quality hard, horny-like section or slightly silty, white or yellow-white, bitter and hemp, big drug.
In summary, the Green Bay Sumbe and obvious difference is that the two scales Sumbe valve size disparity and green shell of similar size; the largest individual furnace shell, elongated conical shape, color was yellow, or "tiger spots ʱ?? Fritillaria are solid mass, foot powder, white color is preferred. In addition, a mother of pearl and grass Fritillaria are toxic, should pay special attention.
Sichuan Fritillaria goods mainly from wild resources. After the founding of new China, as a national program management of species. Unified management by the Chinese medicine company, in 1985 the national guidance plan to breed, after sales by market regulation. In order to meet the medical and market needs, the use of wild resources, conducted a study variable home of wild species, but large-scale production capacity has not yet formed. Market supply relatively scarce, are unable to meet the needs of the species.
The mid-1950s, due to the Sichuan Fritillaria wild resources more rapid growth acquisitions, this period is oversupply. The early 1960s, affected by three years of natural disasters, acquisitions and sales, has declined. The mid-1960s, with the restoration and development of agriculture, sideline production, fritillary of purchase, sale growing rapidly, reaching the highest level (with an annual output of more than 300,000 kilograms, sold 300,000 kg). 1970s to the 1980s, the problem of lack of resources on the more obvious, acquisitions and sales have decreased substantially. According to the National Census of traditional Chinese medicine resources, Fritillaria wildlife reserves of about one million kilograms, are located in sparsely populated, inaccessible remote mountainous areas, excavation difficulties, coupled with strong regional home-grown, small-scale production, so it can not in the short term to meet the needs of the market.
Fritillary mother is cough and phlegm medicine, prescriptions considerable amount. In Sichuan Fritillaria as raw materials to produce more than 100 kinds of Chinese medicine, especially in the past 20 years developed CHUANBEIPIBA dew, fritillary cough syrup, liquid, etc. Sichuan Fritillaria fritillary Snake preparation, easy to take, the more popular. Fritillaria are also important export commodities, high rate of foreign exchange. With the development of medical and health sector, the pharmaceutical amount will further increase. Sichuan Fritillaria home-grown production has laid a preliminary basis, mastered a certain cultivation techniques. Therefore, the development prospects of the market better.
However, there Fritillaria production in some problems, such as: excessive excavation of wild resources, rapid reduction in resources; large planting technical difficulty, high cost, long production cycle, slow development. Therefore, the development and utilization of wildlife resources should be reasonable, to seriously implement the "Forest Law," "Grassland Law", "wild medicinal resources protection and management regulations" to strengthen the protection of wild resources sterile. In Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, Tibet and other suitable areas, to develop home-grown Sichuan Fritillaria production, technology promotion and guidance work to do, as soon as possible the formation of commodity production capacity, increase drug source, in order to adapt to the medical needs of the market.
Irbesartan female medical effects and Sichuan Fritillaria similar, in the absence of sufficient supply fritillary, irbesartan supply was also inadequate. Since the founding of the production has been developed, but production falls short sale, supply has been tight. The late 1950s to the mid-1960s, due to the impact of natural disasters, irbesartan yield is the lowest period. With the improvement of the national economy after, irbesartan purchase and sale also will increase, 1970 to acquire nearly 100,000 kilograms. Slower growth in natural resources, in order to meet market demand, the 1960s began Xinjiang wild variable home study, after Hebei, Inner Mongolia and the successful introduction changed the situation entirely dependent on wild past, but home-grown small size, slow development of production. After 1985, under price incentives, irbesartan mother mountain excavation increased personnel, acquisition of irbesartan also increased, to a certain extent, ease the market supply.
Irbesartan mother strong resistance, rapid growth, Qingfei phlegm effect is significant, with good prospects for development. But little wild resources, the existing reserves of about 1.3 million kilograms of wild; and slow the development of artificial cultivation, yield little. Therefore, to strengthen the protection of wildlife resources, while strengthening research irbesartan mother, conduct research irbesartan mother stems, leaves, flowers utilization, improve resource utilization.
Fritillaria original goods mainly from wild resources, after the success in the wild variable home-grown, production increased year by year, especially after the 1980s grew rapidly to become the main source of the goods, the market shortage situation has eased, but still tight supply varieties. Fritillaria wild resources scattered, excavation difficult. Since the 1960s, the wild success of home-grown variant rapid progress in the 1970s home-grown production has begun to take shape, the annual output of 2 to 30,000 kg, significantly increased production since the 1980s, with an annual output of 5 to 60,000 kg.
