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梔子 Gardenia (Gardeniae Fructus) Zhi Zi

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栀子

 编辑
栀子(学名:Gardenia jasminoides Ellis)别名:黄栀子、山栀、白蟾,是茜草科植物栀子的果实。栀子的果实是传统中药,属卫生部颁布的第l批药食两用资源,具有护肝、利胆、降压、镇静、止血、消肿等作用。在中医临床常用于治疗黄疸型肝炎、扭挫伤 、高血压、糖尿病等症。
中文学名
栀子
拉丁学名
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis
别    称
黄果子、山黄枝,黄栀,山栀子,水栀子、越桃,木丹,山黄栀等
二名法
Gardenia jasminoides
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
合瓣花亚纲
茜草目
茜草科
亚    科
金鸡纳亚科
栀子族
栀子属
栀子
分布区域
江西河南湖北浙江福建四川等。
主要产地
湖南省岳阳市、河南省唐河县
英文名
Cape Jasmine

形态特征编辑

栀子为灌木,高0.3-3米;嫩枝常被短毛,枝圆柱形,灰色。叶对生,革质,稀为纸质,少为3枚轮生,叶形多样,通常为长圆状披针形、倒卵状长圆形、倒卵形或椭圆形,长3-25厘米,宽1.5-8厘米,顶端渐尖、骤然长渐尖或短
栀子-原植物栀子-原植物
尖而钝,基部楔形或短尖,两面常无毛,上面亮绿,下面色较暗;侧脉8-15对,在下面凸起,在上面平;叶柄长0.2-1厘米;托叶膜质。
花芳香,通常单朵生于枝顶,花梗长3-5毫米;萼管倒圆锥形或卵形,长8-25毫米,有纵棱,萼檐管形,膨大,顶部5-8裂,通常6裂,裂片披针形或线状披针形,长10-30毫米,宽1-4毫米,结果时增长,宿存;花冠白色或乳黄色,高脚碟状,喉部有疏柔毛,冠管狭圆筒形,长3-5厘米,宽4-6毫米,顶部5至8裂,通常6裂,裂片广展,倒卵形或倒卵状长圆形,长1.5-4厘米,宽0.6-2.8厘米;花丝极短,花药线形,长1.5-2.2厘米,伸出;花柱粗厚,长约4.5厘米,柱头纺锤形,伸出,长1-1.5厘米,宽3-7毫米,子房直径约3毫米,黄色,平滑。
果卵形、近球形、椭圆形或长圆形,黄色或橙红色,长1.5-7厘米,直径1.2-2厘米,有翅状纵棱5-9条,顶部的宿存萼片长达4厘米,宽达6毫米;种子多数,扁,近圆形而稍有棱角,长约3.5毫米,宽约3毫米。花期3-7月,果期5月至翌年2月。[1] 

生长习性编辑

性喜温暖湿润气候,好阳光但又不能经受强烈阳光照射,适宜生长在疏松、肥沃、排水良好、轻粘性酸性土壤中,抗有害气体能力强,萌芽力强,耐修剪。是典型的酸性花卉。

分布情况编辑

产于山东、河南、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、福建、台湾、湖北、湖南、广东、香港、广西、海南、四川、贵州和云南,河北、陕西和甘肃有栽培,其中河南省唐河县的栀子获得“国家原产地地理标志认证”,为全国最大的栀子生产基地,有“中国栀子之乡”的美誉[2]  。生于海拔10-1500米处的旷野、丘陵、山谷、山坡、溪边的灌丛或林中。国外分布于日本、朝鲜、越南、老挝、柬埔寨、印度、尼泊尔、巴基斯坦、太平洋岛屿和美洲北部,野生或栽培。[3] 

栽培技术编辑

繁殖方法

种子繁殖
播种期分春播和秋播,以春播为好。在2月上旬至2月下旬(立春至雨水)。选取饱满、色深红的果实,挖出种子,于水中搓散,捞取下沉的种子,晾去水份;随即与细土或草木灰拌匀,条播于畦沟内,盖以细土,再覆盖稻草;发芽后除去稻草,经常除草,如苗过密,应陆续匀苗,保持株距10-13cm。幼苗培育1-2年,高30余厘米,即可定植。
扦插繁殖
扦插期秋季9月下旬至1O月下旬,春季2月中下旬。剪取生长2-3年的枝条,摈节剪成长17-20cm的插穗。插时稍微倾斜,上端留一节露出地面。约一年后即可移植。
定植
2-3月间定植,按株距1.2-2m,作好直径50cm,深30cm的穴,并用堆肥10kg与细土拌匀作基肥。每穴栽苗1株。
水插法
虽然繁殖栀子的方法有多种,但最简便快捷的是漂浮的水插法,首先找泡沫板一块,并往上打孔,将栀子当年半熟枝剪下,插入泡沫板的孔中,然后将泡沫板放入装满水的桶中,将桶放在既能让漂板穗条遮阴,又能让阳光照射水桶的环境,将水温控制在18℃-25℃之间,栀子一星期即能长出3厘米以上的根。此方法扦插栀子,成活率为100%。

田间管理

幼苗期须经常除草、浇水,保持苗床湿润,施肥以淡人粪尿为佳。定植后,在初春与夏季各除草、松土、施肥1次,并适当壅土。
土壤
栀子是酸性土壤的指示植物,故土壤的微酸性环境,是决定栀子生长好坏的关键。培养土应用微酸的沙壤红土7成,腐叶质3成混合而成。将土壤pH值控制在4.0-6.5之间为宜。
栀子花-原植物栀子花-原植物
温度
栀子的最佳生长温度为16℃-18℃。温度过低和太阳直射都对其生长极为不利,故夏季宜将栀子放在通风良好、空气湿度大又透光的疏林或阴棚下养护。冬季放在见阳光、温度又不低于0℃的环境,让其休眠,温度过高会影响来年开花。
水分
栀子喜空气湿润,生长期要适量增加浇水。通常盆土发白即可浇水,一次浇透。夏季燥热,每天须向叶面喷雾2次-3次,以增加空气湿度,帮助植株降温。但花现蕾后,浇水不宜过多,以免造成落蕾。冬季浇水以偏干为好,防止水大烂根。
肥料
栀子是喜肥的植物,为了满足其生长期对肥的需求,又能保持土壤的微酸性环境,可事先将硫酸亚铁拌入肥液中发酵。进入生长旺季4月后,可每半月追肥一次(施肥时最好多兑些水,以防烧花)。这样既能满足栀子对肥料的需求,又能保持土壤环境处于相对平衡的微酸环境,防止黄化病的发生,同时又避免了突击补硫酸亚铁,局部过酸对栀子的伤害。
整地
育苗地,先深耕33cm左右,除去石砾及草根,再行造畦,畦高17cm,宽1.3m。打碎土块,耙平,每亩施基肥2000kg。然后按行距27cm,挖宽7cm、深3cm的横沟,以待播种。

