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川貝 Fritillaria (Fritillariae Cirrhosae) Chuan Bei Mu

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川贝

 编辑
川贝为川贝母暗紫贝母甘肃贝母梭砂贝母的干燥鳞茎。前三种按性状不同分别习称为“松贝”和“青贝”,后者习称“炉贝”。产于四川、甘肃等地。松贝的最大形态特征就是“怀中抱月”。怀中抱月的特点:此药材呈类圆锥形或近球形,外层鳞叶2瓣,大小悬殊,大瓣紧抱小瓣,未抱部分呈新月形,习称“怀中抱月”;顶部闭合。内有类圆柱形、顶端稍尖的心芽和小鳞叶1~2枚。先端钝圆或稍尖,底部平,微凹入,中心有一灰褐色的鳞茎盘,偶有残存须根。质硬脆,断面白色,富粉性。气微,味微苦。
中文学名
川贝
拉丁学名
Fritillaria cirrhosa
别    称
松贝母、乌花贝母
二名法
Fritillaria cirrhosa
植物界
种子植物门
亚    门
被子植物亚门
单子叶植物纲
百合目
亚    目
百合亚目
百合科
百合族
贝母属
亚    属
贝母组
川贝母
分布区域
四川、青海等地

记载编辑

川贝川贝
川贝为百合科植物川贝母暗紫贝母甘肃贝母梭砂贝母的干燥鳞茎,为一味润肺止咳的传统中药。前三者按性状不同分别习称“松贝”和“青贝”,后者习称“炉贝”。川贝的别名有:虻(《诗经》),黄虻(《管子》),苘(《尔稚》),贝母、空草(《本经》),贝父、药实(《广雅》),苦花、苦菜、勤母(《别录》)。
贝母始载于《神农本草经》,列入中品。陶弘景曰:“形如聚贝子,故名贝母”。苏恭曰:“其叶似大蒜,四月蒜熟时采之良.......出润州、荆州、襄州者最佳”。《本草纲目拾遗》将川贝与浙贝明确分开,谓川贝味甘而补,内伤久咳以川贝为宜。

松贝

川贝
川贝 (2张)
因其过去集散于四川松潘县附近,所以称为松贝。本品外形呈类圆锥形或近球形,高0.3~0.8cm,直径0.3~0.9cm。因其如豆如珠,又称“珍珠贝”、“米贝”。表面类白色,外有鳞瓣2枚,大瓣紧抱小瓣,未抱部分呈新月形,俗称“怀中抱月”;内有类圆柱形、顶端稍尖的心芽或小鳞叶1~2枚;顶端闭合,稍尖或钝圆,底部平,微凹入,中心有鳞茎盘,偶有残存须根,习称“蒜泥点”或“蒜泥蒂”。质地坚硬且脆,断面白色,富粉性。气微,味苦。

青贝

因其过去集散于四川青川县附近故称青贝。本品类扁球形,高0.4~1.4cm,直径0.4~1.6cm。外层两枚鳞瓣大小形态相近,相对抱合,在顶端形成裂口。鳞瓣内有心芽和小鳞叶2~3枚及细圆柱形的残茎,底部钝圆。气微,味苦。

炉贝

因其集散于打剑炉故名之。本品外形呈长圆锥形,高0.7~2.5cm,直径0.5~2.5cm,在川贝中个体最大。外表类白色或浅黄棕色,有的具棕色斑点,俗称“虎皮斑”。外层两枚鳞瓣,大小相近,在顶端形成略尖的裂口,内有小鳞叶心芽。质地不如上两种川贝坚实,断面较粗糙。气微,味苦。

原植物编辑

暗紫贝母

多年生草本,高15~25厘米。多年生草本,高15~25cm。鳞茎球形或圆锥形。茎直立,无毛,绿色或暗紫色。叶除最下部为对生外,均为互生或近于对生,无柄;叶片线形或线状披针形,长3.6~6.5cm,宽3~7mm,先端急尖。花单生于茎顶;深紫色,略有黄褐色小方格,有叶状苞片1,花被片6,长2.5~2.7cm,外轮3片近长圆形,宽6~9mm,内轮3片倒卵状长圆形,宽10~13mm,蜜腺窝不很明显;雄蕊6,花药近基着,花丝有时密被小乳突;柱头3裂,裂片外展,长0.5~1(~1.5)mm。蒴果长圆形,具6棱,棱上有宽约1mm的窄翅。花期6月,果期8月。
生于海拔3200~4500m的草地上。
四川若尔盖小金县、南川等县有少量栽培。

川贝母

川贝的图片
川贝的图片 (19张)
别名:卷叶贝母
多年生草本,植物形态变化较大。鳞茎卵圆形。叶通常对生, 少数在中部兼有互生或轮生,
先端不卷曲或稍卷曲。花单生茎顶,紫红色,有浅绿色的小方格斑纹,方格斑纹的多少,也有很大变化,有的花的色泽可以从紫色逐渐过渡到淡黄绿色,具紫色斑纹;叶状苞片3,先端稍卷曲;花被片6,长3~4cm,外轮3片宽1~1.4cm,内轮3片宽可达1.8cm, 蜜腺窝在背面明显凸出;柱头裂片长3~5mm。蒴果棱上具宽1~1.5mm的窄翅。花期5~7月,果期8~10月。
生于林中、灌丛下、草地、河滩、山谷等湿地或岩缝中。
分布于云南、四川和西藏等省区。

甘肃贝

别名:岷贝
多年生草本,高20~30(~45)cm。鳞茎圆锥形。茎最下部的2片叶通常对生,向上渐为互生;叶线形,长3.5~7.5cm,宽3~4mm,先端通常不卷曲。单花顶生,稀为2花,浅黄色,有黑紫色斑点;叶状苞片1,先端稍卷曲或不卷曲;花被片6,长2~3cm,蜜腺窝不明显;雄蕊6,花丝除顶端外密被乳头状突起;柱头裂片通常很短,长不到1mm,极少达2mm。蒴果棱上具宽约1mm的窄翅。花期6~7月,果期8月。
生于海拔2800~4400m的灌木丛中或草地上。
分布于甘肃、四川和青海等省。

棱砂贝

别名:炉贝、德氏贝母、阿皮卡(西藏)、雪山贝(云南)。
多年生草本,高20~30(~40)cm。鳞茎长卵形。叶互生,较紧密地生于植株中部或上部1/3处,叶片窄卵形至卵状椭圆形,长2~7cm,宽1~3cm,先端不卷曲。单花顶生,浅黄色, 具红褐色斑点;外轮花被片长3.2~4.5cm,宽1.2~1.5cm,内轮花被片比外轮的稍长而宽;雄蕊6; 柱头裂片长约1mm。蒴果棱上的翅宽约1mm,缩存花被常多少包住蒴果。花期6~7月,果期8~9月。
生于海拔3000~4700m的流砂滩上的岩石缝隙中。
分布于四川、云南、青海和西藏等省区。
太白贝
太白贝母,多年生草本,高30~50cm。花黄绿色,无方格斑,花被片先端边缘有紫色斑带,叶关苞片不卷曲。鳞茎扁卵圆形或圆锥形,直径0.6~1.2cm,高4~8mm。表面白色,较光滑。外层两枚鳞叶近等大,顶端开裂,底部平整。味苦。
瓦布贝
你见过如大蒜般大的贝母吗?它就是阿坝州特产药材,被人们形象地称为“蒜贝”的瓦布贝母。该品种由中国著名贝母专家唐心耀(原四川医学院药学系教授)于上世纪60年代初在茂县瓦钵梁子发现并命名,经检测,其药用有效成分与药典收载的川贝母其它品种十分接近,且有的生化指标大大高于其它品种。随后,经过科研人员长期研究,野生驯化栽培试验获得成功,并在茂县等地开展栽培示范与推广。
2009年8月,国家药典委员会组织专家专题审查,确定把瓦布贝母作为川贝母的新植物种来源收载进2010年新版《药典》。

采制编辑

挖季节因地而异,西北地区多在雪融后上山采挖;青海一带一般在7月采挖;四川、云南及甘肃地区约在5月间采挖。挖出后,洗净,用矾水擦去外皮;亦有用盐水浸泡后晒干或用木炭烘焙至干,然后用硫黄熏后再晒干。

功能编辑

三蛇胆川贝液三蛇胆川贝液
暗紫贝母Bulbus Fritillariae unibracteatae 主产于四川阿坝藏族自治州。川贝母ulbus Fritillariae cirrhosae 主产于西藏南部至东部、云南西北部和四川西部。本品是商品川贝母的主要来源之一。主销华东、华南地区和部分出口。甘肃贝母Bulbus Fritillariae przewalskii 主产于甘肃南部、青海东部和南部以及四川西部地区。梭砂贝母 Bulbus Fritillariae delavayi 产于青海玉树,四川甘孜、德格等地者,色白、质实、粒匀,称白炉贝;产于昌都、四川巴塘和云南西部者,多黄色,粒大,质松,称黄炉贝,因具虎皮黄色,亦称虎皮贝,过去集散于打箭炉(今甘孜藏族自治州的康定县),故名炉贝。主销华北。
【性味】性凉,甘平
【归经】入肺经、胃经
【功效】润肺止咳化痰平喘,清热化痰[1] 
【主治】
【 用法】
1.梨(水果)切片,川贝要砸成粉末,放在水里然后倒入川贝一起煮,煮30-40分钟就好了,把梨和汤一起喝了,最好加点冰糖或者蜂蜜,(因为冰糖是凉性的,蜂蜜本来就有润肺的作用)
2.用红梨,把红梨的顶去掉把川贝放进去再盖上,配白茅根30克,陈皮15克一起煮,等梨炖好了一起把梨和川贝一起吃掉,把药汁一起喝了。
3.川贝取粉直接白开水送服。
4.对于慢性支气管炎,支气管哮喘。可以在发作之前把川贝+蛤蚧+西洋参打粉装胶囊预防。效果不错。
5.用苹果,去掉苹果顶部,在把苹果的心挖掉,然后放入川贝和冰糖,在放到水中煮熟,熟后一起饮用。