Fritillaria used in clinical medicine in the treatment of bronchitis, carbuncle and other diseases, but also for the preparation of Compound Fritillaria tablets, children bezoar Qingfei casual and other proprietary Chinese medicines, a larger amount. Fritillaria also from the stems, leaves, flowers, fruit extracts alkaloids antitussive, expectorant action for new drugs made treatment of bronchitis, the effect is good, showing a new way of comprehensive utilization. Fritillaria annual needs of about 110,000 kilograms, wildlife reserves of about 25 kg, the cultivation area of about 2,000 acres a year, showing a good development prospects.
Production and marketing editor
Dark purple Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae unibracteatae is the main source of commodities Fritillaria, mainly produced in Sichuan Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Kingpin east and south China regions and exports.
Gansu Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae przewalskii mainly produced in southern Gansu, Qinghai, eastern and southern, and western Sichuan.
Shuttle sand Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae delavayi produced in Yushu in Qinghai, Sichuan Ganzi, Dege and other places, white, real quality, uniform grain, known as white furnace shell; produced in Qamdo, Batang, Sichuan and Yunnan west, mostly yellow, tablets , quality pine, Huang said furnace shell, due to a yellow tiger, also known as the Tiger Pibei, distributed in the past Tachienlu (now Kangding County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture), named furnace shell. NORTH kingpin.
Chuanbei honey stew Sydney
CHUANBEIPIBA sugar (food)
CHUANBEIPIBA sugar (food)
Ingredients: Sydney 4, fritillary end of about 24 grams, honey appropriate.
1, Sydney wash skin, even the upper transverse pedicle, open the lid to become the next pear amputated heart, join fritillary end, honey, even pedicle Sydney cover lid sealed with a toothpick.
2, the pears into the steaming pot, simmer for about two hours with you can eat.
Note: Qiuzao season, may wish to eat in Sydney, to cough and phlegm lungs. Itchy throat as sleep, can add a little ginger stew.
Chuanbei stewed partridge
[Raw material] Partridge (700 grams), 300 grams chicken, 200 grams of lean meat, ham 30 grams, Fritillaria 12 grams, 20 grams of dried longan meat, ginger 2
[Seasoning] 3 grams of salt, chicken 2 grams, 4 grams of MSG, seasoning sauce 2 grams, 3 grams Rice Wine
Chuanbei stewed partridge
Chuanbei stewed partridge
1. First partridge hair removal, Ripper gutted, chopped chicken, lean meat cut into tablets, ham cut side grain, then with boiled water to bloodstained.
2. All the raw material is loaded poison stew, stew for about four hours.
3. All the seasonings into the stew good soup, and mix thoroughly.
4. Preparation: 10 minutes Cooking: 4 hours.
Special Note partridge when hot water temperature should not exceed 70 ℃, otherwise partridge will be peeling. This dish can play phlegm, cough, lungs effect.
Fritillary have lungs and cough and phlegm and asthma, phlegm effect, for fever cough, wind-heat cough, hot flashes cough, lung fire cough. Fritillary antitussive effect, expectorant effect, antihypertensive effect, have some antibacterial effect. 
For lung deficiency, chronic cough, coughing, hot flashes cough, cough with little phlegm, bloody sputum, lung abscess, scrofula, carbuncles, mastitis.
Spleen and stomach Deficiency and Hantan were careful service. Not with Aconitum drugs with the use.
Pesticide Residues fritillary cleaned properly:
Fritillary why cleaning up is more difficult, mainly because of its rough appearance, and the skin is thin, a wash on the break.
Therefore, many people for the easy way, simply with water rushing eat. In fact, fritillary belong herbs, plants relatively low, tender and juicy fruits, which have led to its easy attack by pests and microorganisms. Thus, the process of planting fritillary, often the use of pesticides. These pesticides, fertilizers and bacteria, etc., it is easily attached to the fritillary rough surface, if the cleaning is not clean, it might lead to diarrhea, and even pesticide poisoning.