盆栽

盆栽用土以40%园土、15%粗砂、30%厩肥土、15%腐叶土配制为宜。栀子苗期要注意浇水,保持盆土湿润,勤施腐熟薄肥。浇水以用雨水或经过发酵的淘米水为好。生长期如每隔l0-15天浇1次0.2%硫酸亚铁水或矾肥水(两者可相间使用),可防止土壤转成碱性,同时又可为土壤补充铁元素,防止栀子叶片发黄。夏季,栀于花要每天早晚向叶面喷一次水,以增切空气湿度,促进叶面光泽。[4] 
盆栽栀子,8月份开花后只浇清水,控制浇水量。十月寒露前移入室内,置向阳处。冬季严控浇水,但可用清水常喷叶面。每年5-7月在栀子生长旺盛期将停止时,对植株进行修剪去掉顶梢,促进分枝萌生,使日后株形美、开花多。栀子多采用扦插法和压条法进行繁殖,也可用分株和播种法繁殖,但很少采用。
扦插可分为春插和秋插。春插于2月中下旬进行;秋插于9月下旬至10月下旬进行。插穗选摄2-3年的枝条,截成10-12厘米的段子,留顶上两片叶子,各剪去一半,然后斜插入插床中,土面上只留一节,注意遮荫和保持一定湿度,一般 1个月可生根,1年后移植。南方还有采用水插法繁殖的,即将插穗插在用苇秆编织的圆盘上,任其漂浮在水面上,使其下部在水中生根,再移植栽培。
压条可在4 月清明前后或梅雨季节进行。选三年生母株上一年生健壮枝条,将其拉到地面,刻伤枝条上的入土部位,如能在刻伤部位蘸上200ppm粉剂案乙酸,再盖上土压实,则更容易生根。一般个把月生根后即可与母株分离,到第二年春再带土移栽。[4] 

病虫防治

栀子主要病害有褐斑病、炭疽病煤污病根腐病黄化病等,在室内,病害全年都可能发生,严重时植株落叶、落果或枯死。在病害发生初期或发生期施用多茵灵、退菌特等可有效地防治病害。
黄化病
栀子经常容易发生叶子发黄的黄化病,黄化病由多种原因引起,故须采
栀子-原植物栀子-原植物
取不同措施进行防治。缺肥引起的黄化病:这种黄化病从植株下部老叶开始,逐渐向新叶蔓延。
致病原因
1、缺钾:老叶由绿色变成褐色。[5] 
2、缺磷:老叶呈紫红或暗红色。对以上诸种情况,可迫施腐熟的人粪尿或饼肥。缺铁引起的黄化病:这种黄化病,表现在新叶上,开始时叶片呈淡黄色或白色,叶脉仍是绿色,严重时叶脉也呈黄色或白色,最终叶片会干枯而死。对这种情况,可喷洒0.2%—0.5%的硫酸亚铁水溶液进行防治。[5] 
3、缺镁引起的黄化病:这种黄化病由老叶开始逐渐向新叶发展,叶脉仍呈绿色,严重时叶片脱落而死。对这种情况,可喷洒0.7%—0.8%硼镁肥防治。浇水过多、受冻等,也会引起黄叶现象,所以在养护过程中要特别加以注意。栀子在冬季室内通风不良及温湿度过高时,容易发生介壳虫危害,并伴有煤烟病发生。对介壳虫,可用竹签刮除,也可用20号石油乳剂加200倍水进行喷雾防治。对煤烟病,可用清水擦洗,或用多菌灵1000倍液进行喷洒防治。[5] 
4、缺氮:单纯叶黄,新叶小而脆。[5] 
介壳虫
一般有两种,一种是糠介,另一种是吹棉介。煤烟病便是介壳虫的排泄物滋生细菌所致。这两种介壳虫都是属刺吸式害虫。虫背部表面附有一层腊质,一般药物无法穿透,可用吡虫啉类或其改良剂进行喷雾灭杀。每周一次,一般需要2-3次才能灭杀彻底。煤烟病就是黑霉菌感染,喷洒任何药物都不会自行脱落,必须进行擦洗,方可解决。

品种分类编辑

栀子气味芳香浓郁,历来受百姓所喜爱,但栀子形态平淡,造型单调,虽香味可嘉,但上不了厅堂。故在古代,花农们经过辛勤劳作、定向培育,早已培育出很多重瓣变种。如常见的:
栀子-原植物栀子-原植物
大花栀子G. J.var.grandifloraNakai.
卵叶栀子G. J.var.ovalifoliaNakai.
狭叶栀子G. J.var.angustifoliaNakai.
斑叶栀子G. J.var.aureo-variegataNakai.[1] 
由于花农的定向培育,已经把栀子分成“药用栀子”和“赏花栀子”了,即原来的单瓣的野生栀子作为“药用栀子”,通常以其果实入药;而人工培育出来的重瓣栀子则作为“赏花栀子”,其实也只能作为赏花栀子,这种栀子一般不结果,而有结果的其果实也不做药用。
变异类型
本种分布较广,生长在不同的环境,使其习性、叶的形状及大小、果实的形状及大小等均发生一些变异。其变异主要可分为两个类型:一类通常称为“山栀子”,果卵形或近球形,较小;另一类通常称为“水栀子”,果椭圆形或长圆形,较大。据称前者适为药用,后者适为染料用。一些学者亦根据其叶、花、果实等的变异,定为若干变种或变型。

主要价值编辑

古代染料

栀子是秦汉以前应用最广的黄色染料,栀子的果实中含有酮物质栀子黄素,还有藏红花素等,用于染黄的物质为藏红花酸。《汉官仪》记有:“染园出栀、茜,供染御服。”说明当时染最高级的服装用栀子。古代用酸性来控制栀子染黄的深浅,欲得深黄色,则增加染中醋的用量。用栀子浸液可以直接染织物成鲜艳的黄色,工艺简单,汉马王堆出土的染织品的黄色就是以栀子染色获得的。但栀子染黄耐日晒的能较差,因此自宋以后染黄又被槐花部分取代。
因为其重要性,太史公在《史记。货殖列传》有“千亩栀、茜、千畦姜韭;此其人皆与千户侯等。”的记载。
染色方法:新鲜的栀子果,捏碎泡水3小时,过滤,即可取染液。干栀子果,放入热水浸泡一夜,泡软后将果实剥开或捏碎,加火煎煮,煮沸续煮30分,熄火,过滤取第一次染液;可重复煎煮取3~4次染液。