药理编辑

川贝母是常用中药,传统的功效是润肺、止咳、化痰,而且自古至今用药只取其地下鳞茎。通过现代药理作用的研究,已发现其临床应用的新方向;通过对代用品及微量元素的研究,对解决自然资源匮乏、扩大药用来源有着积极的意义。
1.对呼吸系统的作用
(1) 镇咳作用 川贝母具有镇咳作用。采用小鼠氨水引咳法实验,组织培养川贝和野生川贝,3.0g/kg灌胃,30分钟时镇咳作用最强,止咳率大于50%,1小时后作用开始下降,直至2小时仍有显著作用;按1.5g/kg及3.0g/kg给药,止咳效果随剂量加大而增强。组织培养川贝与商品川贝具有相似的止咳化痰效果。
川贝母总生物碱及非生物碱部分,经口给药,每鼠0.25~0.5mg,均有明显镇咳效果。自川西北地区野生及栽培的暗紫贝母中提出的总生物碱和贝母皂甙Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ号,采用小鼠二氧化硫引咳法实验,生物碱未见镇咳作用;贝母皂甙Ⅱ号0.2g/kg灌胃,可明显延长小鼠咳嗽的潜伏期,表现镇咳效应。
另有学者用戊巴比妥钠15mg/kg及苯巴比妥钠75mg/kg给猫混合腹腔麻醉,电刺激喉上神经引出典型而稳定的咳嗽反应,经腹腔注射皖贝的醇提物4g/kg(生药),每隔20分钟按原条件刺激。结果显示,用药后猫的咳嗽强度和咳嗽次数均受到不同程度的抑制,60分钟产生显著的镇咳作用,持续2~3小时。皖贝与川贝比较,两者镇咳作用无显著差异;而皖贝与浙贝比较,前者的镇咳作用明显优于后者。故皖贝可作川贝的代用品。
(2)
川贝橘红喉片川贝橘红喉片
祛痰作用 实验研究表明,家种、野生、组织培养的川贝均有明显的祛痰作用。采用小鼠酚红排泌法实验,家种及野生川贝母200%流浸膏25ml/kg,川贝母生物碱11.3mg/kg及贝母皂甙Ⅰ~Ⅲ号0.5mg/kg,均有较明显祛痰效果,其中以生物碱和皂甙Ⅲ号的作用较强。给小鼠腹腔注射3.9g/kg组培川贝和野生贝母水剂,也同样具有祛痰作用,给药后1小时为作用峰值,2小时后作用下降,按1.5g/kg及3.0g/kg给药,其祛痰效果随剂量加大而增强。
给予大鼠皖贝醇提物15g/kg(生药)灌胃或总甙26mg/kg口服,结果表明,给药后呼吸道分泌量显著增加,总甙最小有效量为12mg/kg,最大有效量为59mg/kg,在此范围祛痰效应随剂量的增加而增强。
2.对循环系统的作用
川贝碱具有降压作用。给猫静脉注射川贝碱4.2mg/kg可产生持久性血压下降并伴以短暂的呼吸抑制;西贝碱对麻醉犬也有降压作用;贝母碱及贝母碱宁极少量时可使血压上升。大量生物碱可致血压下降。
3.抗菌作用
川贝有一定的抗菌作用。2mg/l浓度时,能抑制大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌的生长繁殖。川贝母碱水浸剂(1∶25)在试管内对星形奴卡氏菌有抑制作用。
4.毒副作用
(1)急性毒性 皖贝母醇提物0.12mg/kg给猫腹腔注射,观察呼吸、血压及心电图均无异常改变。给予大、小鼠皖贝醇提物(或皖贝粉混悬液,相当于临床量的120倍)12g/kg灌胃,观察7天,结果大、小鼠全部活动如常,毛色、进食均在正常范围。小鼠皖贝醇提物灌胃最小致死量为40g/kg,为临床用药量的300多倍。
(2)长期毒性试验 豚鼠9只,家兔4只,用皖贝醇提物6g/kg连续灌胃20天,对气管、心、肝、肺、肾、脑、食管、胃肠、胰及肾上腺等作常规病理切片检查,见气管及支气管粘膜中杯状细胞大量增生肥大,管腔中的分泌物明显稀薄,其他脏器均未见异常变化。

鉴别编辑

基本方法

川贝母是一味名贵中药材。药用始载于明代的《滇南本草》一书。其主要功用适用于外感风热咳嗽、肺虚久咳、痰少咽燥等症的良药。由于其疗效卓著,药用需求量大,就有人用伪品来冒充川贝,因此必须认真加以识别其真伪。
川贝母为百合科多年生草本植物,其品种较多,可分为松贝青贝、炉贝三种规格,其药材性状各有所区别。

松贝

松贝松贝
呈卵圆形,颗粒大小均匀,直径一般不超过1厘米。顶端稍尖、闭口。底部平,能直立放稳。外层两鳞片大小悬殊,小鳞片被包在心脏形的大鳞片内,留一新月形部分在外俗称“怀中抱月”。外表纯白色,有光泽。质地硬脆,粉性足。

青贝

呈扁球形,外层两鳞片大小相近。顶端开口,内有小鳞片数枚,颗粒多歪斜,不能直立放稳。外表呈浅黄白色,质地较松贝疏松,粉性。

炉贝

多呈棱形或圆锥形,颗粒大,形似马牙状,故俗称“马牙嘴”。质脆、粉性。这三种贝母均气微、味微苦。

伪品川贝

山慈姑山慈姑
(1) 山慈姑:又名土贝母草贝母,外形与川贝母相似,但基部呈脐状凹入,有须根茎。表面呈黄白色或黄棕色。光滑,不分瓣。质坚硬难折,断面角质。气微弱,味极苦而辛。本品含秋水仙碱,系有毒草药,内服过量可使中枢神经麻痹而死亡。中医多外用冶痈肿、瘰和关节炎等症,与川贝母的止咳化痰,清热散结不同。
(2) 光慈姑:亦名光姑子,药材呈圆锥形。顶端渐尖,基部圆平,中央凹入。不分瓣。颗粒较松贝稍大。表面呈黄白色或浅棕色,光滑。一侧有条纵沟到顶端。质硬而脆。断面白色,粉性,内有一圆锥形心。气微,味淡。

湖北贝母

为百合科湖北贝母的干燥鳞茎,又称板贝。本品呈扁圆球形,高0.8~2.2cm,直径0.8~3.5cm,表面类白色至淡棕色,外层有鳞瓣2枚,肥厚,略呈肾形,或大小悬殊,大瓣紧抱小瓣,顶端闭合或开裂。内有鳞叶2~6枚及干缩的残茎。基部内陷呈窝状,残留有淡棕色表皮及少数须根。外层单瓣鳞叶呈元宝形,长2.5~3.2cm,直径1.8~2cm。质脆,断面类白色,富粉性。气微,味苦。

平贝

为百合科平贝母的干燥鳞茎。商品多来源于栽培,主产东北。本品外形扁球状,形如算盘珠,高0.5~1cm,直径0.6~2cm 。表面乳白色或淡黄白色,外层有鳞叶两瓣,肥厚饱满,大小相近或一片较大,互相抱合,顶端微平或微凹入,稍开裂。中央鳞片小,质坚实而脆,富粉性。平贝与川贝最大的区别在于平贝较川贝大,扁平不圆,色常不白,味苦。有用小粒平贝充松贝者,其直径仅约0.5cm,呈圆锥形,形似松贝,但顶端较圆,鳞叶两瓣大小亦极悬殊,大抱小,但小鳞叶仅呈米粒样,只在中部显现,多不到基部(不似松贝之怀中抱月形)。味苦。

伊贝

为百合科新疆贝母或伊犁贝母的干燥鳞茎。新疆贝母为扁球形,高0.5~1.5cm。表面类白色,光滑。外层鳞叶2瓣,月牙形,肥厚,大小相近而紧靠。顶端平展而开裂,基部钝圆,内有较大的鳞叶及残茎、心芽各1枚。质硬而脆,断面白色,粉性。本品常混作青贝,应注意鉴别。伊犁贝母呈圆锥形,较大,表面稍粗糙,淡黄白色。外层鳞叶心脏形,肥大,一片较大,或近等大,抱合。顶端稍尖,少有开裂,基部微凹陷。
总之,伪品川贝与川贝的外形相似,但它们的药材性状均呈整块状,不分瓣。这是识别川贝真伪之重要特征。

混伪品编辑

常见的川贝混伪品有一轮贝母、东贝母及草贝母等,鉴别要点如下。

一轮贝母

一轮贝母一轮贝母
本品呈扁球形,直径约1cm。表面类白色或淡黄色。外层鳞瓣多枚,肥厚,轮生,顶端开裂。中央有小鳞叶心芽。断面白色,粉性。气微,味苦,有毒。

东贝母

东贝母东贝母
本品呈扁球形,直径1~2.5cm,高1~1.5cm。表面类白色,外层两枚鳞叶肥厚,对合,中央有皱缩的小鳞叶2~3片及干缩的残茎。质实而脆,易折断,断面白色,粉性。气微,味苦。

