21．治远年日久 内外臁疮：山栀（烧作灰 研为细末）、乳香（另研）各半钱 轻粉少许．上再研为末 用瓷器盛贮．每用时先将葱白、花椒煎汤洗疮．稍歇 再温浆水又洗一次 候恶水去尽 再将白水煮百沸 候温再洗．但疮口脓水血丝清水各尽 又用粉帛拭干．然后敷之．如干者香油调敷 湿者干掺．但恶疮口满实软 绢帛护之．中硬不作脓者未可用．如肿软有脓者 依前法再洗 敷贴之．（《普济方》奇妙栀子散）
栀子甙（Geniposide）是稳定的，在37℃ pH1.8胃液中无变化，但在肠内溶物中可代谢成京尼平（Genipin）。羟异栀子甙（Gardenoside）对酸和热不稳定，在胃液中可转化成脱乙酰基车叶草甙酸甲酯（Deacetylasperulosidic acid metbylester，DAM）和鸡屎藤次甙甲酯（Scan-doside methylester，SSM）。在肠内溶物中DAM转化成DAM-genin，而SSM转化成SSM-genin。
3）对肝脏的影响：大鼠灌胃藏红花素50mg/kg 8天对肝脏功能无影响，但可引起急性肝脏变色。如服用高剂量100mg/kg 2周则可引起肝损害和黑变，但低剂量10mg/kg 40天并不产生上述情况，上述的肝损害和黑变是完全可逆的。因此藏红花素即使很高剂量对大鼠肝脏的毒性极小，在人服用时不可能达到如此高的剂量，所以藏红花素作为食品着色剂是十分安全的。
十二指肠给予栀子甙25mg/kg，能使幽门结扎大鼠胃液分泌减少，总酸度下降，pH值升高，作用相当于硫酸阿托品的1/5-1/10。静脉注射栀子甙和其甙元（Genipin），剂量分别为 100mg/kg与25mg/kg，能抑制大鼠自发性胃蠕动和匹罗卡品（Pilocarpine）诱发的胃收缩，但作用短暂。低浓度（1 :25，000）栀子醇提取物能兴奋大鼠、兔小肠运动，高浓度（1 :1，000）则抑制。小鼠和豚鼠离体回肠试验表明栀子甙有较弱的抗乙酰胆碱和抗组胺作用。
栀子煎剂和醇提物对麻醉或不麻醉猫、兔、大鼠，不论口服，腹腔注射或静脉注射 给药均有降压作用，其降压作用对肾上腺素升压作用及阻断颈动脉血流的加压反射均元影响。也没有加强乙酰胆碱的降压作用。给予抗组胺药如苯海拉明，对栀子的降血压作用无影响。其降压作用不是由于释放组胺所引起。静脉注射普鲁卡因也不改变栀子的降血压效果，说明其降血压作用与传入神经纤维无关。对神经节无阻断作用。当切断两侧迷走神经后，栀子的降血压作用显著减弱或完全消失，阿托品也可取消其降血压作用。故认为栀子的降血压作用部位在中枢，栀子降血压效应主要是加强了延脑副交感中枢紧张度所致。亦有报道栀子对外周阻力影响不大，离体鼠心灌流实验表明，栀子提取物能降低心肌收缩力。麻醉犬、鼠静脉注射栀子提取物500mg/kg引起的血压下降是由于心收缩容积及心输出量下降。Im 藏红花酸（藏红花素的水解产物）0.01mg/kg，能减少喂饲胆固醇兔动脉硬化的发生率。大鼠静脉注射大剂量1g/kg 的栀子甲醇提取物时，心电图可呈现心肌损伤及房室传导阻滞。但麻醉兔静脉注射栀子甙30mg/kg，对血压、心率和乙电图都无明显影响。栀子果实的热水提取物能刺激体外培养牛主动脉内皮细胞的增殖，从而使血管内膜得以修复。
去乙酰车叶草甙酸甲酯有泻下作用，小鼠的半数有效量为 0.53g/kg，服用6小时后开始腹泻。羟异栀子甙亦有导泻作用，小鼠口服的半数有效量为 1.2g/kg，服后3小时开始作用。栀子甙的导泻作用半数有效量为 300mg/kg，服药后3小时起作用。栀子甙酸的导泻作用半数有效量 >800mg/kg。
栀子醇渗漉浓缩液（300%）1次给药，腹腔注射和灌胃小鼠的半数致死量分别为17.1g/kg和107.48/kg。栀子甙（Geniposide）和栀子水提物对小鼠的急性毒性很低，前者口服、腹腔注射、静脉注射给药的半数致死量为3g/kg。水提物腹腔注射给药的半数致死量为 5g/kg。京尼平（Genipin）l次给药观察72小时，其口服、腹腔注射、静脉注射对小鼠的 半数致死量 分别为 237.190 与153mg/kg。栀子乙醇提取物小鼠灌胃的半数致死量为107.4g/kg，腹腔注射为 27.45g/kg。栀子乙醇提取物10g/kg 灌胃，连续4天，使小鼠环己烯巴比妥钠睡眠时间延长，肝脏呈灰绿色，乙醇提取物4g/kg 或去羟栀子甙 250mg/kg 灌胃，连续4天，可使大鼠肝微粒体 P-450含量和对硝基苯甲醚脱甲基酶活性降低，肝呈灰绿色。栀子骨髓微核试验、Ames试验和睾丸染色体畸变试验表明，栀子无致突变，致畸效应。
果实含环烯醚萜类成分：栀子甙（gardenoside），都桷子甙（geniposide），都桷子素龙胆双糖甙（genipin-1-gentiobioside），山栀甙（shanzhiside），栀子酮甙（gardo-side），鸡屎藤次甙甲酯（scandoside methyl ester），都桷子甙酸（geniposidic acid），去乙酰基车叶草甙酸（deacetyl asperulosidic acid），去乙酰车叶草甙酸甲酯（methyl deacetyl asperulosidate），10-乙酰基都桷子甙（10-acetylgeniposide） 6〃-对香豆酰基都桷子素龙胆双糖甙（ 6〃-p-coumaroyl genipin gentiobio-side）。又含酸类成分：绿原酸（chlorogenic acid），3,4-二-O-咖啡酰其奎宁酸（3,-4-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid），3-O-咖啡酰基-4-O-芥子酰基奎宁酸（3-O-caffeoyl-4-O-sinapoyl quinic acid），3,5-二-O-咖啡酰基-4-O-（3-羟基-3甲基）戊二酰基奎宁酸[3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-（3-hydroxy-3-methyl）glutaroyl quinic acid]，3,4-二咖啡酰基-5-（3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰基）奎宁酸[3,4-dicaffeovl-5-（3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaroyl）quinic acid]，藏红花酸（cro-cetin），藏红花素（crocin），熊果酸（ursolic acid），藏红花素葡萄糖甙（crocin glucoside）等。还含黄酮类成分：芸香甙（rutin）以及D-甘露醇（D-mannitol），β-谷甾醇（β-sitosterol），胆碱（choline），二十九烷（nonacosane），叶黄素(xanthophyll）等。
花含三萜成分：栀子花酸（gradenlic acid）A、B和栀子酸（gardenic acid）叶含栀子甙，都桷子甙，栀子醛（cerbinal），二氢茉莉酮酸甲酯（methyl dihydrojasmonate），乙酸苄檬（limonene），芳樟醇（linalool）等。