药用价值

功能主治
清热,泻火,凉血。治热病虚烦不眠,黄疸,淋病,消渴,目赤,咽痛,吐血,衄血,血痢,尿血,热毒疮疡,扭伤肿痛
栀子出自《本草图经》:栀子,今南方及西蜀州郡皆有之。
栀子
栀子 (2张)
实用复方
1.治伤寒发汗、吐、下后,虚烦不得眠,心中懊NONG:栀子十四个(剖),香豉四合(绵裹)。上二昧, 以水四升,先煮栀子得二升半,纳豉,煮取一升半,去滓,分为二服。温进一服,得吐者止后服。(《伤寒论》栀子豉汤)[6] 
2.治伤寒大病瘥后劳复者:枳实三枚(炙),栀子十四个(剖),豉一升(绵裹)。上三味,以清浆水七升,空煮取四升.内枳实、栀子,煮取二升,下豉,更煮五、六沸,去滓,温分再服,覆令微似汗。若有宿食者,内大黄如博棋子五、六枚。(《伤寒论》枳实栀子豉汤[6] 
3.治伤寒身黄发热:肥栀子十五个(剖),甘草一两(炙),黄柏二两。上三味,以水四升,煮取一升栀子半,去滓,分温再服。(《伤寒论》栀子柏皮汤)[6] 
4.治湿热黄疸:山栀四钱,鸡骨草、田基黄各一两。水煎,日分三次服。(《广西中草药》)[6] 
5.治尿淋,血淋, 鲜栀子二两,冰糖一两。煎服。(《闽东本草》)[6] 
6.治小便不通:栀子仁二七枚,盐花少许,独颗蒜一枚。上捣烂,摊纸花上贴脐,或涂阴囊上,良久即通。(《普济方》)[6] 
7.治急性胃肠炎,腹痛,上吐下泻:山栀三钱,盘柱南五味(紫金皮)根五钱,青木香二钱。上药炒黑存性,加蜂蜜五钱。水煎,分二次服。(《单方验方调查资料选编》)[6] 
8.治口疮、咽喉中塞痛,食不得:大青四两,山栀子、黄柏各一两,白蜜半斤。上切,以水三升,煎取一升,去滓,下蜜更煎一两沸,含之。(《普济方》栀子汤)
栀子-原植物栀子-原植物
9.治目赤:取山栀七枚,钻透,入煻灰火煨熟,以水一升半,煎至八合,去滓,入大黄末三钱匕,搅匀,食后旋旋温服。(《圣济总录》栀子汤)[6] 
10.治胃脘火痛,大山栀子七枚或九枚,炒焦,水一盏,煎七分,入生姜汁饮之。(《丹溪纂要》)[6] 
11.治鼻中衄血:山栀子烧灰吹之。(《简易方论》)[6] 
12.治肺风鼻赤酒:老山栀为末, 黄蜡等分溶和。为丸弹子大。空心茶、酒嚼下。忌酒、炙煿。(《本事方》)[6] 
13.治赤白痢并血痢:山栀子仁四七枚。锉, 以浆水一升半,煎至五合,去滓。空心食前分温二服。(《圣济总录》栀子仁汤[6] 
14.治热水肿:山栀子25克,木香7克,白术12克。细切,水煎服。(《丹溪心法》)[6] 
15.治妇人子肿湿多:炒山栀子一合。为末,米饮吞下,或丸服。(《丹溪心法》)[6] 
16.治折伤肿痛:栀子、白面同捣,涂之。(《濒湖集简方》)[6] 
17.治火丹毒:栀子,捣和水调敷之。(《梅师集验方》)[6] 
18.治火疮未起:栀子仁灰,麻油和封,惟厚为佳。(《千金方》)[6] 
19.治疮疡肿痛:山栀、蒲公英、银花各四钱。水煎,日分三次服。另取生银花藤适量, 捣烂,敷患处。(《广西中草药》)
20.治烧伤:栀子末和鸡子清浓扫之。(《救急方》)。[6] 
栀子-原植物栀子-原植物
21.治远年日久 内外臁疮:山栀(烧作灰 研为细末)、乳香(另研)各半钱 轻粉少许.上再研为末 用瓷器盛贮.每用时先将葱白、花椒煎汤洗疮.稍歇 再温浆水又洗一次 候恶水去尽 再将白水煮百沸 候温再洗.但疮口脓水血丝清水各尽 又用粉帛拭干.然后敷之.如干者香油调敷 湿者干掺.但恶疮口满实软 绢帛护之.中硬不作脓者未可用.如肿软有脓者 依前法再洗 敷贴之.(《普济方》奇妙栀子散)[6] 
22.治下疳疮:栀子一枚 去穰 装入明矾末 面糊合口 火烧存性为末.洗净 干掺上.(《奇效良方》栀子散)[6] 
药代动力学
栀子甙(Geniposide)是稳定的,在37℃ pH1.8胃液中无变化,但在肠内溶物中可代谢成京尼平(Genipin)。羟异栀子甙(Gardenoside)对酸和热不稳定,在胃液中可转化成脱乙酰基车叶草甙酸甲酯(Deacetylasperulosidic acid metbylester,DAM)和鸡屎藤次甙甲酯(Scan-doside methylester,SSM)。在肠内溶物中DAM转化成DAM-genin,而SSM转化成SSM-genin。
药理作用
1.对肝脏功能的影响
①用SD大白鼠分为4组;A组为对照组;B组为正常动物,用2g生药提取物灌胃;C组为结扎总胆管,引起高胆红素血症的动物;D组为高胆红素血症动物,并用2g生药的栀子提取物灌胃。实验测定肝脏Y蛋白、Z蛋白、BSP清除率、胆红素及有关酶的测定。[6] 
实验结果表明:
1)栀子提取物对动物血清和肝匀浆内碱性磷酸酶的活力并无影响,结扎总胆管引起碱性磷酶酶活力增加将近2倍。但栀子提取物对升高了的酶活力并无作用。[6] 
2)栀子提取物对大白鼠血清和肝内乳酸脱氢酶活力的影响极小,4组动物酶活力的波动均在正常范围之内。[6] 
3)栀子提取物对正常动物血清GOT无影响。结扎总胆管后,血清GOT增加7倍,栀子提取物可显著降低升高了的酶达40%。肝内GOT较稳定,4组动物均无明显改变。[6] 
4)栀子提取物对正常动物的酶活力无影响,但能使结扎总胆管动物升高了的酶活力恢复正常,可认为栀子提取物并不增加UDP一GT的活力。[6] 
5)测定肝脏二磷酸脲苷-葡萄糖脱氢酶表明,结扎总胆管可以降低酶活力,栀子提取物能增加正常动物酶活力,同时也能使降低了的酶活力升高。[6] 
6)栀子提取物能增加正常动物的Y蛋白、Z蛋白的量,但不能使由于结扎总胆管而减少的Y蛋白、Z蛋白量增加。表明栀子抗胆红素血症作用与Y蛋白、Z蛋白关系不大。[6] 
7)动物给药后静脉注射BSP(2g/100g体重),测定血液中及胆汁中的BSP清除率,发现到达峰值时间均有相应的延长,表明BSP从肝内排出的过程受到阻滞。[6] 
8)栀子能降低血清胆红素含量,但与葡萄糖醛酰转移酶无关。因此可以认为栀子提取物对肝细胞无毒性作用,栀子提取物可降低动物血清胆红素水平,但其退黄机制较为复杂,它不增加UDP-GT的活力,也不增加肝内的Y蛋白和之蛋白,也不像茵陈蒿那样,增加胆汁的分沁量。[6] 
②肝脏的保护作用
1)ICR大鼠预先(24或48小时以前)给于栀子提取物,可防止因半乳糖胺引起的暴发性肝炎[6] 
2)实验大鼠给于异硫氰酸a-萘酯50mg/kg,可使大鼠血清胆红素和血清碱性磷酸酯酶和丙氨酸氨基转移酶升高,如每日给于栀子粗提物(1.5g/kg,口服,3天)可使因异硫氰酸a-萘酯中毒大鼠的血清胆红素、丙氨酸氨基转移酶和碱性磷酸酶下降。栀子中提取的成分栀子甙同样有此作用。[6] 
3)对肝脏的影响:大鼠灌胃藏红花素50mg/kg 8天对肝脏功能无影响,但可引起急性肝脏变色。如服用高剂量100mg/kg 2周则可引起肝损害和黑变,但低剂量10mg/kg 40天并不产生上述情况,上述的肝损害和黑变是完全可逆的。因此藏红花素即使很高剂量对大鼠肝脏的毒性极小,在人服用时不可能达到如此高的剂量,所以藏红花素作为食品着色剂是十分安全的。[6] 