草贝母

川贝散川贝散
主产于四川和云南,即丽江山慈菇的球茎,俗称为草贝母。有误当贝母服用造成死亡的事故发生。球茎呈短圆锥形,高1~1.5cm,直径0.8~2cm,顶端渐尖,底部呈脐状凹入或平截。表面黄白色或黄棕色,光滑;一侧有一处从基部伸至顶端的纵沟。质坚硬,断面角质样或略带粉质,类白色或黄白色,味苦而麻,有大毒。
综上所述,松贝青贝的明显区别在于松贝的两个鳞瓣大小悬殊而青贝的大小相近;炉贝个体最大,呈长圆锥形,色显黄白,或有“虎皮斑”。川贝均以质坚实,粉性足,色白者为佳。另外,一轮贝母及草贝母均有毒,须格外注意。

市场编辑

川贝母商品主要来源于野生资源。新中国成立后,列为国家计划管理品种。由中国药材公司统一管理,1985年改为国家指导性计划品种,以后则由市场调节产销。为了适应医疗和市场需要,在利用野生资源的同时,进行了野生变家种的研究,但尚未形成大规模的生产能力。市场供应比较紧缺,属于不能满足需求的品种。
20世纪50年代中期,由于川贝母野生资源较多,收购增长较快,这个时期是供大于求。60年代初期,受三年自然灾害的影响,收购与销售均有所下降。60年代中期,随着农、副业生产的恢复及发展,川贝的购、销迅速增长,达到历史最高水平(年产30多万千克、销30万千克)。70年代至80年代,资源缺少的问题就较为明显,收购与销售均有较大幅度下降。据全国中药资源普查统计,川贝母野生蕴藏量约100万公斤,多分布在人口稀少、交通不便的边远山区,采挖困难,加之家种区域性强,生产规模小,所以短期内还不能满足市场需要。
川贝母是止咳化痰的良药,中医处方用量相当大。以川贝母为原料生产的中成药达100种以上,尤其近20年开发的川贝枇杷露、川贝止咳糖浆、蛇胆川贝液等川贝母制剂,服用方便,比较受欢迎。川贝也是重要的出口商品,创汇率较高。随着医药卫生事业的发展,药用量必将进一步增加。家种川贝母已奠定了初步的生产基础,掌握了一定的栽培技术。因此市场的开发前景比较好。
但是,在川贝母的生产中存在着一些问题,如:野生资源过度采挖,资源迅速减少;种植技术难度较大,成本较高,生产周期长,发展缓慢。因此,对野生资源要合理开发利用,要认真执行"森林法"、"草原法"、"野生药材资源保护管理条例",加强对野生资源的护育。在四川、青海、甘肃、西藏等适宜区域,要大力发展家种川贝母生产,做好技术推广和指导工作,尽快形成商品生产能力,增加药源,以适应医疗市场需要。
伊贝母医疗作用与川贝母相近,在川贝供应不足的情况下,伊贝供应也显不足。建国以来,生产有所发展,但产不足销,供应一直紧张。20世纪50年代末至60年代中期,由于受自然灾害的影响,伊贝产量是最低的时期。之后随着国民经济的好转,伊贝购销也随之增长,1970年收购近10万千克。自然资源的增长较慢,为满足市场需求,60年代新疆开始野生变家种研究,以后河北、内蒙古引种成功,改变了过去完全依赖野生的状况,但家种面积小,生产发展缓慢。1985年后,在价格刺激下,上山采挖伊贝母的人员增多,伊贝的收购量也有所增加,在一定程度上缓和了市场供应。
伊贝母抗逆性强,生长迅速,清肺化痰效果显著,具有良好的发展前景。但野生资源少,现有野生蕴藏量约130万千克;而且人工栽培发展缓慢,产量不大。因此,在对野生资源加强保护的同时,加强伊贝母的研究工作,开展伊贝母茎、叶、花综合利用的研究,提高资源利用率。
平贝母商品原来主要来源于野生资源,在野生变家种获得成功后,产量逐年增加,特别是20世纪80年代以后增长较快,成为商品主要来源,市场紧缺状况有所缓和,但仍属供应偏紧的品种。平贝母野生资源零星分散,采挖困难。自60年代野生变家种获得成功后进展较快,70年代家种生产已初具规模,年产量在2~3万千克,80年代以后产量明显增加,年产5~6万千克。
平贝母在中医临床中用于治疗气管炎痈疮等疾病,也用于配制复方贝母片、小儿牛黄清肺散等多种中成药,用量较大。还从平贝母的茎、叶、花、果中提取出具有镇咳、化痰作用的生物碱,用以制成治疗气管炎的新药,效果良好,展示了综合利用的新途径。平贝母年需要量约11万千克,野生蕴藏量约25千克,每年栽培面积约2000亩,可见具有良好的开发前景。

产销编辑

川贝胶囊川贝胶囊
暗紫贝母Bulbus Fritillariae unibracteatae 是商品川贝母的主要来源,主产于四川阿坝藏族自治州。主销华东、华南地区并出口。
甘肃贝母Bulbus Fritillariae przewalskii 主产于甘肃南部、青海东部和南部以及四川西部。
梭砂贝母 Bulbus Fritillariae delavayi 产于青海玉树,四川甘孜、德格等地,色白、质实、粒匀,称白炉贝;产于昌都、四川巴塘和云南西部者,多黄色,粒大,质松,称黄炉贝,因具虎皮黄色,亦称虎皮贝,过去集散于打箭炉(今甘孜藏族自治州的康定县),故名炉贝。主销华北。

食谱编辑

川贝蜜糖炖雪梨
川贝枇杷糖(食物)川贝枇杷糖(食物)
主料:雪梨4个,川贝末约24克,蜜糖适量。
做 法:
1、雪梨连皮洗净,上部连蒂横切,开成为盖,梨下截去心,加入川贝末、蜜糖,盖上连蒂的雪梨盖,用牙签封好。
2、把梨放入炖盅,用中火炖约2小时即可食用。
备注: 秋燥季节,不妨多吃雪梨,能止咳化痰润肺。如觉喉咙痒,可加少许姜汁同炖。
川贝炖鹧鸪
【原材料】鹧鸪(700克)、光鸡300克、瘦肉200克、火腿30克、川贝母12克、桂圆肉20克、生姜2片
【调味料】食盐3克、鸡精2克、味精4克、浓缩鸡汁2克、花雕酒3克
【制作过程】
川贝炖鹧鸪川贝炖鹧鸪
1.先把鹧鸪脱毛,开膛去内脏,光鸡斩件,瘦肉切成粒,火腿切方粒,然后一同焯水去血污。
2.把所有原材料装入炖蛊,炖约4小时。
3.将所有调味料放入炖好的汤中,调匀即可。
4.准备:10分钟,烹饪:4小时。
【特别提示】烫鹧鸪时水温不要超过70℃,否则鹧鸪会脱皮。此菜能起到化痰、止咳、润肺的功效。

功效编辑

川贝有润肺止咳化痰平喘,清热化痰的功效,用于热症咳嗽,如风热咳嗽、燥热咳嗽、肺火咳嗽。川贝有镇咳作用、祛痰作用、有降压作用、有一定的抗菌作用。[2] 

主治

用于肺虚、久咳、虚劳咳嗽、燥热咳嗽、干咳少痰、咯痰带血、肺痈、瘰疬、痈肿、乳痈。

禁忌

脾胃胃虚寒及寒痰者慎服。不宜与乌头类药物同用。
正确清洗川贝农药残留方法:
川贝之所以清洗起来比较困难,主要是因为其外表粗糙,而且皮很薄,一洗就破。
因此,很多人为了图省事,简单地用冲冲就吃。其实,川贝属于草本植物,植株比较低矮,果实细嫩多汁,这些都导致它容易受病虫害和微生物的侵袭。因此,种植川贝的过程中,要经常使用农药。这些农药、肥料以及病菌等,很容易附着在川贝粗糙的表面上,如果清洗不干净,很可能引发腹泻,甚至农药中毒。
要把川贝洗干净,最好用自来水不断冲洗,流动的水可避免农药渗入果实中。洗干净的川贝也不要马上吃,务必再用残洁清浸泡5分钟。残洁清可以杀灭川贝表面残留的有害微生物;残洁清水呈性,可促进呈酸性的农药降解。洗川贝时,千万注意不要把川贝蒂摘掉,去蒂的川贝若放在水中浸泡,残留的农药会随水进入果实内部,造成更严重的污染。另外,也不要用洗涤灵等清洁剂浸泡川贝,这些物质很难清洗干净,容易残留在果实中,造成二次污染。
川贝母性味苦、甘、凉,入肺经。具有止咳化痰、清热散结、润肺的功效。但若是寒性咳嗽,服用川贝粉就如“雪上加霜”,是很不适宜的。咳嗽了就喝点川贝止咳糖浆,成为很多人的经验。实际上并不是所有的咳嗽都能用川贝类止咳药治疗。
川贝有清热润肺,化痰止咳的功效,而且止咳效果好且药性平和,故配伍在很多用于止咳的中成药中治疗各种类型的咳嗽,但由于组方和用量的不同,使用起来也是有所区别的。以“川贝”命名的药也很多,较为常见的如:“川贝止咳糖浆”、“川贝枇杷糖浆”、“牛黄蛇胆川贝液”、“蛇胆川贝液”、“治咳川贝枇杷露”、“蜜炼川贝枇杷膏”等。大多用于热症咳嗽,如风热咳嗽、燥热咳嗽、肺火咳嗽。
简单的辨证方法是看痰的颜色和稀稠,热症咳嗽共同特点是咳出的痰稠色黄,而痰稀色白的寒症咳嗽和虚症咳嗽则不适宜,否则的话咳嗽症状不但不会好转,甚至会雪上加霜,加重病情。
燥热所引起的咳嗽表现为口干、痰少稠黏、色黄、咽痛,或伴有发热、头痛等症状,选用川贝粉确有良效。如果口淡不渴,咽痒,以晚间咳嗽为主,痰稀白者,切忌使用,应及时请医师诊治。