Gardenia (scientific name: Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) Alias: gardenia, Gardenia, white toad, it is Rubiaceae Gardenia fruit. Gardenia fruit is a traditional Chinese medicine, is the first batch l edible resources issued by the Ministry of Health, with liver, gallbladder, blood pressure, sedation, bleeding, swelling and so on. In clinical medicine used to treat jaundice, hepatitis, contusion, hypertension, diabetes embolism.
Chinese scientific name Latin name Gardenia Gardenia jasminoides Ellis aka yellow fruit, mountain yellow sticks, Huang Zhi, mountain gardenia, water gardenia, more peach, Dan wood, mountain Huang Zhi and other two methods Gardenia jasminoides world Flora door angiosperm Gang Dicotyledon subclass gamopetalous Asia outline madder Head Rooster Naya Ke Ke Xi grass family Ke Yake Belong gardenia gardenia gardenia species distribution area in Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Fujian and Sichuan. The main origin of Yueyang City, Hunan Province, Tanghe County, Henan Province, the English name Cape Jasmine
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 cultivation techniques for the distribution of breeding methods ▪ ▪ field management ▪ pest control ▪ potted varieties classified 5 6 primary value ▪ ▪ ancient dye chemical constituents of medicinal value 7 8 Plant Culture
Morphological characteristics editor
Gardenia shrubs, 0.3-3 m high; often short-haired twigs, branches cylindrical, gray. Leaves opposite, leathery, thin as paper, small whorls of three, leaf variety, usually oblong-lanceolate, obovate-oblong, obovate or elliptic, 3-25 cm long, wide 1.5-8 cm, apex acuminate, suddenly long or short acuminate
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
Sharp and blunt, base wedge or short tip, both sides often without hair, bright green above, the following color darker; lateral veins 8-15 pairs, raised below, in the flat above; petiole 0.2-1 cm; stipules film quality.
Fragrant flowers, usually born in the top branches single flower, pedicels 3-5 mm long; calyx tube inverted conical or ovate, 8-25 mm long, with longitudinal edges, tubular calyx eaves, swelling, cracking the top 5-8, usually 6-lobed, lobes lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 10-30 mm long, 1-4 mm wide, results growth, persistent; corolla white or cream, salverform, throat sparsely soft hair, crown tube narrowly cylindrical, 3-5 cm long, 4-6 mm wide, the top 5-8 lobed, usually 6-lobed, lobes wide exhibition, obovate or ovate-oblong, 1.5-4 cm, 0.6 to 2.8 cm wide; filaments very short, anthers linear, 1.5-2.2 cm long, stretched out; style thick, about 4.5 cm, stigma spindle, extended, 1-1.5 cm long, 3-7 mm wide, Ovary diameter of about 3 mm, yellow, smooth.
Fruit oval, nearly spherical, oval or oblong, yellow or orange-red, 1.5-7 cm long, 1.2-2 cm in diameter, have wing-like vertical ribs 5-9, persistent sepals up to 4 cm top , 6 mm wide; seeds numerous, flat, nearly circular and slightly angular, about 3.5 mm and a width of 3 mm. Flowering from March to July, the fruit of May to next February. 
Growth habit editor
I like the warm and humid climate, good sun but can not withstand strong sunlight, suitable for growing in loose, fertile, well-drained, acidic soils light viscosity, strong anti-harmful gases, sprouting ability, resistance to cutting. Is a typical acidic flowers.