2.对胆汁分泌的影响
大鼠、兔实验证明,栀子具利胆作用。其醇提物和栀子甙、藏红花素等均能使胆汁分泌量增加。大鼠口服、静脉注射或十二指肠内给于栀子甙25mg/kg引起胆汁分泌增加,以十二指肠内给药最为显著,几与去氢胆酸钠的效价相当。[6] 
3.对胃液分泌及胃肠运动的影响
十二指肠给予栀子甙25mg/kg,能使幽门结扎大鼠胃液分泌减少,总酸度下降,pH值升高,作用相当于硫酸阿托品的1/5-1/10。静脉注射栀子甙和其甙元(Genipin),剂量分别为 100mg/kg与25mg/kg,能抑制大鼠自发性胃蠕动和匹罗卡品(Pilocarpine)诱发的胃收缩,但作用短暂。低浓度(1 :25,000)栀子醇提取物能兴奋大鼠、兔小肠运动,高浓度(1 :1,000)则抑制。小鼠和豚鼠离体回肠试验表明栀子甙有较弱的抗乙酰胆碱和抗组胺作用。[6] 
4.促进胰腺分泌作用
杨稚珍等用胆胰插管研究栀子及其不同提取物对大鼠胆胰流量及胰酶活性的影响,结果显示,栀子及其几种提取物有明显的利胰、利胆及降胰酶效应。京尼平甙有最显著的降低胰淀粉酶作用,而其酶解产物京尼平的增加胰胆流量作用最强,持续时间较短。裴德恺的研究认为栀子促进胰腺分泌作用可能与保持胰细胞膜的结构、功能直接有关,从而从细胞水平上论证了栀子治疗胰腺炎的药效基础。初步观察亦发现栀子有使膜脂的过氧化产物减少作用。[6] 
5.对中枢神经系统的作用
小鼠腹腔注射栀子醇提取物(栀子果实粉碎后以乙醇渗漉,渗漉液在50℃减压浓缩去醇,制成300%浓缩液)5.69g/kg,能减少小鼠自发活动(踏板法),与对照组相比较P<0.01,且与环己比妥钠(静脉注射,50mg/kg)有协同作用,能延长睡眠时间近12倍。但如用药组小鼠灌胃 35g/kg栀子醇渗漉液,然后分别在1.2.3小时,静脉注射环己烯巴比妥钠50mg/kg,记录翻正反射消失时间,结果只有于2小时给药的栀子组能显著延长环己烯巴比妥钠睡眠时间(P<0.05)。但栀子对苯丙胺诱发活动无对抗作用。小鼠腹腔注射栀子醇提物5.69g/kg,体温可平均降低3℃,大鼠腹腔注射200mg/kg体温下降可持续7小时以上。[6] 
6.对心血管系统的作用
栀子煎剂和醇提物对麻醉或不麻醉猫、大鼠,不论口服,腹腔注射或静脉注射
栀子-原植物种植栀子-原植物种植
给药均有降压作用,其降压作用对肾上腺素升压作用及阻断颈动脉血流的加压反射均元影响。也没有加强乙酰胆碱的降压作用。给予抗组胺药如苯海拉明,对栀子的降血压作用无影响。其降压作用不是由于释放组胺所引起。静脉注射普鲁卡因也不改变栀子的降血压效果,说明其降血压作用与传入神经纤维无关。对神经节无阻断作用。当切断两侧迷走神经后,栀子的降血压作用显著减弱或完全消失,阿托品也可取消其降血压作用。故认为栀子的降血压作用部位在中枢,栀子降血压效应主要是加强了延脑副交感中枢紧张度所致。亦有报道栀子对外周阻力影响不大,离体鼠心灌流实验表明,栀子提取物能降低心肌收缩力。麻醉犬、鼠静脉注射栀子提取物500mg/kg引起的血压下降是由于心收缩容积及心输出量下降。Im 藏红花酸(藏红花素的水解产物)0.01mg/kg,能减少喂饲胆固醇兔动脉硬化的发生率。大鼠静脉注射大剂量1g/kg 的栀子甲醇提取物时,心电图可呈现心肌损伤及房室传导阻滞。但麻醉兔静脉注射栀子甙30mg/kg,对血压、心率和乙电图都无明显影响。栀子果实的热水提取物能刺激体外培养牛主动脉内皮细胞的增殖,从而使血管内膜得以修复。[6] 
7.抑菌作用
栀子煎剂对白喉杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、伤寒杆菌有抑制作用,对多种皮肤真菌也有不同程度的抑制作用。[6] 
8.致泻作用
去乙酰车叶草甙酸甲酯有泻下作用,小鼠的半数有效量为 0.53g/kg,服用6小时后开始腹泻。羟异栀子甙亦有导泻作用,小鼠口服的半数有效量为 1.2g/kg,服后3小时开始作用。栀子甙的导泻作用半数有效量为 300mg/kg,服药后3小时起作用。栀子甙酸的导泻作用半数有效量 >800mg/kg。[6] 
9.镇痛作用
栀子甙及其水解产物京尼平对腹腔注射醋酸引起的小鼠扭体运动有抑制作用。[6] 
10.抗炎及治疗软组织损伤的作用
栀子以乙醇回流提取,在40℃以下减压浓缩至粘稠膏状(G1);将乙醇回流提取后的药渣,用水渗漉,渗漉液水浴蒸干(G2);将G1部分以甲醇溶解加硅藻土拌匀,以不同有机溶剂洗脱,分别回收溶剂得石油醚部分(G3),氯仿部分(G4),乙酸乙酯部分(G5),甲醇部分(G6)。
然后以栀子甙(C-A),氢化可的松软膏(H-U),氢化可的松注射剂(H-I),外伤止痛膏(H-E)作为对照。观察栀子各分离部位对软组织损伤动物模型的治疗作用和抗炎作用。结果如下:
1.栀子各分离部分对软组织损伤模型的治疗作用:
1)栀子对小鼠软组织损伤模型的实验治疗:小鼠由特制的软组织打击器制成模型,然后分别涂
栀子-原植物形状栀子-原植物形状
药,每日1次,连续4次,5天后处死,按外表观察,分5组评分,同时进行组织切片观察,分4级评分。栀子中G2.G3.G4对小鼠软组织损伤无治疗作用,G5和G6具较好的治疗作用。经4次敷药,从外表观察已基本治愈,无出血、瘀血灶。组织学观察,只见轻度肌纤维肿胀及少量点状出血灶,而外伤止痛膏对软组织损伤无明显治疗作用。
2)G5.G6对家兔软组织损伤的实验治疗方法与1类似。实验表明,G5.G6对家兔软组织损伤同样有明显的治疗效果,敷药1小时后,家兔恢复正常活动,出血、瘀血灶明显好转。敷药4天后,外表已无明显的出血和瘀血灶。5天后处死动物组织学观察,见肌纤维轻度肿胀,部分组织内有点状出血和瘀血灶。实验进一步证明外伤止痛膏对出血和瘀血性组织损伤无明显效果。[6] 
药(毒)理学
栀子醇渗漉浓缩液(300%)1次给药,腹腔注射和灌胃小鼠的半数致死量分别为17.1g/kg和107.48/kg。栀子甙(Geniposide)和栀子水提物对小鼠的急性毒性很低,前者口服、腹腔注射、静脉注射给药的半数致死量为3g/kg。水提物腹腔注射给药的半数致死量为 5g/kg。京尼平(Genipin)l次给药观察72小时,其口服、腹腔注射、静脉注射对小鼠的 半数致死量 分别为 237.190 与153mg/kg。栀子乙醇提取物小鼠灌胃的半数致死量为107.4g/kg,腹腔注射为 27.45g/kg。栀子乙醇提取物10g/kg 灌胃,连续4天,使小鼠环己烯巴比妥钠睡眠时间延长,肝脏呈灰绿色,乙醇提取物4g/kg 或去羟栀子甙 250mg/kg 灌胃,连续4天,可使大鼠肝微粒体 P-450含量和对硝基苯甲醚脱甲基酶活性降低,肝呈灰绿色。栀子骨髓微核试验、Ames试验和睾丸染色体畸变试验表明,栀子无致突变,致畸效应。[6] 