Washed fritillary should preferably continuously rinsed with tap water, the flow of water to avoid pesticides penetrate the fruit. Wash clean and do not immediately eat fritillary, then be sure residual clean-soak for 5 minutes. The clean residue remaining on the surface can kill harmful microorganisms fritillary; residual clean water is alkaline, can promote pesticide acidic degradation. Wash fritillary, be careful not to take off 川贝蒂, stalks of fritillary if soaked in water, pesticide residues will be with water into the interior of the fruit, resulting in more pollution. Also, do not use dish detergent and other cleaning agent soak fritillary, these substances are difficult to clean, easy to remain in the fruit, causing secondary pollution.
Fritillary motherhood bitter, sweet, cool, lungs after. A cough and phlegm, heat Sanjie, lungs effect. But if it is cold cough, take Fritillaria powder as "worse" is very inappropriate. Cough cough syrup to drink fritillary, as many people experience. In fact, not all can use fritillary cough cough medicine class treatment.
Fritillaria heat lungs have, Huatanzhike effect, but the effect is good cough and placid, so compatibility in many cough medicine used in the treatment of various types of cough, but because of the different prescriptions and amount of use also differentiated. In "fritillary" named drugs are a lot more common, such as: "Chuanbei cough syrup," "Loquat Syrup," "Snake Fritillaria liquid bezoar," "Snake Chuanbei liquid", "Cough Chuanbei loquat, "" Honey Loquat refining cream "and so on. Mostly for fever cough, wind-heat cough, hot flashes cough, lung fire cough.
Simple dialectic method is to look at the color and thin thick sputum, fever is a common characteristic cough cough thick yellow sputum, and sputum thin white color of poor circulation, Xu Zheng cough and cough are not suitable, otherwise not only will not improve cough even worse, worse.
Performance cough dry mouth caused by heat, sputum less viscous and sticky, yellow, sore throat, or fever, headache and other symptoms, the choice of Fritillaria powder does have good effect. If the light thirsty mouth, throat itching, cough mainly to evening, sputum thin white person, avoid using the physician diagnosis and treatment should be promptly requested.
1, fritillary lungs and cough and phlegm and asthma, phlegm.
2, fritillary antitussive effect.
3, fritillary expectorant effect.
4, fritillary base has antihypertensive effect.
5, fritillary have some antibacterial effect.
Classic prescription Editing
1, governance Hyperactivity cough, dry throat: see the mother (to the heart) 75 grams, licorice (Sunburn) 1.5 g, almonds (soup dip, peeled, sharp, fried) 75 grams. On the shamisen, ramming Luo for the end, refining pill as large marbles. Buccal pharynx Tianjin. ("San Franciscans overall record," Fritillaria Pill)
2, was wounded storm cough: Fritillaria (peace of mind) third, Coltsfoot, ephedra (to root ganglion), almonds (soup dip, peeled sharp double kernels, fried research), 50 grams of licorice (Sunburn file ) 1.5 g. The flavors, coarse and destroyed the screen, each serving 15 grams, a cup of water, three pieces of ginger, and simmer till seven, to the dregs, warm clothes, when informal. ("San Franciscans overall record," fritillary soup)
3, after violent cough cure typhoid, Chuanji; lung want to wilt, labor cough: Fritillaria two halves (simmer make yellowish). Kikyo twelve (go Lo head), licorice twelve (Sunburn micro red, filing), Aster twelve (wash seedling soil), almond half two (soup dip, peeled sharp double kernels, bran fried yellow) ʱ?? Luo pound for the end of the drug, refining pill such as the Indus sub-major. Per serving, excluding the time to drink porridge twentieth pill; such as marbles, Mian Xiang a pill containing the pharynx also good. ("Sheng Hui forces" fritillaria pill)
4, cure cough asthma stuffy: Fritillaria (to the heart, bran fried) and a half two, licorice (Sunburn) a minute. Two flavor pound Luo powder, such as two, three years old child, every money dagger, seven water, fry a quarter, to the dregs, the bezoar little late, two minutes after eating warm clothes, but the amount of child size subtraction ʱ?? ("San Franciscans overall record," Fritillaria powder)
5, treatment of pertussis: Sichuan Fritillaria five money, before Tinglizi, yellow turmeric, Morus alba, white, aristolochic each fifth. Total rolling for a very fine and set aside. 1.5 to 3 years, every two minutes; 4 to 7 years old, every fifth; 8 to 10 years, every seven, have three times a day, warm water red, children Zhuojia sugar or honey can be. ("Jiangsu Traditional Chinese Medicine" (2): 36,1965)