Produced in Shandong, Henan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan, Hebei, Shaanxi and Gansu have cultivated, which Tanghe County, Henan Province Gardenia "National Geographic logo certification of origin", the country's largest production base of gardenia, there are "Chinese gardenia town" reputation . Born in elevation wilderness 10-1500 meters, hills, valleys, hills, stream or forest thickets. Foreign distribution in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Pacific Islands and North America, wild or cultivated. 
Cultivation Technical Editor
Spring and autumn sowing points in spring as well. In late February to early February (beginning of spring to rain). Choose plump, dark red fruit, dig out the seeds scattered in the water rub, sinking fish seed, dry to the water; then mix with fine soil or plant ash, drilling in the furrow, covered with fine soil, then covering straw; straw removed after germination, regular weeding, such as seedlings too dense, uniform seedlings should continue to maintain spacing 10-13cm. Seedling cultivation of 1--2 years, more than 30 cm high, can be planted.
Cutting of autumn in late September to late 1O months, in mid-February to late spring. Clipping growth 2--3 years branches, champagne and cut into 17-20cm cuttings section. Slightly tilted when inserted, the top left section above the ground. It can be transplanted after about a year.
2 - March planting, by spacing 1.2-2m, make the diameter of 50cm, 30cm deep lair, and 10kg and fine soil with compost as basal mix. Zaimiao one per hole.
While there are several propagation methods gardenia, but the most simple and efficient water floating interpolation method, first find a piece of foam board, and punched up the gardenia then semi branches cut, inserted into the hole in the foam board, then the foam board into the bucket filled with water, place the pail on both let drift board cuttings shade, while still allowing sunlight bucket of environment, the water temperature controlled at between 18 ℃ -25 ℃, gardenia one week that is able to grow 3 cm above the root. This method gardenia cuttings, the survival rate was 100%.
Seedling shall always weeding, watering, keep the seedbed moist, pale human waste to fertilize better. After planting, in the early spring and summer each weeding, cultivation, fertilization 1, and obstruct the proper soil.
Gardenia is acidic soils indicator plants, so the soil slightly acidic environment, are key determinants of growth gardenia good or bad. Slightly acidic soil cultivation applications sandy soil laterite 7 percent, 3 percent quality leaf mold mixture. The soil pH is controlled between 4.0-6.5 is appropriate.
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia optimum growth temperature is 16 ℃ -18 ℃. Low temperatures and direct sunlight are extremely detrimental to their growth, so the summer should be placed in a well-ventilated gardenia, air humidity and light transmittance of woodland or shade shed under conservation. See the sun in the winter, the temperature not lower than 0 ℃ environment, allowed to sleep, temperature will affect the coming year flowering.
Gardenia hi humid air, growing season to increase the amount of watering. Typically Pentu white watering can, once drenched. Hot summer day shall foliar spray 2 -3 times, in order to increase air humidity, helping to cool the plants. But the flower bud, watering should not be too much, so as not to cause bud drop. Winter watering in dry side as well, to prevent water from large rot.
Gardenia is like fertilizer plants, in order to meet its growing demand for fertilizer, but also to keep the soil slightly acidic environment, can advance to ferrous sulfate fertilizer mix in the fermentation broth. After entering the growing season in April, the dressing once every half (fertilization best against some more water to prevent burning flowers). This will not only meet the demand for fertilizer gardenia, but also to keep the soil slightly acidic environment in a relatively balanced environment, to prevent yellowing disease, while avoiding the assault ferrous sulfate supplement local peracid gardenia damage.
Nursery, the first deep about 33cm, remove gravel and grass-roots, re-building plot, plot height 17cm, width 1.3m. Breaking clods, raking, mu Fertilizers 2000kg. Then press row spacing 27cm, digging width 7cm, 3cm deep lateral grooves to be planted.
Pot with soil to 40 percent garden soil, 15% sand, 30% of the manure soil, 15% humus formulated appropriate. Gardenia seedling pay attention to watering, keep the basin moist, thin manure handling facilities composting. Watering with rainwater or fermented rice water as well. Growing as every l0-15 days pouring 1 0.2% aqueous ferrous sulfate or alum fertilizer (both may alternate use) to prevent soil turn into alkaline, while at the same soil iron supplements to prevent gardenia leaf yellow. Summer, gardenia flower to the morning and evening in the foliar spray water once a day to increase cut air humidity, promote shiny foliage. 
Gardenia potted, flowering in August only after pouring water, control water volume. October moved indoors before dew, sunny place home. Strict control of watering in winter, but can often spray the foliage with water. 5 year - July gardenia growing period will stop when the plants were pruned to remove the tops, promote branching sprouted, so that future plant type beauty, blossom. Gardenia more cuttings and layering method for breeding, can also be used ramets and sow law breed, but rarely used.
Cuttings can be inserted into the spring and autumn interpolation. Spring inserted in the mid to late February; Autumn inserted in late September to late October. Cuttings selected photo 2--3 years branches, cut into 10-12 cm piece, leaving the top two leaves, each cut in half, and then ramp into slotting in the soil surface, leaving only one, pay attention to shade and keep the certain humidity, usually a month can take root, one year after the transplant. Southern also interpolated using water breeding, is about cuttings inserted in the disc with a woven reed stalk and let it float in the water, its lower root in water, then transplanted cultivation.