化学成分编辑

果实含环烯醚萜类成分:栀子甙(gardenoside),都桷子甙(geniposide),都桷子素龙胆双糖甙(genipin-1-gentiobioside),山栀甙(shanzhiside),栀子酮甙(gardo-side),鸡屎藤次甙甲酯(scandoside methyl ester),都桷子甙酸(geniposidic acid),去乙酰基车叶草甙酸(deacetyl asperulosidic acid),去乙酰车叶草甙酸甲酯(methyl deacetyl asperulosidate),10-乙酰基都桷子甙(10-acetylgeniposide) 6〃-对香豆酰基都桷子素龙胆双糖甙( 6〃-p-coumaroyl genipin gentiobio-side)。又含酸类成分:绿原酸(chlorogenic acid),3,4-二-O-咖啡酰其奎宁酸(3,-4-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid),3-O-咖啡酰基-4-O-芥子酰基奎宁酸(3-O-caffeoyl-4-O-sinapoyl quinic acid),3,5-二-O-咖啡酰基-4-O-(3-羟基-3甲基)戊二酰基奎宁酸[3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl)glutaroyl quinic acid],3,4-二咖啡酰基-5-(3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰基)奎宁酸[3,4-dicaffeovl-5-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaroyl)quinic acid],藏红花酸(cro-cetin),藏红花素(crocin),熊果酸(ursolic acid),藏红花素葡萄糖甙(crocin glucoside)等。还含黄酮类成分:芸香甙(rutin)以及D-甘露醇(D-mannitol),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol),胆碱(choline),二十九烷(nonacosane),叶黄素(xanthophyll)等。
  果皮及种子中也含栀子甙、都桷子甙、都桷子甙酸、都桷子素龙胆双糖甙。
  花含三萜成分:栀子花酸(gradenlic acid)A、B和栀子酸(gardenic acid)叶含栀子甙,都桷子甙,栀子醛(cerbinal),二氢茉莉酮酸甲酯(methyl dihydrojasmonate),乙酸苄檬(limonene),芳樟醇(linalool)等。
  根茎含D-甘露醇,齐墩果酸(oleanolic acid),豆甾醇(sing-masterol)[6] 

植物文化编辑

花语:“喜悦”,就如生机盎然的夏天充满了未知的希望和喜悦。
花占卜:您有感恩图报之心,以真诚待人,只要别人对您有少许和善,您便报以心灵致谢。这是因为您有一颗赤子之心,不懂人心险恶,而您的真诚使您常怀欢愉,宽恕他人也使您充满喜悦。
花箴言:有时候要把自己的喜恶表现出来。
也有解释说栀子的花语是-“永恒的爱与约定”。很美的寄托。大意是因为,此花从冬季开始孕育花苞,直到近夏至才会绽放,含苞期愈长,清芬愈久远;栀子树的叶,也是经年在风霜雪雨中翠绿不凋。于是,虽然看似不经意的绽放,也是经历了长久的努力与坚持。或许栀子这样的生长习性更符合这一花语。不仅是爱情的寄予,平淡、持久、温馨、脱俗的外表下,蕴涵的,是美丽、坚韧、醇厚的生命本质。
参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/40299/11103986.htm