作用

1、川贝润肺止咳化痰平喘,清热化痰。
2、川贝有镇咳作用。
3、川贝有祛痰作用。
4、川贝碱具有降压作用。
5、川贝有一定的抗菌作用。

经典药方编辑

1、治肺热咳嗽多痰,咽喉中干:见母(去心)75克,甘草(炙)1.5克,杏仁(汤浸去皮、尖、炒)75克。上三味,捣罗为末,炼蜜丸如弹子大。含化咽津。(《圣济总录》贝母丸)
2、治伤风暴得咳嗽:贝母(安心)三分,款冬花、麻黄(去根节)、杏仁(汤浸,去皮、尖、双仁,炒研)各50克,甘草(炙锉)1.5克。上五味,粗捣筛,每服15克,水一盏,生姜三片,煎至七分,去滓温服,不拘时。(《圣济总录》贝母汤)
3、治伤寒后暴嗽、喘急;欲成肺萎、劳嗽:贝母一两半(煨令微黄)。桔梗一两(去芦头),甘草一两(炙微赤、锉),紫菀一两(洗去苗土),杏仁半两(汤浸,去皮、尖、双仁、麸炒微黄)。上药捣罗为末,炼蜜丸如梧桐子大。每服不计时候,以粥饮下二十丸;如弹子大,绵襄一丸,含咽亦佳。(《圣惠力》贝母丸)
4、治小儿咳嗽喘闷:贝母(去心,麸炒)半两,甘草(炙)一分。上二味捣罗为散,如二、三岁儿,每一钱匕,水七分,煎至四分,去滓,入牛黄末少许,食后温分二服,更量儿大小加减。(《圣济总录》贝母散)
5、治百日咳:川贝母五钱,葶苈子、黄郁金、桑白皮、白前、马兜铃各五分。共轧为极细末,备用。1.5~3岁,每次二分;4~7岁,每次五分;8~10岁,每次七分,均一日三次,温水调冲,小儿酌加白糖或蜜糖亦可。(《江苏中医》(2):36,1965)
6、治久嗽咽嗌妨闷,咽痛咯血:贝母不以多少,为细末炼蜜和丸,如弹子大,每服一丸,食后含化,日可三服。(《鸡峰普济方》贝母丸)
7、治肺痈肺萎:川贝一两,天竺黄、硼砂各一钱,文蛤五分(醋炒)。为末,以枇杷叶刷净蜜炙,熬膏作丸,芡实大,噙咽之。(《医级》贝母括痰丸)
8、治吐血衄血,或发或止,皆心藏积热所致:贝母一两(炮令黄)。捣细罗为散,不计时候,以温浆调下二钱。(《圣惠方》)
9、治忧郁不伸,胸膈不宽:贝母去心,姜汁炒研,姜汁面糊丸,每次七十丸。(《集效方》)
10、化痰降气,止咳解郁,消食除胀:贝母(去心)一两,姜制厚朴半两。蜜丸梧子大,每白汤下五十丸。(《卫生杂兴》)
11、下乳:知母、贝母、牡蛎,三物为细末,同猪蹄汤调下。(《汤液本草》三母散)
12、治瘰疬便毒:皿母、皂角子各半斤。为细末,用皂角半斤锉碎,搓揉浓水,滤过作膏子,和药末,丸如梧桐子大。每服五、七十丸,早晨酒下。(《昔济方》贝母丸)
13、治喉痹肿胀:贝母、桔梗、甘草、山豆根、荆芥、薄荷,煎汤服。(《本草切要》)
14、治乳痈初发:贝母为末,每服二钱,温酒调下,即以两手覆按于桌上,垂乳良久乃通。(《仁斋直指加)
15、治冷泪目昏:贝母一枚,胡椒七粒,为末点之。(《儒门事亲》)
16、治小儿鹅口,满口白烂:贝母去心为末,半钱,水五分,蜜少许,煎三沸,缴净抹之,日四、五度。[3]  (《圣惠方》)

古籍文献编辑

1、《雷公炮炙论》:贝母有独颗团不作两片无皱者,号曰丹龙精,不入用。若误服,令人筋脉永不收。用黄精、小蓝汁合服立愈。
2、《唐本草》:贝母,叶似大蒜。四月蒜熟时采,良。若十月苗枯,根亦不佳也。出润州、荆州、襄州者最佳。江南诸州亦有。
3、《本草图经》:贝母,今河中、江陵府、郢、寿、随、郑、莱、润、滁州皆有之。根有瓣子,黄白色;二月生苗,茎细青色;叶亦青,似荞麦叶,随苗出。

食用禁忌编辑

脾胃虚寒及寒痰、湿痰者不宜或慎服川贝。支气管扩张、肺脓疡、肺心病、肺结核、糖尿病患者应在医师指导下服用川贝。服用期间忌食辛辣、油腻食物。

药用植物

 胶冷杉 糖枫 海红豆 猴面包树 欧洲七叶树 石栗 凹叶赤杨
 腰果 刺果番荔枝 杨梅 槟榔 砂糖椰子 波罗蜜 杨桃
 白桦坚桦木 胭脂树 香水树 爪哇橄榄 螃蟹木 番木瓜 阿勃勒
 欧洲栗 大叶栗子 栗豆树 黎巴嫩雪松 木棉 长角豆 柠檬
 香柠檬 马蜂橙 苦橙 橘椪柑 流苏树 油棕榈 锡兰肉桂
 樟树 龙脑树  可乐果 苏丹可乐果 黄牛木 粉色黄牛木
 意大利柏木 榅桲 第伦桃 金色第伦桃 低株第伦桃 榴莲 古柯
 桉树 柠檬桉 干果桉 棉芝老桉 蓝桉 加宁桉 杜仲
 欧洲山毛榉 香灰莉 菩提树 欧纳白蜡树 银杏 买麻藤 南美弯叶豆
 八角 日本大茴香 普通胡桃 欧洲刺柏 铅笔柏 腊肠树 美洲落叶松
 欧洲落叶松 月桂 窄叶月桂 金月桂 尖叶女贞 普通女贞 东方枫香树
 木兰 芒果 茶树 白千层 互叶白千层 绿花白千层 印度楝树
 铁刀木 黄玉兰 含笑花 乳油木 葫芦肉豆蔻 兰花树 辣木
 桑树 黑桑 肉豆蔻 豆胶树 欧洲橄榄 香橄榄 露兜树
 维奇露兜树 阔叶露兜树 马来亚大风子 球花豆 非洲球花豆 树酪梨 海枣
 意大利石松 欧洲赤松 牙买加胡椒 多果香椒 乳香树 鸡蛋花 酸橙
  杏仁 扁桃 野黑樱 黑刺李 苦樱桃 欧洲李
 胶杨 杨树 银白杨 花旗松 番石榴草 草莓番石榴 小叶紫檀
 紫檀 石榴 苏里南苦木 牙买加苦木 夏栎 洋槐 白柳
 垂柳 黄花柳 接骨木 檀香 印度檀香 洋擦木 槐树侧花槐树
 欧洲花楸 安息香 药用安息香 丁香 蒲桃 罗望子 浆果红豆杉
 短叶红豆杉 可可树 东方侧柏 美西侧柏 欧椴 美洲椴 宽叶椴树
 小叶椴 英国榆 加州月桂 牡荆 安古牡荆  美洲花椒
 石灰山花椒 胡椒花椒 释迦 毒鱼豆 檫木 苦楝 木蝴蝶
 侧柏 非洲李 皂荚 白桦 墨水树 黄樟