6, treatment Jiusou pharynx Essentials harm, nausea, sore throat hemoptysis: Fritillaria not to much for the fine refining honey and pills, such as marbles, each serving a pill, after eating buccal, days can be three. ("Chicken peak Pu Ji Fang" Fritillaria Pill)
7, Zhifei carbuncle lung wilt: fritillary twelve, Tianzhu Huang, borax and one each in money, clams fifth (Cuchao). For the end of brushing Mizhi loquat, Aogao as pills, Gorgon large hold in the mouth pharynx. ("Medical grade" Fritillaria includes phlegm pill)
8, epistaxis treatment vomiting, or hair, or stop, are the heart of Tibetan accumulated heat due to: Fritillaria twelve (gun make yellow). As a casual pound Shiloh, excluding the time to warm slurry under two money transfer. ("Sheng Hui Fang")
9, cure depression do not stretch, mediastinoscopy is not wide: Fritillaria to the heart, ginger fried research, ginger batter pills, each pill seventy. ("Collection efficiency side")
10, lower gas phlegm, cough stagnation, digestion in addition to inflation: Fritillaria (to heart) twelve, Ginger Magnolia half. Wu Zi big pill, white soup the next 50 pills each. ("Health Miscellaneous Xing")
11, under the breast: altogether, mother of pearl, oyster, three things fine, with trotters soup tune. ("Herbal Decoction" Three female casual)
12, cure scrofula will poison: dish mother, saponins child each catty. Fine, with saponins catty file broken, rub dense water, filtered for cream child, and Yaomo, Wanru Indus child large. Each serving of wine under five, seventy pills, morning. ("Xi Relief" Fritillaria Pill)
13, rule Houbi swelling: Fritillaria, bellflower, licorice, tonkinensis, Nepeta, mint, Jiantang. ("Materia Medica Qieyao")
14, cure mastitis onset: Fritillaria end, each serving two money transfer under the warm wine, that is covered by his hands on the table, hanging milk for a long time is through. ("Jen Jai at plus)
15, cure cold tears head faint: Fritillaria one, pepper seven, to the end point of the. ("Confucian pro-door thing")
16. Treatment of Infantile goose mouth, full of white rot: Fritillaria to the heart at the end, half the money, water, a fifth, a little honey, fried three boiling, wipe the net pay, day four or five degrees.  ("Sheng Hui Fang")
Ancient literature editor
1, "Thunder Gun Sunburn theory": there are only pieces of mother of pearl group does not make those two wrinkle, Xiao Yue Deylon fine, would not join with. If ingested, it never received tendons. With Huang Jing, a small blue juice served together more established.
2, "Tang Materia Medica": mother of pearl, leaves like garlic. April harvest garlic cooked, good. If the October seedling blight, root also poor also. The Runzhou, Jingzhou, Xiangzhou best person.
Food taboos editor
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Bergamot orange wasp ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ orange citrus bitter orange tree fringed ▪ ▪ ▪ Ceylon cinnamon oil palm
▪ ▪ borneol camphor tree Coconut ▪ ▪ ▪ Sudan kola kola nut ▪ ▪ cochinchinens pink cochinchinens
Italian cypress ▪ ▪ ▪ dillenia indica quinces ▪ ▪ Low golden dillenia indica strain dillenia indica ▪ ▪ coca durian
European beech ash Li ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ONA ash linden tree Ginkgo ▪ ▪ ▪ Gnetum South Bend leaf beans
Japanese star anise anise ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Juglans regia Europe Juniperus Sabina ▪ ▪ ▪ American larch kigelia
European larch lauryl ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Yeyue Gui Jin Yuegui ▪ narrow pointed leaves privet Ligustrum ▪ ▪ ordinary Oriental sweetgum tree
Magnolia ▪ ▪ ▪ mango tea ▪ Melaleuca Melaleuca ▪ ▪ ▪ Niaouli neem
Mulberry black mulberry ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ nutmeg bean gum ▪ Europe ▪ fragrant olive olives ▪ pandanus
Italian stone pine Pinus sylvestris ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ more fruity pepper Jamaica pepper mastic tree ▪ ▪ ▪ lime Plumeria
Rosewood pomegranate ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Jamaica Suriname quassia bitter acacia wood ▪ ▪ ▪ summer white willow oak
Weeping willow yellow ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Indian sandalwood sandalwood elderberry ▪ ▪ ▪ Ocean Sassafras Ash side flower tree
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