Gardenia editor
Gardenia (scientific name: Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) Alias: gardenia, Gardenia, white toad, it is Rubiaceae Gardenia fruit. Gardenia fruit is a traditional Chinese medicine, is the first batch l edible resources issued by the Ministry of Health, with liver, gallbladder, blood pressure, sedation, bleeding, swelling and so on. In clinical medicine used to treat jaundice, hepatitis, contusion, hypertension, diabetes embolism.
Chinese scientific name Latin name Gardenia Gardenia jasminoides Ellis aka yellow fruit, mountain yellow sticks, Huang Zhi, mountain gardenia, water gardenia, more peach, Dan wood, mountain Huang Zhi and other two methods Gardenia jasminoides world Flora door angiosperm Gang Dicotyledon subclass gamopetalous Asia outline madder Head Rooster Naya Ke Ke Xi grass family Ke Yake Belong gardenia gardenia gardenia species distribution area in Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Fujian and Sichuan. The main origin of Yueyang City, Hunan Province, Tanghe County, Henan Province, the English name Cape Jasmine
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 cultivation techniques for the distribution of breeding methods ▪ ▪ field management ▪ pest control ▪ potted varieties classified 5 6 primary value ▪ ▪ ancient dye chemical constituents of medicinal value 7 8 Plant Culture
Morphological characteristics editor
Gardenia shrubs, 0.3-3 m high; often short-haired twigs, branches cylindrical, gray. Leaves opposite, leathery, thin as paper, small whorls of three, leaf variety, usually oblong-lanceolate, obovate-oblong, obovate or elliptic, 3-25 cm long, wide 1.5-8 cm, apex acuminate, suddenly long or short acuminate
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
Sharp and blunt, base wedge or short tip, both sides often without hair, bright green above, the following color darker; lateral veins 8-15 pairs, raised below, in the flat above; petiole 0.2-1 cm; stipules film quality.
Fragrant flowers, usually born in the top branches single flower, pedicels 3-5 mm long; calyx tube inverted conical or ovate, 8-25 mm long, with longitudinal edges, tubular calyx eaves, swelling, cracking the top 5-8, usually 6-lobed, lobes lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 10-30 mm long, 1-4 mm wide, results growth, persistent; corolla white or cream, salverform, throat sparsely soft hair, crown tube narrowly cylindrical, 3-5 cm long, 4-6 mm wide, the top 5-8 lobed, usually 6-lobed, lobes wide exhibition, obovate or ovate-oblong, 1.5-4 cm, 0.6 to 2.8 cm wide; filaments very short, anthers linear, 1.5-2.2 cm long, stretched out; style thick, about 4.5 cm, stigma spindle, extended, 1-1.5 cm long, 3-7 mm wide, Ovary diameter of about 3 mm, yellow, smooth.
Fruit oval, nearly spherical, oval or oblong, yellow or orange-red, 1.5-7 cm long, 1.2-2 cm in diameter, have wing-like vertical ribs 5-9, persistent sepals up to 4 cm top , 6 mm wide; seeds numerous, flat, nearly circular and slightly angular, about 3.5 mm and a width of 3 mm. Flowering from March to July, the fruit of May to next February. [1] 
Growth habit editor
I like the warm and humid climate, good sun but can not withstand strong sunlight, suitable for growing in loose, fertile, well-drained, acidic soils light viscosity, strong anti-harmful gases, sprouting ability, resistance to cutting. Is a typical acidic flowers.
Distribution Edit
Produced in Shandong, Henan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan, Hebei, Shaanxi and Gansu have cultivated, which Tanghe County, Henan Province Gardenia "National Geographic logo certification of origin", the country's largest production base of gardenia, there are "Chinese gardenia town" reputation [2]. Born in elevation wilderness 10-1500 meters, hills, valleys, hills, stream or forest thickets. Foreign distribution in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Pacific Islands and North America, wild or cultivated. [3]
Cultivation Technical Editor
Breeding methods

Seed propagation
Spring and autumn sowing points in spring as well. In late February to early February (beginning of spring to rain). Choose plump, dark red fruit, dig out the seeds scattered in the water rub, sinking fish seed, dry to the water; then mix with fine soil or plant ash, drilling in the furrow, covered with fine soil, then covering straw; straw removed after germination, regular weeding, such as seedlings too dense, uniform seedlings should continue to maintain spacing 10-13cm. Seedling cultivation of 1--2 years, more than 30 cm high, can be planted.
Cutting Propagation
Cutting of autumn in late September to late 1O months, in mid-February to late spring. Clipping growth 2--3 years branches, champagne and cut into 17-20cm cuttings section. Slightly tilted when inserted, the top left section above the ground. It can be transplanted after about a year.
Colonization
2 - March planting, by spacing 1.2-2m, make the diameter of 50cm, 30cm deep lair, and 10kg and fine soil with compost as basal mix. Zaimiao one per hole.
Water interpolation
While there are several propagation methods gardenia, but the most simple and efficient water floating interpolation method, first find a piece of foam board, and punched up the gardenia then semi branches cut, inserted into the hole in the foam board, then the foam board into the bucket filled with water, place the pail on both let drift board cuttings shade, while still allowing sunlight bucket of environment, the water temperature controlled at between 18 ℃ -25 ℃, gardenia one week that is able to grow 3 cm above the root. This method gardenia cuttings, the survival rate was 100%.
Field management