Layering can be around April Qingming or rainy seasons. Option three students on the mother plant annuals robust branches, which pulled to ground, nicks buried on the site of the branches, such as acetic acid can be dipped in the case of 200ppm powder nicks site, then covered with soil compaction, easier to take root. Usually after a month can be separated from the mother plant roots, to the spring of the second year and then transplanting with soil. 
Gardenia major diseases are leaf spot, anthracnose, sooty, root rot, yellow disease, etc., in the room, the disease can occur throughout the year, serious plant leaves, fallen fruit or dead. Or the occurrence of the disease occurred in the early days of the administration of multi-Yin Ling, retired Principal bacteria can effectively control the disease.
Gardenia yellow leaves often prone to yellowing disease, yellow disease caused by a variety of reasons, it shall adopt
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
Take different measures to control. Quefei cause yellowing disease: This disease began yellowing old leaves from the lower portion of the plant, and gradually spread to new leaves.
1, potassium: old leaves from green to brown. 
2, P deficiency: old leaves were purple or dark red. Unite the above cases, forced human waste composting facilities or cake fertilizer. Iron deficiency causes yellowing disease: This yellow disease, and in the new leaves, pale yellow at the beginning of the blades or white, veins still green, serious vein also yellow or white, dry leaves will eventually die. This situation can be sprayed 0.2% -0.5% ferrous sulfate solution for control. 
3, magnesium deficiency causes yellowing disease: This disease caused by yellowing of old leaves began to develop new leaves, veins continued to show a green, severe leaf fall and die. This situation can be sprayed 0.7% -0.8% boron and magnesium fertilizer control. Watering too much, cold, etc., can also cause yellow leaves phenomenon, so pay special attention in the conservation process. Gardenia poor indoor air in winter and temperature and humidity is too high, prone to scale insect damage, and accompanied by sooty mold occurs. On the scale insects, scraping bamboo available, it can also be used on the 20th oil emulsion plus 200 times water spraying. Of sooty mold, available water scrubbing, or carbendazim 1000 times spray control. 
4, nitrogen deficiency: a simple yellow leaves, new leaves small and brittle. 
Generally, there are two, one is referred bran, another is blowing cotton referrals. Sooty mold is caused by bacteria scale insect excrement. Both belong scale insects are sucking pests. Insect dorsal surface with a layer of wax, generic drugs can not penetrate, available imidacloprid class or spray conditioner kill. Once a week, usually 2-3 times to kill completely. Black sooty mold is a fungal infection, spray any drug will not fall off, it must be scrubbed before resolved.
Species classification editor
Gardenia smell fragrant, always loved by the people, but gardenia shape dull, monotonous shape, although the flavor is commendable, but not on the hall. Therefore, in ancient times, growers have been working hard, orientation training, had bred many petals variants. Such as the common:
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
G. jasminoides G. J.var.grandifloraNakai.
Egg leaves gardenia G. J.var.ovalifoliaNakai.
Angustifolia gardenia G. J.var.angustifoliaNakai.
Variegated gardenia G. J.var.aureo-variegataNakai. 
Since oriented cultivation of flower, the gardenia has put into "medicinal Gardenia" and "gardenia flowers", and that the original univalve wild gardenia as a "medicinal Gardenia", usually used as medicine for its fruit; and artificial gardenia petals cultivated then as "gardenia flowers", in fact, only as flowers gardenia, Gardenia is generally not a result of this, while the results of its fruits do not medicinal.
This species is widely distributed, growth etc. be some variation in different environments, so that habit, leaf shape and size, fruit shape and size. Its variation can be divided into two types: one is usually referred to as "Shanzhizi" fruit oval or nearly spherical, small; the other is usually referred to as "water gardenia", oval or oblong fruit larger. Allegedly former suitable for the pharmaceutical, the latter suitable for the dyes. Some scholars also based on variation of their leaves, flowers, fruits and so forth, as a number of variant or variants.
The main value edit
Gardenia is the most widely used before the Qin and Han yellow dye, gardenia gardenia fruit contains one substance Flavin, there are factors such as saffron, a substance used for dyeing yellow saffron acid. "Han Official Instrument" in mind are:. "Dye garden of Gardenia, Akane, for dyed royal dress," indicating that the most senior stained clothing gardenia. Ancient acidic to control the depth of dyed yellow gardenia, enriching yellow, increase the amount of dye in vinegar. With gardenia infusion directly into the bright yellow dyed fabric, simple process, yellow dyeing chemicals unearthed Mawangdui Han is stained with gardenia obtained. But dyed yellow gardenia resistant to the sun's energy is poor, and therefore dyed yellow and was substituted after the Song from Huaihua section.
Because of its importance, Sima Qian in "Records of the Historian. Merchant Biography "with" acres Gardenia, Qian, thousands plot ginger leek; this everyone with its thousand Hou and other "records.
Dyeing method: fresh gardenia fruit, crush soaked three hours, filtered, you can take the dye. Dried gardenia fruit, into the hot water soak overnight, after the soaked fruit peel or crush, add fire boiling, boil and cook for 30 minutes continuously, turn off, take the first dye filter; reusable decoction taken 3 to 4 times a dye.
Heat, purging fire, cooling. Virtual trouble, insomnia cure fever, jaundice, gonorrhea, diabetes, red eyes, sore throat, vomiting, epistaxis, bloody diarrhea, hematuria, heat canker sores, sprains swelling
Gardenia by "The sketches by": gardenia, now the South and West Sichuan gun everyone.