灌木

草本植物

水生植物

多肉植物

其他植物

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/view/140830.htm

Fritillary editor
Fritillaria is Fritillaria dark purple Fritillaria Gansu Fritillaria, Fritillaria sand dry bulb shuttle. The first three characters of different learning called respectively "Sumbe" and "Green Bay", which is commonly known as "furnace shell." Produced in Sichuan, Gansu and other places. Sumbe maximum morphological characteristics is the "arms hold on." Arms hold on characteristics: This medicine was class conical or nearly spherical outer scale leaves 2, size disparity, big hug small flap valve not hold part of the crescent-shaped, commonly known as "arms hold on." ; top closure. There are classes cylindrical, slightly pointed tip of the heart and small scale leaf buds from 1 to 2. Apex obtuse or slightly pointed, flat bottom, slightly concave into, the center has a taupe bulb plate, with occasional remnants of fibrous roots. Hard and brittle, section of white, rich pink sex. Gas micro, taste bitter.
Literary 名川贝拉丁 Name Fritillaria cirrhosa nickname Sumbe mother, Wu spent two law Fritillaria Fritillaria cirrhosa world Flora door angiosperm seed plant gate Amon Amon Gang monocots outline Lily lily Suborder suborder families Liliaceae Belong lily family subgenus Fritillaria Fritillaria Fritillaria parent group species distribution area in Sichuan, Qinghai and other places
Contents 1 record Sumbe ▪ ▪ ▪ furnace shell 2 Green Bay plant ▪ original dark purple Fritillaria Fritillaria mother ▪ ▪ ▪ ridge sand Pui Pui Gansu 3 5 6 Pharmacological identification function ▪ basic methods plucking 4 Sumbe ▪ ▪ ▪ Furnace Green Bay Tony ▪ ▪ adulterants fritillary Fritillaria Fritillary ▪ ▪ ▪ Irbesartan 7 adulterants a Fritillaria Fritillaria ▪ ▪ east grass Fritillaria market 9 8 10 recipes and sales effectiveness ▪ 11 ▪ Indications ▪ taboo classic prescription for 12 13 14 food taboos Ancient Literature
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Chuanbei
Chuanbei
Fritillaria Liliaceae Fritillaria dark purple Fritillaria, Fritillaria Gansu, shuttle dry sand Fritillaria bulbs for traditional Chinese medicine blindly lungs and cough. The first three were different traits commonly known as "Sumbe" and "Green Bay", which is commonly known as "furnace shell." Alias ​​fritillary are: horsefly ("Songs"), yellow horsefly ("pipe"), velvetleaf ("Seoul juvenile"), mother of pearl, empty grass ("Classic"), Tony Father, medicine solid ("Guang Ya "), bitter flowers, herbs, ground mother (" Do not record ").
Fritillaria only contained in the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", included in the product. Hongjing said: "shaped like poly Kaiko, named Fritillaria." Su Gong said: "it leaves like garlic, good harvest in April when cooked garlic ....... out Runzhou, Jingzhou, who Xiangzhou best." "Compendium of Materia Medica" with the Fritillaria fritillary clearly separated, that sweet and fill fritillary, Fritillaria is appropriate to internal injuries cough.
Sumbe

Chuanbei
Fritillary (2)
Distributed in the vicinity of its past four Songpan County, so called Sumbe. This product is conical in shape class or nearly spherical, high 0.3 ~ 0.8cm, diameter 0.3 ~ 0.9cm. Because such as beans, such as beads, also known as the "pearl", "ezetimibe." Surface white, outer scaly flap two big hug small flap valve not hold part of the crescent-shaped, commonly known as "arms hold on"; the cylindrical inner class, top slightly pointed heart buds or small scale leaves 1 to 2; the top is closed, slightly pointed or rounded, flat bottom, slightly concave in, the center of the bulb plate, with occasional remnants of fibrous roots, commonly known as "garlic point" or "garlic pedicle." Texture is hard and brittle, section of white, rich pink sex. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Green Bay

Its past distribution in the vicinity of Green Bay, said in Qingchuan County, Sichuan. This category flat spherical, high 0.4 ~ 1.4cm, diameter 0.4 ~ 1.6cm. Size and shape of the outer two lobes similar scale, relative cohesion at the top of the formation of cracks. Determined to buds and small scale leaves 2 to 3, and thin cylindrical residual stems, rounded bottom flap inside scales. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Furnace shell

Its distribution in the furnace hence the name of the sword fight. This product is elongated conical shape, high 0.7 ~ 2.5cm, diameter 0.5 ~ 2.5cm, the largest individual Chuanbei. The appearance of white or light yellow-brown, some with brown spots, commonly known as "tiger spots." Two outer scales flap, same size, slightly pointed at the top of the gap is formed, there are small scale leaves and buds heart. Solid texture better than the two kinds of fritillary, section rough. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Original plant edit
Dark purple Fritillaria

Perennial herb, 15 to 25 cm. Perennial, high 15 ~ 25cm. Bulb spherical or conical. Stems erect, hairless, dark green or purple. In addition to the lowermost leaves for the students, but are alternate or nearly opposite, sessile; leaf blade linear or linear-lanceolate, length 3.6 ~ 6.5cm, width 3 ~ 7mm, apex acute. Flowers solitary stem tip; dark purple, slightly brown small squares, there are leafy bracts 1, tepals 6, length 2.5 ~ 2.7cm, the outer ring 3 suboblong, width 6 ~ 9mm, within Round 3 obovate-oblong, width 10 ~ 13mm, nectary nest not very obvious; stamens 6, anthers nearly basifixed, filaments sometimes densely papillose; stigma 3-lobed, lobes outreach, long 0.5 ~ 1 (~ 1.5) mm. Capsule oblong, with 6 ribs, have a width of 1mm narrower wings on edge. Flowering in June, fruiting in August.
Born in 3200 ~ 4500m of altitude meadow.
Sichuan Zoige, Xiaojin County, Nanchuan County small-scale cultivation.
Sichuan Fritillaria

Fritillary pictures
Fritillary pictures (19)
Alias: leafroll Fritillaria
Perennial herb, plant morphology changes greatly. Bulb oval. Leaves usually opposite, alternate or whorled minority both in the middle,
Apex not curled or slightly curled. Flowers solitary stem top, purple, light green stripes small squares, squares striped number, also vary widely, and some flower color can be a gradual transition from purple to yellow-green, with purple markings; leaflike bracts 3, apex slightly curly; tepals 6, length 3 ~ 4cm, outer 3 width 1 ~ 1.4cm, the inner wheel 3 width of up to 1.8cm, nectary nest obvious bulge in the back; stigma lobes long 3 ~ 5mm. Capsule broadly on edge 1 ~ 1.5mm of narrow wings. Flowering from May to July, the fruit of 8 to 10 months.
Born in the forest, in thickets, meadows, flood, valleys and other wetland or crevices.
Distributed in Yunnan, Sichuan and Tibet provinces.
Gansu shellfish

Alias: Min Bei
Perennial, high 20 ~ 30 (~ 45) cm. Bulbs conical. 2 lowermost stem leaves are usually opposite, upwards gradually as alternate; leaves linear, long 3.5 ~ 7.5cm, width 3 ~ 4mm, apex usually not curled. Single flower top students, dilute 2 flowers, pale yellow, with dark purple spots; leaflike bracts 1, apex slightly curly or curly; tepals 6, long 2 ~ 3cm, nectary nest obvious; stamens 6, In addition to the top of the outer filaments densely papillae; stigma lobes usually very short, long less than 1mm, rarely up to 2mm. 1mm wide with narrow wings on the capsule edge. Flowering from June to July, fruiting in August.
Born in 2800 ~ 4400m above sea level in the bushes or grass.
Distributed in Gansu, Sichuan and Qinghai provinces.
Sand edges shell