Seedling shall always weeding, watering, keep the seedbed moist, pale human waste to fertilize better. After planting, in the early spring and summer each weeding, cultivation, fertilization 1, and obstruct the proper soil.
Soil
Gardenia is acidic soils indicator plants, so the soil slightly acidic environment, are key determinants of growth gardenia good or bad. Slightly acidic soil cultivation applications sandy soil laterite 7 percent, 3 percent quality leaf mold mixture. The soil pH is controlled between 4.0-6.5 is appropriate.
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
Temperature
Gardenia optimum growth temperature is 16 ℃ -18 ℃. Low temperatures and direct sunlight are extremely detrimental to their growth, so the summer should be placed in a well-ventilated gardenia, air humidity and light transmittance of woodland or shade shed under conservation. See the sun in the winter, the temperature not lower than 0 ℃ environment, allowed to sleep, temperature will affect the coming year flowering.
Moisture
Gardenia hi humid air, growing season to increase the amount of watering. Typically Pentu white watering can, once drenched. Hot summer day shall foliar spray 2 -3 times, in order to increase air humidity, helping to cool the plants. But the flower bud, watering should not be too much, so as not to cause bud drop. Winter watering in dry side as well, to prevent water from large rot.
Fertilizer
Gardenia is like fertilizer plants, in order to meet its growing demand for fertilizer, but also to keep the soil slightly acidic environment, can advance to ferrous sulfate fertilizer mix in the fermentation broth. After entering the growing season in April, the dressing once every half (fertilization best against some more water to prevent burning flowers). This will not only meet the demand for fertilizer gardenia, but also to keep the soil slightly acidic environment in a relatively balanced environment, to prevent yellowing disease, while avoiding the assault ferrous sulfate supplement local peracid gardenia damage.
Grounds
Nursery, the first deep about 33cm, remove gravel and grass-roots, re-building plot, plot height 17cm, width 1.3m. Breaking clods, raking, mu Fertilizers 2000kg. Then press row spacing 27cm, digging width 7cm, 3cm deep lateral grooves to be planted.
Potted

Pot with soil to 40 percent garden soil, 15% sand, 30% of the manure soil, 15% humus formulated appropriate. Gardenia seedling pay attention to watering, keep the basin moist, thin manure handling facilities composting. Watering with rainwater or fermented rice water as well. Growing as every l0-15 days pouring 1 0.2% aqueous ferrous sulfate or alum fertilizer (both may alternate use) to prevent soil turn into alkaline, while at the same soil iron supplements to prevent gardenia leaf yellow. Summer, gardenia flower to the morning and evening in the foliar spray water once a day to increase cut air humidity, promote shiny foliage. [4]
Gardenia potted, flowering in August only after pouring water, control water volume. October moved indoors before dew, sunny place home. Strict control of watering in winter, but can often spray the foliage with water. 5 year - July gardenia growing period will stop when the plants were pruned to remove the tops, promote branching sprouted, so that future plant type beauty, blossom. Gardenia more cuttings and layering method for breeding, can also be used ramets and sow law breed, but rarely used.
Cuttings can be inserted into the spring and autumn interpolation. Spring inserted in the mid to late February; Autumn inserted in late September to late October. Cuttings selected photo 2--3 years branches, cut into 10-12 cm piece, leaving the top two leaves, each cut in half, and then ramp into slotting in the soil surface, leaving only one, pay attention to shade and keep the certain humidity, usually a month can take root, one year after the transplant. Southern also interpolated using water breeding, is about cuttings inserted in the disc with a woven reed stalk and let it float in the water, its lower root in water, then transplanted cultivation.
Layering can be around April Qingming or rainy seasons. Option three students on the mother plant annuals robust branches, which pulled to ground, nicks buried on the site of the branches, such as acetic acid can be dipped in the case of 200ppm powder nicks site, then covered with soil compaction, easier to take root. Usually after a month can be separated from the mother plant roots, to the spring of the second year and then transplanting with soil. [4]
Pest control

Gardenia major diseases are leaf spot, anthracnose, sooty, root rot, yellow disease, etc., in the room, the disease can occur throughout the year, serious plant leaves, fallen fruit or dead. Or the occurrence of the disease occurred in the early days of the administration of multi-Yin Ling, retired Principal bacteria can effectively control the disease.
Yellows
Gardenia yellow leaves often prone to yellowing disease, yellow disease caused by a variety of reasons, it shall adopt
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
Take different measures to control. Quefei cause yellowing disease: This disease began yellowing old leaves from the lower portion of the plant, and gradually spread to new leaves.
Causes
1, potassium: old leaves from green to brown. [5]
2, P deficiency: old leaves were purple or dark red. Unite the above cases, forced human waste composting facilities or cake fertilizer. Iron deficiency causes yellowing disease: This yellow disease, and in the new leaves, pale yellow at the beginning of the blades or white, veins still green, serious vein also yellow or white, dry leaves will eventually die. This situation can be sprayed 0.2% -0.5% ferrous sulfate solution for control. [5]
3, magnesium deficiency causes yellowing disease: This disease caused by yellowing of old leaves began to develop new leaves, veins continued to show a green, severe leaf fall and die. This situation can be sprayed 0.7% -0.8% boron and magnesium fertilizer control. Watering too much, cold, etc., can also cause yellow leaves phenomenon, so pay special attention in the conservation process. Gardenia poor indoor air in winter and temperature and humidity is too high, prone to scale insect damage, and accompanied by sooty mold occurs. On the scale insects, scraping bamboo available, it can also be used on the 20th oil emulsion plus 200 times water spraying. Of sooty mold, available water scrubbing, or carbendazim 1000 times spray control. [5]
4, nitrogen deficiency: a simple yellow leaves, new leaves small and brittle. [5]
Scale insects
Generally, there are two, one is referred bran, another is blowing cotton referrals. Sooty mold is caused by bacteria scale insect excrement. Both belong scale insects are sucking pests. Insect dorsal surface with a layer of wax, generic drugs can not penetrate, available imidacloprid class or spray conditioner kill. Once a week, usually 2-3 times to kill completely. Black sooty mold is a fungal infection, spray any drug will not fall off, it must be scrubbed before resolved.
Species classification editor
Gardenia smell fragrant, always loved by the people, but gardenia shape dull, monotonous shape, although the flavor is commendable, but not on the hall. Therefore, in ancient times, growers have been working hard, orientation training, had bred many petals variants. Such as the common:
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
G. jasminoides G. J.var.grandifloraNakai.
Egg leaves gardenia G. J.var.ovalifoliaNakai.
Angustifolia gardenia G. J.var.angustifoliaNakai.
Variegated gardenia G. J.var.aureo-variegataNakai. [1]
Since oriented cultivation of flower, the gardenia has put into "medicinal Gardenia" and "gardenia flowers", and that the original univalve wild gardenia as a "medicinal Gardenia", usually used as medicine for its fruit; and artificial gardenia petals cultivated then as "gardenia flowers", in fact, only as flowers gardenia, Gardenia is generally not a result of this, while the results of its fruits do not medicinal.
Variation Type
This species is widely distributed, growth etc. be some variation in different environments, so that habit, leaf shape and size, fruit shape and size. Its variation can be divided into two types: one is usually referred to as "Shanzhizi" fruit oval or nearly spherical, small; the other is usually referred to as "water gardenia", oval or oblong fruit larger. Allegedly former suitable for the pharmaceutical, the latter suitable for the dyes. Some scholars also based on variation of their leaves, flowers, fruits and so forth, as a number of variant or variants.
The main value edit
Ancient dye