1. Cure typhoid fever sweating, vomiting, later, the imaginary trouble can not sleep, heart regret NONG: Gardenia fourteen (sectional), fragrant soy Snap (cotton wrap). On two ignorant to four liters of water, boiled gardenia get two liters and a half, satisfied soy, Zhuqu one liter and a half, to the dregs, is divided into two. Into a warm clothes, get spit back checking service. ("Treatise on" gardenia soy soup) 
2. Treatment of typhoid recover from illness after illness by workers re: citrus aurantium three (Sunburn), Gardenia fourteen (sectional), soy one liter (cotton wrap). On the shamisen, to clear Whey seven liters, empty Zhuqu four liters. Within citrus aurantium, gardenia, Zhuqu two liters, under soy, more cook five or six boiling, to the dregs, warm clothes points again, cover so slightly like sweat. If Sushi persons, a large piece Huang Rubo five six. ("Treatise on" citrus aurantium gardenia soy soup) 
3. Treatment of typhoid fever yellow body: fat Gardenia fifteen (sectional), licorice twelve (Sunburn), Cork twenty-two. On the shamisen, four liters of water, one liter Zhuqu gardenia and a half, to the dregs, sub-temperature and then serve. ("Treatise on" Gardenia Baipi soup) 
4. Heat treatment of jaundice: Gardenia four money, JGC, Hypericum each twelve. Decoction, served three times daily. ("Guangxi Chinese herbal medicine") 
5. Treatment of urinary shower, discredited, fresh gardenia twenty-two, sugar twelve. Decoction. ("Fujian Materia Medica") 
6. Governance urination: gardenia benevolence twenty-seven, a little Yanhua, a single pieces of garlic. The mash, spread paper flowers posted navel, or coated on the scrotum, namely long pass. ("Universal Relief") 
7. Treatment of acute gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea: Gardenia three money, plate column south Gomi (purple skin) roots five money, green wood two money. Drug Chaohei existence, plus five money honey. Decoction, second service. ("Unilateral prescription survey Selected") 
8. Cure mouth sores, throat pain and Cyprus, food must not: Daqing forty-two, mountain gardenia, Cork each twelve, Baimi catty. Upper cut to three liters of water, Jianqu one liter, to the dregs, fried twelve more under boiling honey containing it. ("Universal Relief" Gardenia soup)
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
9. Governance red eyes: Take Gardenia seven gold, drill into the 煻 gray fire simmer cooked, half a liter of water, simmer till eight together, to the dregs, into the rhubarb at the end of three money dagger, stir, spin-spin after eating warm clothes. ("San Franciscans overall record," Gardenia soup) 
10. Fire treatment epigastric pain, mountain gardenia seven or nine, Chaojiao, a water, fried seven, into the ginger juice drink. ("Dan compile") 
11. Governance nose Nvxue: Shanzhizi burning ash blowing it. ("Easy side theory") 
12. Wind Zhifei nose red wine: Laoshan Gardenia for the end of yellow wax and aliquots dissolved. For the pill large marbles. Hollow tea, wine chew down. Avoid alcohol, Sunburn Bo. ("Competent party") 
13. Governance red white diarrhea and bloody diarrhea: Shanzhizi Jen forty-seven. Filing for Whey one liter and a half, five co-fry, to the dregs. Hollow warm two minutes before eating. ("San Franciscans overall record," Gardenia Ren Tang) 
14. Thermal treatment of edema: mountain gardenia 25 grams, 7 grams woody, Atractylodes 12 grams. Fine cut, decoction. ("Danxi Heart") 
Fifteen. Governance woman sub-swollen wet and more: fried Shanzhizi a joint. To the end, rice drink to swallow, or pill clothing. ("Danxi Heart") 
16. Governance off injured throat: gardenia, with the pound flour, Tu. ("Set near Lake Jane Fang") 
17. Fire treatment erysipelas: gardenia, pound and water to apply it. ("Anthony set prescription") 
18. No cure sore from the fire: gardenia benevolence ash, sesame oil and letters, but thick better. ("Qian Jin Fang") 
19. Cure sore throat: Gardenia, dandelion, honeysuckle all four money. Decoction, served three times daily. Another student honeysuckle vine amount, smashed, wrap the affected area. ("Guangxi Chinese herbal medicine")
20. Burn treatment: gardenia end and sweep of concentrated chicken clear. ("Emergency party"). 
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
twenty one. Governance boils away in the course of time inside and outside: Gardenia (burning ash as research to fine), frankincense (another study) half the money a little light powder. On another research for the end filled with porcelain receptacle. Each used when the first light blue, pepper decoction to wash sores. Whey they receded again warm water to wash the evil waiting to do one hundred boiling boiled and then waiting for warm white wash. But sores and pus bloodshot eyes water all the best with pink silk drying. Then apply it. Such as dry by sesame oil dressing wet from dry mixed. But malignant sore mouth full of real soft Silk care of. Medium hard without pus is not available. As there is pus swollen soft wash applicator in accordance with the law before. ("Universal Relief" Wonderful Gardenia bulk) 
twenty two. Governance chancre sores: Gardenia 一枚 go Rang late alum batter hekou fire load saved for the end. Wash the dry-doped. ("Miraculous remedy" Gardenia bulk) 
Geniposide (Geniposide) is stable, unchanged at 37 ℃ pH1.8 gastric juice, but dissolve in the intestine can be metabolized substance genipin (Genipin). Hydroxyl iso Geniposide (Gardenoside) acid and heat labile, in the gastric juice can be converted into deacetylase Asperuloside methyl (Deacetylasperulosidic acid metbylester, DAM) and Paederia times methyl glucoside (Scan-doside methylester, SSM). DAM was dissolved in the intestines converted DAM-genin, while SSM converted SSM-genin.