Alias: furnace shell, Deshi Fritillaria, A Pika (Tibet), Tony Snow Mountain (Yunnan).
Perennial, high 20 ~ 30 (~ 40) cm. Bulb long oval. Leaves alternate, more closely to the middle or upper part of the plant was born in 1/3, narrow blade ovate to ovate-elliptic, 2 ~ 7cm, width of 1 ~ 3cm, apex not curled. Single flower top students, pale yellow, with red-brown spots; outer tepals length 3.2 ~ 4.5cm, width 1.2 ~ 1.5cm, the inner wheel slightly longer than outer tepals and wide; stamens 6; stigma lobes ca. 1mm ʱ?? Capsule on the wing edge width 1mm, shrink wrap capsule perianth how often. Flowering from June to July, fruiting from August to September.
Born in elevation of the stream of 3000 ~ 4700m sand beach rock crevices.
Distributed in Sichuan, Yunnan, Qinghai and Tibet provinces.
Tony Bai
Bai Fritillaria, perennial herb, high 30 ~ 50cm. Flowers yellow-green, no grid spot, tepals apex edge with purple spots, leaves off bracts not curled. Bulb flat oval or conical, diameter 0.6 ~ 1.2cm, height 4 ~ 8mm. Surface white, smooth. Outer scale leaves near two other large, top cracked, flat bottom. Bitter taste.
Wa Bubei
Have you ever seen such as large garlic Fritillaria it? It is Aba specialty medicine, it is aptly called "garlic shell" of vabres Fritillaria. The species of Fritillaria by the famous Chinese expert Tangxin Yao (formerly Department of Pharmacy, Sichuan Medical College professor) in the early 1960s found in Maoxian Wabo liangzi and named, after testing, its pharmaceutical active ingredients and Pharmacopoeia Sichuan Fritillaria other Variety is very close, and some biochemical indices significantly higher than other varieties. Then, after a long-term study researchers, wildlife domestication and cultivation test was successful, and to carry out cultivation demonstration and promotion in Maoxian and other places.
August 2009, the State Pharmacopoeia Commission experts thematic review to determine the vabres Fritillaria as a new species from the source income Fritillaria loaded into 2010 version of "pharmacopoeia."
Collect and edit
Dig seasons vary, Northwest more snow melts in the mountains after excavation; Qinghai provinces in the July general excavation; Sichuan, Yunnan and Gansu region of between about May excavation. After dug up, washed with water, wipe the skin alum; also with saline soaked dried or baked with charcoal to dry, then smoked with sulfur and then dried.
Function Editor
Three Snake Chuanbei fluid
Three Snake Chuanbei fluid
Dark purple Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae unibracteatae mainly produced in Sichuan Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Sichuan Fritillaria ulbus Fritillariae cirrhosae mainly produced in southern Tibet to the east, north-west of Yunnan and western Sichuan. This product is one of the main sources of merchandise Fritillaria. Kingpin East and South China, and some exports. Gansu Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae przewalskii mainly produced in southern Gansu, Qinghai, eastern and southern and western region of Sichuan. Shuttle sand Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae delavayi produced in Yushu in Qinghai, Sichuan Ganzi, Dege and other places who, color white, solid quality, uniform grain, known as white furnace shell; produced in Qamdo, Batang, Sichuan and Yunnan west, mostly yellow, grain large, quality pine, Huang said furnace shell, due to a yellow tiger, also known as the Tiger Pibei, distributed in the past Tachienlu (now Kangding County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture), named furnace shell. NORTH kingpin.
】 【Taste of cool, gamping
[Meridian] lungs, stomach
[Effect] lungs and cough and phlegm and asthma, phlegm [1]
[Attending]
[Usage]
1. Pear (fruit) slice, fritillary to Zacheng powder, then pour on the water boiled with Ruchuan Bei, cook 30-40 minutes just fine, the drink with pears and soup, add a little sugar or honey is best, ( Because sugar is cold in nature, honey already has the role of the lungs)
2. Red pear, red pear removed the top of the fritillary into them and then covered with rhizome 30 grams, 15 grams of dried tangerine peel and cook together, and so put together a good pear stewed pear and Fritillaria eaten together, the concoction together drunk.
3. Chuanbei take powder directly or plain water.
4. For chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma. It may precede the onset of the fritillary + Gecko + ginseng capsules prevent a powder. Good results.
5. Apples, remove the apples on top, in the heart of the apple dig up, and then put Ruchuan Bei and sugar, cooked into the water in drinking cooked together.
Pharmacological editor
Fritillary mother is commonly used Chinese medicine, traditional effect is lungs, cough, phlegm, and since ancient times, only medication whichever underground bulbs. By studying modern pharmacological effects have been found new directions in clinical applications; through the study of alternatives and trace elements, to solve the lack of natural resources, expand medical source has a positive meaning.
1. The effect on the respiratory system
(1) the antitussive effect fritillary mother has antitussive effect. Ammonia induced cough method using mouse experiments, tissue culture and wild fritillary fritillary, 3.0g / kg orally, 30 minutes strongest when antitussive, cough rate is greater than 50%, one hour after the action began to decline, until two hours there is still a significant role; according to 1.5g / kg and 3.0g / kg administered antitussive effect was enhanced with increasing dose. Tissue culture and commodity fritillary Fritillaria cough and phlegm have a similar effect.
Sichuan Fritillaria total alkaloids and non-alkaloids part, orally administered, 0.25 ~ 0.5mg per mouse, have significant antitussive effect. From northwest Sichuan wild and cultivated dark purple Fritillaria Fritillaria proposed total alkaloids and saponins Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ number, sulfur dioxide induced cough method using mouse experiments, no antitussive alkaloids; Fritillaria saponin Ⅱ No. 0.2g / kg orally, can significantly prolong the incubation period of cough, antitussive effect performance.
Another scholar with pentobarbital sodium 15mg / kg sodium pentobarbital and 75mg / kg were anesthetized cat hybrid, electrical stimulation of the laryngeal nerve leads to typical and stable cough response, by intraperitoneal injection of ethanol extract of Anhui shellfish 4g / kg (crude drug), every 20 minutes according to the original conditioned stimulus. The results showed that after treatment cough cough frequency and intensity and cats are subject to different degrees of inhibition, 60 minutes to produce a significant antitussive effect, for 2 to 3 hours. Wan Pui compared with fritillary, no significant difference between the two antitussive effect; and Anhui and Zhejiang Pui Pui comparison, antitussive effect of the former is significantly better than the latter. Wan Pui it can be used as a substitute fritillary.
(2)
Fritillary orange lozenges
Fritillary orange lozenges
Experimental studies show that the expectorant effect, home-grown, wild, tissue culture of Fritillaria have significant expectorant effects. The mouse experiment phenol red excretion law, home-grown and wild fritillary mother 200% liquid extract 25ml / kg, Sichuan Fritillaria alkaloids 11.3mg / kg and Fritillaria saponin Ⅰ ~ No. Ⅲ 0.5mg / kg, are more pronounced expectorant effect, in which the role of alkaloids and saponins Ⅲ, stronger. To the mice by intraperitoneal injection 3.9g / kg group 培川贝 and wild Fritillaria agent, also has expectorant effect, one hour after administration of the role of the peak, two hours after the role of decline, according to 1.5g / kg and 3.0g / kg administered its expectorant effect was enhanced with increasing dose.
Wan Pui rats were given alcohol extract 15g / kg (crude drug) orally or total saponin 26mg / kg orally, the results showed a significant increase after administration of respiratory secretion, total saponins minimum effective amount of 12mg / kg, the maximum effective amount of 59mg / kg, an increase in this range expectorant effect with the dose increased.
2. The effect on the circulatory system
Chuanbei base has antihypertensive effect. Fritillaria alkali cat intravenous 4.2mg / kg may produce persistent drop in blood pressure accompanied by a brief respiratory depression; Sibelius base anesthetized dogs have antihypertensive effect; Fritillaria Fritillaria alkali and alkaline rather very small amount of time can make blood pressure rise. A large number of alkaloids can cause blood pressure.
3. antibacterial effect
Fritillary has some antibacterial effect. 2mg / l concentration, can inhibit E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus growth and reproduction. Sichuan Fritillaria alkaline infusion (1:25) to star in vitro inhibition Nocardia.
The side effects
(1) acute toxicity Anhui Fritillaria alcohol extract 0.12mg / kg to cats intraperitoneal injection, observation of breathing, blood pressure and ECG were no abnormal changes. Given large mice Wan Pui alcohol extract (or Wan Pui powder suspension, equivalent to 120 times the clinical amount) 12g / kg orally, observe seven days, the results of a large, all the activities as usual mouse, color, eating all in the normal range. Pui Wan mice fed alcohol extract minimum lethal dose of 40g / kg, clinical dosage of 300 times.
(2) Long-term toxicity test guinea 9, 4 rabbits, with Wan Pui alcohol extract 6g / kg gavage for 20 days, trachea, heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain, esophagus, stomach, pancreas and adrenal gland biopsy for routine, see the trachea and bronchial mucosa goblet cell hyperplasia hypertrophy, luminal secretions significantly thin, other organs showed no abnormal changes.
Identification editor
The basic method

Fritillary mother blindly precious Chinese herbal medicines. Medicinal only contained in the Ming Dynasty "Southern Yunnan Materia Medica," a book. Its main function is suitable for exogenous wind-heat cough, lung deficiency chronic cough, sputum little throat sickness medicine. Due to its remarkable efficacy, medicinal demand, someone to impersonate with counterfeit fritillary, and therefore we must be careful to identify its authenticity.
Sichuan Fritillaria Liliaceae perennial herb, its varieties, can be divided into Sumbe, Green Bay, furnace shell in three sizes, its medicinal properties of each differ.
Sumbe

Sumbe
Sumbe
Oval, uniform particle size, generally not more than one centimeter in diameter. Top a little tip, closed. Flat bottom, can erect it into place. Two outer size disparity scales, small scales was wrapped in a large heart-shaped scales, leaving a portion of the outer crescent known as the "arms hold on." The appearance of pure white, shiny. Brittle texture, foot powder.
Green Bay

Oblate, two outer scales similar size. An open top end, there are a few pieces of small flakes, granules more skewed, not upright into place. Appearance was pale yellowish white, loose texture Sumbe, pink.
Furnace shell

Mostly prismatic or conical, large particles, the shape of a horse tooth shape, so-called "horse teeth mouth." Crisp, pink. Fritillaria are three gas micro, taste bitter.
Adulterants Chuanbei

Arrowhead Mountain
Arrowhead Mountain
(1) Arrowhead Mountain: aka Bolbostemma, grass Fritillaria, shape and Sichuan Fritillaria similar, but the base of the umbilical-like recess, bearded roots. Surface yellowish white or yellow-brown. Smooth, regardless of valve. Quality hard and difficult to break, the cross section horny. Gas faint taste very bitter and acrid. This product contains colchicine, Department of poisonous herbs, oral overdose can CNS paralysis and death. TCM more topical Metallurgical carbuncles, M. and arthritis embolism, and Fritillaria cough and phlegm, heat Sanjie different.
(2) Light Arrowhead: Yiming light Guzi, herbs conical. Apex acuminate, base rounded flat, central recess. Regardless of the flap. Particles larger than the Sumbe. Surface yellowish white or light brown, smooth. Article longitudinal groove on one side to the top. Hard and brittle. Section of white, pink, has a conical inner heart. Gas micro, tasteless.
Fritillaria

Liliaceae Fritillaria dry bulb, also known as shell plate. This product was oblate spherical, high 0.8 ~ 2.2cm, diameter of 0.8 ~ 3.5cm, the surface of white to light brown, scaly outer flap 2, fleshy, slightly kidney-shaped, or the size of the disparity, big hug small flap flap, the top closure or cracking. Scaly leaves within 2 to 6 and shrinkage of residual stems. Base retraction was nest-like, residual light brown skin and a few fibrous roots. Outer leaves are shaped ingot univalve scale, long 2.5 ~ 3.2cm, diameter of 1.8 ~ 2cm. Crisp, white section, rich pink sex. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Fritillary