1. Effects on liver function
① The SD rats were divided into four groups; A was the control group; group B as normal animals, with 2g crude drug extract orally; group C bile duct ligation, causing hyperbilirubinemia animals; D group hyperbilirubinemia animals, and fed with gardenia extract 2g crude drugs. Experimental liver protein Y, Z protein, BSP clearance, bilirubin and related enzyme assay determination. 
Experimental results show:
1) Gardenia extract had no effect on serum alkaline phosphatase and vitality liver homogenates of animals caused by bile duct ligation alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity increased nearly 2-fold. However, there is no effect on the extract of Gardenia elevated enzyme activity. 
2) Gardenia extract minimal impact on rat serum and intrahepatic lactate dehydrogenase, the enzyme activity of 4 fluctuations animal groups were within the normal range. 
3) Gardenia extract had no effect on normal animal serum GOT. After bile duct ligation, 7-fold increase in serum GOT, gardenia extract can significantly reduce elevated enzyme up to 40%. GOT intrahepatic more stable, four groups of animals were not significantly changed. 
4) Gardenia extract the enzyme activity without affecting normal animals, but the animals can make the common bile duct ligation elevated enzyme activity returned to normal, gardenia extract can be considered a GT UDP does not increase vitality. 
5) Determination of urea glycoside liver diphosphate - glucose dehydrogenase showed bile duct ligation can be reduced enzyme activity, gardenia extract can increase enzyme activity in normal animals, but also can reduce the elevated enzyme activity. 
6) gardenia extract can increase the normal animal protein Y, Z amount of protein, but can not be reduced due to the bile duct ligation of protein Y, Z to increase the amount of protein. Show gardenia role of the anti-hyperbilirubinemia Y protein, protein Z little relationship. 
7) After the animals were dosed intravenously BSP (2g / 100g of body weight) were measured in the blood and bile BSP clearance, we found the time to reach the peak has a corresponding extension indicates that the liver is discharged from the BSP by the arrest process. 
8) gardenia can reduce serum bilirubin content, but with glucuronic acyl transferase-independent. It follows that Gardenia extract was non-toxic effect on the liver cells, gardenia extract can reduce levels of serum bilirubin levels, but the jaundice mechanism is more complex, it does not increase the UDP-GT vigor, nor increase the liver Y protein and the protein, but also not as tarragon, endocrine increase the amount of bile. 
② liver protective effect
1) ICR of rats in advance (24 or 48 hours ago) to at Gardenia extract prevented because galactosamine induced fulminant hepatitis. 
2) to rats in isothiocyanates a- naphthylisothiocyanate 50mg / kg, can increase serum bilirubin and serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase, such as daily for at Gardenia Sub crude extract (1.5g / kg, orally, three days) allows because serum bilirubin isothiocyanate a- naphthylisothiocyanate poisoned rats, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase decreased. Gardenia extract component Geniposide also have this effect. 
3) the impact on the liver: Rats were Crocetin 50mg / kg 8 on days liver function was not affected, but can cause acute liver discoloration. As high doses of 100mg / kg 2 周 can cause liver damage and black patina, but the low dose 10mg / kg 40 天 does not produce the above-mentioned case, the liver damage and black variations are completely reversible. Therefore, even at very high doses crocin on rat liver toxicity is extremely small, can not be achieved when people take such a high dose, so the prime saffron as a food coloring agent is very safe. 
2. Effects on bile secretion
Rats, rabbits proved, gardenia with gallbladder role. Its alcohol extract and Gardenia glycosides, crocin etc. can increase bile secretion. Rat oral, intravenous or duodenal give to Geniposide 25mg / kg caused increased secretion of bile to the duodenum administration most significant, several with potency dehydrogenase cholate quite. 
3. Impact of gastric secretion and gastrointestinal motility
Duodenum give Geniposide 25mg / kg, make the pylorus-ligated rats reduction of gastric secretion, decreased total acidity, pH value increased, the role of atropine sulfate equivalent to 1 / 5-1 / 10. Intravenous Geniposide and its aglycone (Genipin), doses of 100mg / kg and 25mg / kg, can inhibit the rat gastric motility and spontaneity pilocarpine (Pilocarpine) induced gastric contractions, but the effect is short. Low concentrations (1: 25,000) Gardenia alcohol extract can be excited rat, rabbit intestinal motility, high concentrations (1: 1,000) is suppressed. Mouse and guinea pig ileum in vitro tests showed Geniposide have weak anti-acetylcholine and anti-histamine effect. 
4. Promote the role of the pancreas
Yang Zhen and other juvenile pancreas with biliary cannulation of Gardenia and the effects of different extracts of bile flow and pancreatic trypsin activity in rats showed that extracts of gardenia and several significant benefits pancreas, gallbladder and pancreas drop enzyme effects. Geniposidic have the most significant decrease in pancreatic amylase, and its hydrolyzate increase genipin pancreaticobiliary strongest flow, short duration. Pei Kai Tak study suggests that gardenia promote pancreatic secretion may be related to maintaining pancreatic cell membrane structure and function is directly related to, and thus demonstrate the efficacy of the treatment of pancreatitis gardenia basis from the cellular level. Preliminary observation also found there gardenia membrane lipid peroxidation products to reduce the role. 