Liliaceae Fritillaria dry bulb. Goods more from cultivation, the main producing Northeast. This product is a spherical shape flat, shaped like abacus beads, high 0.5 ~ 1cm, diameter of 0.6 ~ 2cm. Surface white or yellowish white, scaly outer leaves two, plump hypertrophy, or a similar large size, hold each other together, the top micro level or slightly concave into, slightly cracking. Central scales small, solid quality and crisp, rich pink sex. The biggest difference is that Fritillary and fritillary Fritillaria Fritillary relatively large, flat-round, color often not white, bitter taste. Useful arabica Fritillary charge Sumbe, its diameter is only about 0.5cm, conical shape of Sumbe, but more rounded top, scale leaves two sizes also extremely poor, large hold small, but small scale leaves only was grain-like only appear in the middle, much less than the base (not like the arms of Sumbe hold Tsukigata). Bitter taste.
Irbesartan

Xinjiang to the lily family, or Fritillaria Fritillaria dry bulb. Xinjiang Fritillaria is flat spherical, high 0.5 ~ 1.5cm. Surface white, smooth. Outer scale leaves 2, crescent-shaped, fleshy, and close to the same size. Top flat and cracking, base obtuse, there are large scale leaves and residual stems, heart bud each one. Hard and brittle, section of white, pink. This product is often mixed cropping Green Bay, attention should be identified. Fritillaria conical, large, slightly rough surface, yellowish white. Outer scale leaves heart-shaped, mast, a larger, or nearly as large, cohesion. Top a little tip, little crack, base slightly sunken.
In short, counterfeit goods and fritillary fritillary similar appearance, but their medicinal properties showed the entire block, regardless of the valve. This is to identify the authenticity of the important features of fritillary.
Adulterants editor
Common adulterants have a fritillary fritillary, Fritillaria East and grass Fritillaria, identification of key points below.
A mother of pearl

A mother of pearl
A mother of pearl
This product is oblate diameter of about 1cm. Surface white or pale yellow. Outer scale flap rounds, hypertrophy, whorled, top cracking. Central has small leaves and heart bud scales. Section of white, pink. Gas micro, bitter, poisonous.
East Fritillaria

East Fritillaria
East Fritillaria
This product is oblate, diameter of 1 ~ 2.5cm, high 1 ~ 1.5cm. Surface white, outer two scale leaves hypertrophy, involution, the central shrinkage of small scale leaves 2 to 3 and the shrinkage of the residual stems. Quality solid and brittle, easily broken, section of white, pink. Gas micro, bitter taste.
Grass Fritillaria

San Chuanbei
San Chuanbei
Mainly produced in Sichuan and Yunnan, namely Iphigenia bulbs, commonly known as grass Fritillaria. Fritillaria taking bad when accidents resulting in death. Corms were short conical, high 1 ~ 1.5cm, diameter of 0.8 ~ 2cm, top acuminate, the bottom was cut umbilical concave or flat. Surface yellow-white or yellow-brown, smooth; there is a side extending from the base to the top of the longitudinal groove. Quality hard, horny-like section or slightly silty, white or yellow-white, bitter and hemp, big drug.
In summary, the Green Bay Sumbe and obvious difference is that the two scales Sumbe valve size disparity and green shell of similar size; the largest individual furnace shell, elongated conical shape, color was yellow, or "tiger spots ʱ?? Fritillaria are solid mass, foot powder, white color is preferred. In addition, a mother of pearl and grass Fritillaria are toxic, should pay special attention.
Market Editor
Sichuan Fritillaria goods mainly from wild resources. After the founding of new China, as a national program management of species. Unified management by the Chinese medicine company, in 1985 the national guidance plan to breed, after sales by market regulation. In order to meet the medical and market needs, the use of wild resources, conducted a study variable home of wild species, but large-scale production capacity has not yet formed. Market supply relatively scarce, are unable to meet the needs of the species.
The mid-1950s, due to the Sichuan Fritillaria wild resources more rapid growth acquisitions, this period is oversupply. The early 1960s, affected by three years of natural disasters, acquisitions and sales, has declined. The mid-1960s, with the restoration and development of agriculture, sideline production, fritillary of purchase, sale growing rapidly, reaching the highest level (with an annual output of more than 300,000 kilograms, sold 300,000 kg). 1970s to the 1980s, the problem of lack of resources on the more obvious, acquisitions and sales have decreased substantially. According to the National Census of traditional Chinese medicine resources, Fritillaria wildlife reserves of about one million kilograms, are located in sparsely populated, inaccessible remote mountainous areas, excavation difficulties, coupled with strong regional home-grown, small-scale production, so it can not in the short term to meet the needs of the market.
Fritillary mother is cough and phlegm medicine, prescriptions considerable amount. In Sichuan Fritillaria as raw materials to produce more than 100 kinds of Chinese medicine, especially in the past 20 years developed CHUANBEIPIBA dew, fritillary cough syrup, liquid, etc. Sichuan Fritillaria fritillary Snake preparation, easy to take, the more popular. Fritillaria are also important export commodities, high rate of foreign exchange. With the development of medical and health sector, the pharmaceutical amount will further increase. Sichuan Fritillaria home-grown production has laid a preliminary basis, mastered a certain cultivation techniques. Therefore, the development prospects of the market better.
However, there Fritillaria production in some problems, such as: excessive excavation of wild resources, rapid reduction in resources; large planting technical difficulty, high cost, long production cycle, slow development. Therefore, the development and utilization of wildlife resources should be reasonable, to seriously implement the "Forest Law," "Grassland Law", "wild medicinal resources protection and management regulations" to strengthen the protection of wild resources sterile. In Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, Tibet and other suitable areas, to develop home-grown Sichuan Fritillaria production, technology promotion and guidance work to do, as soon as possible the formation of commodity production capacity, increase drug source, in order to adapt to the medical needs of the market.
Irbesartan female medical effects and Sichuan Fritillaria similar, in the absence of sufficient supply fritillary, irbesartan supply was also inadequate. Since the founding of the production has been developed, but production falls short sale, supply has been tight. The late 1950s to the mid-1960s, due to the impact of natural disasters, irbesartan yield is the lowest period. With the improvement of the national economy after, irbesartan purchase and sale also will increase, 1970 to acquire nearly 100,000 kilograms. Slower growth in natural resources, in order to meet market demand, the 1960s began Xinjiang wild variable home study, after Hebei, Inner Mongolia and the successful introduction changed the situation entirely dependent on wild past, but home-grown small size, slow development of production. After 1985, under price incentives, irbesartan mother mountain excavation increased personnel, acquisition of irbesartan also increased, to a certain extent, ease the market supply.
Irbesartan mother strong resistance, rapid growth, Qingfei phlegm effect is significant, with good prospects for development. But little wild resources, the existing reserves of about 1.3 million kilograms of wild; and slow the development of artificial cultivation, yield little. Therefore, to strengthen the protection of wildlife resources, while strengthening research irbesartan mother, conduct research irbesartan mother stems, leaves, flowers utilization, improve resource utilization.
Fritillaria original goods mainly from wild resources, after the success in the wild variable home-grown, production increased year by year, especially after the 1980s grew rapidly to become the main source of the goods, the market shortage situation has eased, but still tight supply varieties. Fritillaria wild resources scattered, excavation difficult. Since the 1960s, the wild success of home-grown variant rapid progress in the 1970s home-grown production has begun to take shape, the annual output of 2 to 30,000 kg, significantly increased production since the 1980s, with an annual output of 5 to 60,000 kg.
Fritillaria used in clinical medicine in the treatment of bronchitis, carbuncle and other diseases, but also for the preparation of Compound Fritillaria tablets, children bezoar Qingfei casual and other proprietary Chinese medicines, a larger amount. Fritillaria also from the stems, leaves, flowers, fruit extracts alkaloids antitussive, expectorant action for new drugs made treatment of bronchitis, the effect is good, showing a new way of comprehensive utilization. Fritillaria annual needs of about 110,000 kilograms, wildlife reserves of about 25 kg, the cultivation area of ​​about 2,000 acres a year, showing a good development prospects.
Production and marketing editor
Chuanbei Capsules
Chuanbei Capsules
Dark purple Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae unibracteatae is the main source of commodities Fritillaria, mainly produced in Sichuan Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Kingpin east and south China regions and exports.
Gansu Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae przewalskii mainly produced in southern Gansu, Qinghai, eastern and southern, and western Sichuan.
Shuttle sand Fritillaria Bulbus Fritillariae delavayi produced in Yushu in Qinghai, Sichuan Ganzi, Dege and other places, white, real quality, uniform grain, known as white furnace shell; produced in Qamdo, Batang, Sichuan and Yunnan west, mostly yellow, tablets , quality pine, Huang said furnace shell, due to a yellow tiger, also known as the Tiger Pibei, distributed in the past Tachienlu (now Kangding County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture), named furnace shell. NORTH kingpin.
Recipe Editing
Chuanbei honey stew Sydney
CHUANBEIPIBA sugar (food)
CHUANBEIPIBA sugar (food)
Ingredients: Sydney 4, fritillary end of about 24 grams, honey appropriate.
Practice:
1, Sydney wash skin, even the upper transverse pedicle, open the lid to become the next pear amputated heart, join fritillary end, honey, even pedicle Sydney cover lid sealed with a toothpick.
2, the pears into the steaming pot, simmer for about two hours with you can eat.
Note: Qiuzao season, may wish to eat in Sydney, to cough and phlegm lungs. Itchy throat as sleep, can add a little ginger stew.
Chuanbei stewed partridge
[Raw material] Partridge (700 grams), 300 grams chicken, 200 grams of lean meat, ham 30 grams, Fritillaria 12 grams, 20 grams of dried longan meat, ginger 2
[Seasoning] 3 grams of salt, chicken 2 grams, 4 grams of MSG, seasoning sauce 2 grams, 3 grams Rice Wine
【Production process】
Chuanbei stewed partridge
Chuanbei stewed partridge
1. First partridge hair removal, Ripper gutted, chopped chicken, lean meat cut into tablets, ham cut side grain, then with boiled water to bloodstained.
2. All the raw material is loaded poison stew, stew for about four hours.
3. All the seasonings into the stew good soup, and mix thoroughly.
4. Preparation: 10 minutes Cooking: 4 hours.
Special Note partridge when hot water temperature should not exceed 70 ℃, otherwise partridge will be peeling. This dish can play phlegm, cough, lungs effect.
Efficacy editor
Fritillary have lungs and cough and phlegm and asthma, phlegm effect, for fever cough, wind-heat cough, hot flashes cough, lung fire cough. Fritillary antitussive effect, expectorant effect, antihypertensive effect, have some antibacterial effect. [2] 
Indications