5. The effect on the central nervous system
Intraperitoneal injection of alcohol extract of Gardenia (Gardenia fruit after crushing ethanol percolation percolate concentrated under reduced pressure to alcohol at 50 ℃, made of 300% concentrate) 5.69g / kg, can reduce the spontaneous activity (pedal method), compared with the control group P <0.01, and the ratio of sodium pentobarbital and cyclohexanone (intravenous injection, 50mg / kg) have a synergistic effect, can extend the sleep time by nearly 12 times. However, if the treatment group mice fed 35g / kg Gardenia alcohol percolate, and then were in 1.2.3 hour intravenous hexobarbital sodium 50mg / kg, recording righting reflex time results only in 2 Gardenia hour dosing group can significantly prolong hexobarbital sodium sleep time (P <0.05). But gardenia for amphetamine-induced activities without antagonism. Gardenia mice injected alcohol extract 5.69g / kg, body temperature can be reduced by an average 3 ℃, intraperitoneal injection of 200mg / kg body temperature dropped more than seven hours sustainable. 
6. effect on the cardiovascular system
Gardenia decoction and alcohol extract of anesthesia or without anesthesia cats, rabbits, rats, whether orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously
Gardenia - original plant cultivation
Gardenia - original plant cultivation
Administration has antihypertensive effect, antihypertensive effect of adrenaline boost its role and blocked carotid artery pressure reflective element are affected. Nor strengthen hypotensive effect of acetylcholine. Give antihistamines such as diphenhydramine, had no effect on blood pressure lowering effect gardenia. Its antihypertensive effect is not caused due to the release of histamine. Intravenous injection of procaine not change hypotensive effect of gardenia, stating its hypotensive effect has nothing to do with the afferent nerve fibers. No blocking effect on ganglion. After cutting the fans on both sides of the vagus nerve, blood pressure lowering effect of gardenia significantly reduced or completely disappeared, atropine also cancel its hypotensive effect. So that the gardenia hypotensive effect caused by tension in the central part of the degree, gardenia hypotensive effect is to strengthen the extension of the brain parasympathetic center. Gardenia peripheral resistance also reported little effect on isolated rat heart perfusion experiments show gardenia extract can reduce myocardial contractility. Anesthetized dogs, mice intravenously Gardenia extract 500mg / kg induced ventricular systolic blood pressure is due to the volume and cardiac output. Im saffron acid (crocin hydrolyzate) 0.01mg / kg, can reduce cholesterol fed rabbits incidence of atherosclerosis. When the rats were intravenously injected large doses of 1g / kg of methanol extract of Gardenia, ECG can exhibit myocardial injury and atrioventricular block. But anesthetized rabbits intravenously Geniposide 30mg / kg, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram B have no significant effect. Hot gardenia fruit extract can stimulate the in vitro proliferation of bovine aortic endothelial cells, so that intimal be repaired. 
Gardenia decoction of diphtheria bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi inhibit a variety of skin fungi have different degrees of inhibition. 
8. The effect caused by diarrhea
Deacetylation Asperuloside methyl have diarrhea effect, median effective dose in mice was 0.53g / kg, administered 6 hours after the start of diarrhea. Hydroxy isopropyl Geniposide also cathartic effect, half of the mice were orally effective amount of 1.2g / kg, 3 hours after the service began to role. Cathartic effect Geniposide median effective dose of 300mg / kg, after taking three hours work. Geniposide acid cathartic effect median effective dose> 800mg / kg. 
9. analgesic effect
Geniposide and hydrolysates Genipin mice by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid-induced writhing movement inhibited. 
10. The anti-inflammatory and treatment of soft tissue injury in rats
Gardenia with ethanol extraction, concentrated under reduced pressure at below 40 ℃ to thick paste (G1); the ethanol extraction residue after water percolation, percolate water bath, evaporated (G2); the G1 portion dissolved in methanol plus diatomaceous earth mix in different organic solvent elution, respectively, was recovered solvent petroleum ether (G3), chloroform fraction (G4), the ethyl acetate fraction (G5), methanol portion (G6).
Then Geniposide (CA), hydrocortisone cream (HU), hydrocortisone injection (HI), trauma analgesic cream (HE) as a control. Observation of therapeutic effect and anti-inflammatory action of each separate part of gardenia soft tissue injury animal model. The results are as follows:
1. Gardenia each separate part of the treatment effect of soft tissue injury model:
1) Gardenia experimental treatment of soft tissue injury model in mice: mice by a special model is made of soft tissue hit, and then were coated
Gardenia - original plant shape
Gardenia - original plant shape
Medicine, 1 day, 4 times in a row, five days after death, according to the appearance of observation, divided into five groups score, at the same time observe the tissue sections, sub-four score. Gardenia G2.G3.G4 soft tissue injury in mice no therapeutic effect, G5 and G6 with a better therapeutic effect. After four dressing, observed from the outside has been basically cure, no bleeding, bleeding lesions. Histological observation, I saw a small amount of mild muscle fiber swelling and punctate hemorrhage, and trauma analgesic cream to soft tissue injury treatment had no significant effect.