For lung deficiency, chronic cough, coughing, hot flashes cough, cough with little phlegm, bloody sputum, lung abscess, scrofula, carbuncles, mastitis.
Taboo

Spleen and stomach Deficiency and Hantan were careful service. Not with Aconitum drugs with the use.
Pesticide Residues fritillary cleaned properly:
Fritillary why cleaning up is more difficult, mainly because of its rough appearance, and the skin is thin, a wash on the break.
Therefore, many people for the easy way, simply with water rushing eat. In fact, fritillary belong herbs, plants relatively low, tender and juicy fruits, which have led to its easy attack by pests and microorganisms. Thus, the process of planting fritillary, often the use of pesticides. These pesticides, fertilizers and bacteria, etc., it is easily attached to the fritillary rough surface, if the cleaning is not clean, it might lead to diarrhea, and even pesticide poisoning.
Washed fritillary should preferably continuously rinsed with tap water, the flow of water to avoid pesticides penetrate the fruit. Wash clean and do not immediately eat fritillary, then be sure residual clean-soak for 5 minutes. The clean residue remaining on the surface can kill harmful microorganisms fritillary; residual clean water is alkaline, can promote pesticide acidic degradation. Wash fritillary, be careful not to take off 川贝蒂, stalks of fritillary if soaked in water, pesticide residues will be with water into the interior of the fruit, resulting in more pollution. Also, do not use dish detergent and other cleaning agent soak fritillary, these substances are difficult to clean, easy to remain in the fruit, causing secondary pollution.
Fritillary motherhood bitter, sweet, cool, lungs after. A cough and phlegm, heat Sanjie, lungs effect. But if it is cold cough, take Fritillaria powder as "worse" is very inappropriate. Cough cough syrup to drink fritillary, as many people experience. In fact, not all can use fritillary cough cough medicine class treatment.
Fritillaria heat lungs have, Huatanzhike effect, but the effect is good cough and placid, so compatibility in many cough medicine used in the treatment of various types of cough, but because of the different prescriptions and amount of use also differentiated. In "fritillary" named drugs are a lot more common, such as: "Chuanbei cough syrup," "Loquat Syrup," "Snake Fritillaria liquid bezoar," "Snake Chuanbei liquid", "Cough Chuanbei loquat, "" Honey Loquat refining cream "and so on. Mostly for fever cough, wind-heat cough, hot flashes cough, lung fire cough.
Simple dialectic method is to look at the color and thin thick sputum, fever is a common characteristic cough cough thick yellow sputum, and sputum thin white color of poor circulation, Xu Zheng cough and cough are not suitable, otherwise not only will not improve cough even worse, worse.
Performance cough dry mouth caused by heat, sputum less viscous and sticky, yellow, sore throat, or fever, headache and other symptoms, the choice of Fritillaria powder does have good effect. If the light thirsty mouth, throat itching, cough mainly to evening, sputum thin white person, avoid using the physician diagnosis and treatment should be promptly requested.
Action

1, fritillary lungs and cough and phlegm and asthma, phlegm.
2, fritillary antitussive effect.
3, fritillary expectorant effect.
4, fritillary base has antihypertensive effect.
5, fritillary have some antibacterial effect.
Classic prescription Editing
1, governance Hyperactivity cough, dry throat: see the mother (to the heart) 75 grams, licorice (Sunburn) 1.5 g, almonds (soup dip, peeled, sharp, fried) 75 grams. On the shamisen, ramming Luo for the end, refining pill as large marbles. Buccal pharynx Tianjin. ("San Franciscans overall record," Fritillaria Pill)
2, was wounded storm cough: Fritillaria (peace of mind) third, Coltsfoot, ephedra (to root ganglion), almonds (soup dip, peeled sharp double kernels, fried research), 50 grams of licorice (Sunburn file ) 1.5 g. The flavors, coarse and destroyed the screen, each serving 15 grams, a cup of water, three pieces of ginger, and simmer till seven, to the dregs, warm clothes, when informal. ("San Franciscans overall record," fritillary soup)
3, after violent cough cure typhoid, Chuanji; lung want to wilt, labor cough: Fritillaria two halves (simmer make yellowish). Kikyo twelve (go Lo head), licorice twelve (Sunburn micro red, filing), Aster twelve (wash seedling soil), almond half two (soup dip, peeled sharp double kernels, bran fried yellow) ʱ?? Luo pound for the end of the drug, refining pill such as the Indus sub-major. Per serving, excluding the time to drink porridge twentieth pill; such as marbles, Mian Xiang a pill containing the pharynx also good. ("Sheng Hui forces" fritillaria pill)
4, cure cough asthma stuffy: Fritillaria (to the heart, bran fried) and a half two, licorice (Sunburn) a minute. Two flavor pound Luo powder, such as two, three years old child, every money dagger, seven water, fry a quarter, to the dregs, the bezoar little late, two minutes after eating warm clothes, but the amount of child size subtraction ʱ?? ("San Franciscans overall record," Fritillaria powder)
5, treatment of pertussis: Sichuan Fritillaria five money, before Tinglizi, yellow turmeric, Morus alba, white, aristolochic each fifth. Total rolling for a very fine and set aside. 1.5 to 3 years, every two minutes; 4 to 7 years old, every fifth; 8 to 10 years, every seven, have three times a day, warm water red, children Zhuojia sugar or honey can be. ("Jiangsu Traditional Chinese Medicine" (2): 36,1965)
6, treatment Jiusou pharynx Essentials harm, nausea, sore throat hemoptysis: Fritillaria not to much for the fine refining honey and pills, such as marbles, each serving a pill, after eating buccal, days can be three. ("Chicken peak Pu Ji Fang" Fritillaria Pill)
7, Zhifei carbuncle lung wilt: fritillary twelve, Tianzhu Huang, borax and one each in money, clams fifth (Cuchao). For the end of brushing Mizhi loquat, Aogao as pills, Gorgon large hold in the mouth pharynx. ("Medical grade" Fritillaria includes phlegm pill)
8, epistaxis treatment vomiting, or hair, or stop, are the heart of Tibetan accumulated heat due to: Fritillaria twelve (gun make yellow). As a casual pound Shiloh, excluding the time to warm slurry under two money transfer. ("Sheng Hui Fang")
9, cure depression do not stretch, mediastinoscopy is not wide: Fritillaria to the heart, ginger fried research, ginger batter pills, each pill seventy. ("Collection efficiency side")
10, lower gas phlegm, cough stagnation, digestion in addition to inflation: Fritillaria (to heart) twelve, Ginger Magnolia half. Wu Zi big pill, white soup the next 50 pills each. ("Health Miscellaneous Xing")
11, under the breast: altogether, mother of pearl, oyster, three things fine, with trotters soup tune. ("Herbal Decoction" Three female casual)
12, cure scrofula will poison: dish mother, saponins child each catty. Fine, with saponins catty file broken, rub dense water, filtered for cream child, and Yaomo, Wanru Indus child large. Each serving of wine under five, seventy pills, morning. ("Xi Relief" Fritillaria Pill)
13, rule Houbi swelling: Fritillaria, bellflower, licorice, tonkinensis, Nepeta, mint, Jiantang. ("Materia Medica Qieyao")
14, cure mastitis onset: Fritillaria end, each serving two money transfer under the warm wine, that is covered by his hands on the table, hanging milk for a long time is through. ("Jen Jai at plus)
15, cure cold tears head faint: Fritillaria one, pepper seven, to the end point of the. ("Confucian pro-door thing")
16. Treatment of Infantile goose mouth, full of white rot: Fritillaria to the heart at the end, half the money, water, a fifth, a little honey, fried three boiling, wipe the net pay, day four or five degrees. [3] ("Sheng Hui Fang")
Ancient literature editor
1, "Thunder Gun Sunburn theory": there are only pieces of mother of pearl group does not make those two wrinkle, Xiao Yue Deylon fine, would not join with. If ingested, it never received tendons. With Huang Jing, a small blue juice served together more established.
2, "Tang Materia Medica": mother of pearl, leaves like garlic. April harvest garlic cooked, good. If the October seedling blight, root also poor also. The Runzhou, Jingzhou, Xiangzhou best person.

Food taboos editor

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