Experimental treatment 2) G5.G6 soft tissue injury in rabbits with a similar Experiments show that, G5.G6 soft tissue injury in rabbits also have significant therapeutic effect, one hour after dressing, rabbit resume normal activities, bleeding, bleeding lesions improved markedly. Dressing 4 days, look no obvious bleeding and bleeding lesions. The animals were sacrificed 5 days histological observation, see mild swelling of muscle fibers, a bit like the inner part of the tissue bleeding and bleeding lesions. Further experiments proved traumatic balm bleeding and tissue damage, bleeding had no significant effect. 
Drugs (poison) Neo
Gardenia alcohol percolation concentrate (300%) 1 administration, intraperitoneal injection and oral median lethal dose in mice was 17.1g / kg and 107.48 / kg. Geniposide (Geniposide) and gardenia aqueous extract of low acute toxicity in mice, former oral, intraperitoneal injection, intravenous injection of lethal dose of 3g / kg. Aqueous extract intraperitoneal injection of lethal dose of 5g / kg. Genipin (Genipin) l doses observed 72 hours, its oral, intraperitoneal injection, intravenous injection of lethal dose in mice were 237.190 and 153mg / kg. Mice fed the ethanol extract of gardenia median lethal dose of 107.4g / kg, intraperitoneal injection of 27.45g / kg. Gardenia ethanol extract 10g / kg orally, for four consecutive days, the mice hexobarbital sodium sleep duration, liver grayish green, ethanol extract 4g / kg or didanosine Geniposide 250mg / kg irrigation stomach, for four days, can rat liver microsomal P-450 content and Nitroanisole demethylase activity decreased liver grayish green. Gardenia marrow micronucleus test, Ames test and chromosome aberration test indicate testicle, gardenia no mutagenic, teratogenic effects. 
Chemical composition editor
Fruit containing iridoid class components: Geniposide (gardenoside), both Jue son glycosides (geniposide), both sub-prime gentiobioside Jue glycosides (genipin-1-gentiobioside), Gardenia glycosides (shanzhiside), gardenia ketone glycosides (gardo-side), Paederia times methyl glucoside (scandoside methyl ester), both Jue son glycosides acid (geniposidic acid), deacetyl Asperuloside acid (deacetyl asperulosidic acid), deacetylation car clover methyl glucoside (methyl deacetyl asperulosidate), 10- acetyl glycosides are Jue son (10-acetylgeniposide) 6〃- coumaric acid are Jue sub-prime gentian disaccharide glycosides (6〃-p-coumaroyl genipin gentiobio-side ʱ?? And acids containing ingredients: chlorogenic acid (chlorogenic acid), 3,4- two -O- caffeoyl its quinine acid (3, -4-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid), 3-O- caffeoyl - 4-O- erucic acid Ji Kuining acid (3-O-caffeoyl-4-O-sinapoyl quinic acid), 3,5- two -O- caffeoyl -4-O- (3- hydroxy-3-methyl) pent diacyloxy Ji Kuining acid [3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O- (3-hydroxy-3-methyl) glutaroyl quinic acid], 3,4- two coffee-acyl-5 (3-hydroxy-3 - methyl glutaryl) quinic acid [3,4-dicaffeovl-5- (3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaroyl) quinic acid], saffron acid (cro-cetin), crocin (crocin), ursolic acid (ursolic acid), crocin glucoside (crocin glucoside) and the like. Also contain flavonoids: rutin (rutin) and D- mannitol (D-mannitol), β- sitosterol (β-sitosterol), choline (choline), nonacosane (nonacosane), lutein ( xanthophyll) and so on.
Peel and seeds also contain Geniposide are Jue son glycosides are glycosides acid Jue son, both sub-prime gentian Jue double glycosides.
Flower containing Triterpenes: gardenia acid (gradenlic acid) A, B and gardenia acid (gardenic acid) gardenia leaves contain glycosides, saponins are Jue son, gardenia aldehyde (cerbinal), hedione (methyl dihydrojasmonate), benzyl acetate, lemon (limonene), linalool (linalool) and the like.
Rhizome containing D- mannitol, oleanolic acid (oleanolic acid), stigmasterol (sing-masterol) 
Plant Culture Editor
Florid: "Joy", as the summer is full of vitality unknown hope and joy.
Flower divination: You have the mind of Gratitude, to be honest, as long as people have a little good for you, you will be reported to the mind thanks. This is because you have a Santa Claus, do not understand the misunderstandings, and you make your Huaikang sincere joy, forgiveness of others also allows you full of joy.
Flower maxim: sometimes put their own likes and dislikes manifested.
Also explained that the language of flowers gardenia - "eternal love and agreement." Beautiful sustenance. The effect is because this flower bud conceived from the beginning of winter, until near the summer solstice will bloom, bud of longer, more distant Qingfen; gardenia tree leaves, frost, snow and rain also after years of green does not wither. Thus, although seemingly casual bloom, it is experiencing a long-term effort and persistence. Perhaps gardenia such growth habit is more in line with the language of flowers. Not only is the place of love, plain, durable, warm, under refined appearance, the implication is beautiful, tough, mellow essence of life.
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Entry pictures (9)
▪ ▪ Hainan spoon leaves gardenia gardenia gardenia ▪ ▪ ▪ large gardenia gardenia angustifolia
1. gardenia. Flora of China [reference date 2013-11-28]
2. Tanghe: businessmen gathered Gardenia was "stolen." Farmer Daily. 2006-09-14 [reference date 2015-06-10]
3. Gardenia Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis. China Species Information Database [reference date 2012-11-3]
4. How potted gardenia? ʱ?? Xiantao City Bureau of Parks [reference date 2013-11-28]