Gardenia is the most widely used before the Qin and Han yellow dye, gardenia gardenia fruit contains one substance Flavin, there are factors such as saffron, a substance used for dyeing yellow saffron acid. "Han Official Instrument" in mind are:. "Dye garden of Gardenia, Akane, for dyed royal dress," indicating that the most senior stained clothing gardenia. Ancient acidic to control the depth of dyed yellow gardenia, enriching yellow, increase the amount of dye in vinegar. With gardenia infusion directly into the bright yellow dyed fabric, simple process, yellow dyeing chemicals unearthed Mawangdui Han is stained with gardenia obtained. But dyed yellow gardenia resistant to the sun's energy is poor, and therefore dyed yellow and was substituted after the Song from Huaihua section.
Because of its importance, Sima Qian in "Records of the Historian. Merchant Biography "with" acres Gardenia, Qian, thousands plot ginger leek; this everyone with its thousand Hou and other "records.
Dyeing method: fresh gardenia fruit, crush soaked three hours, filtered, you can take the dye. Dried gardenia fruit, into the hot water soak overnight, after the soaked fruit peel or crush, add fire boiling, boil and cook for 30 minutes continuously, turn off, take the first dye filter; reusable decoction taken 3 to 4 times a dye.
Medicinal Value

Indications
Heat, purging fire, cooling. Virtual trouble, insomnia cure fever, jaundice, gonorrhea, diabetes, red eyes, sore throat, vomiting, epistaxis, bloody diarrhea, hematuria, heat canker sores, sprains swelling
Gardenia by "The sketches by": gardenia, now the South and West Sichuan gun everyone.
Gardenia
Gardenia (2)
Practical Compound
1. Cure typhoid fever sweating, vomiting, later, the imaginary trouble can not sleep, heart regret NONG: Gardenia fourteen (sectional), fragrant soy Snap (cotton wrap). On two ignorant to four liters of water, boiled gardenia get two liters and a half, satisfied soy, Zhuqu one liter and a half, to the dregs, is divided into two. Into a warm clothes, get spit back checking service. ("Treatise on" gardenia soy soup) [6]
2. Treatment of typhoid recover from illness after illness by workers re: citrus aurantium three (Sunburn), Gardenia fourteen (sectional), soy one liter (cotton wrap). On the shamisen, to clear Whey seven liters, empty Zhuqu four liters. Within citrus aurantium, gardenia, Zhuqu two liters, under soy, more cook five or six boiling, to the dregs, warm clothes points again, cover so slightly like sweat. If Sushi persons, a large piece Huang Rubo five six. ("Treatise on" citrus aurantium gardenia soy soup) [6]
3. Treatment of typhoid fever yellow body: fat Gardenia fifteen (sectional), licorice twelve (Sunburn), Cork twenty-two. On the shamisen, four liters of water, one liter Zhuqu gardenia and a half, to the dregs, sub-temperature and then serve. ("Treatise on" Gardenia Baipi soup) [6]
4. Heat treatment of jaundice: Gardenia four money, JGC, Hypericum each twelve. Decoction, served three times daily. ("Guangxi Chinese herbal medicine") [6]
5. Treatment of urinary shower, discredited, fresh gardenia twenty-two, sugar twelve. Decoction. ("Fujian Materia Medica") [6]
6. Governance urination: gardenia benevolence twenty-seven, a little Yanhua, a single pieces of garlic. The mash, spread paper flowers posted navel, or coated on the scrotum, namely long pass. ("Universal Relief") [6]
7. Treatment of acute gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea: Gardenia three money, plate column south Gomi (purple skin) roots five money, green wood two money. Drug Chaohei existence, plus five money honey. Decoction, second service. ("Unilateral prescription survey Selected") [6]
8. Cure mouth sores, throat pain and Cyprus, food must not: Daqing forty-two, mountain gardenia, Cork each twelve, Baimi catty. Upper cut to three liters of water, Jianqu one liter, to the dregs, fried twelve more under boiling honey containing it. ("Universal Relief" Gardenia soup)
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
9. Governance red eyes: Take Gardenia seven gold, drill into the 煻 gray fire simmer cooked, half a liter of water, simmer till eight together, to the dregs, into the rhubarb at the end of three money dagger, stir, spin-spin after eating warm clothes. ("San Franciscans overall record," Gardenia soup) [6]
10. Fire treatment epigastric pain, mountain gardenia seven or nine, Chaojiao, a water, fried seven, into the ginger juice drink. ("Dan compile") [6]
11. Governance nose Nvxue: Shanzhizi burning ash blowing it. ("Easy side theory") [6]
12. Wind Zhifei nose red wine: Laoshan Gardenia for the end of yellow wax and aliquots dissolved. For the pill large marbles. Hollow tea, wine chew down. Avoid alcohol, Sunburn Bo. ("Competent party") [6]
13. Governance red white diarrhea and bloody diarrhea: Shanzhizi Jen forty-seven. Filing for Whey one liter and a half, five co-fry, to the dregs. Hollow warm two minutes before eating. ("San Franciscans overall record," Gardenia Ren Tang) [6]
14. Thermal treatment of edema: mountain gardenia 25 grams, 7 grams woody, Atractylodes 12 grams. Fine cut, decoction. ("Danxi Heart") [6]
Fifteen. Governance woman sub-swollen wet and more: fried Shanzhizi a joint. To the end, rice drink to swallow, or pill clothing. ("Danxi Heart") [6]
16. Governance off injured throat: gardenia, with the pound flour, Tu. ("Set near Lake Jane Fang") [6]
17. Fire treatment erysipelas: gardenia, pound and water to apply it. ("Anthony set prescription") [6]
18. No cure sore from the fire: gardenia benevolence ash, sesame oil and letters, but thick better. ("Qian Jin Fang") [6]
19. Cure sore throat: Gardenia, dandelion, honeysuckle all four money. Decoction, served three times daily. Another student honeysuckle vine amount, smashed, wrap the affected area. ("Guangxi Chinese herbal medicine")
20. Burn treatment: gardenia end and sweep of concentrated chicken clear. ("Emergency party"). [6]
Gardenia - original plant
Gardenia - original plant
twenty one. Governance boils away in the course of time inside and outside: Gardenia (burning ash as research to fine), frankincense (another study) half the money a little light powder. On another research for the end filled with porcelain receptacle. Each used when the first light blue, pepper decoction to wash sores. Whey they receded again warm water to wash the evil waiting to do one hundred boiling boiled and then waiting for warm white wash. But sores and pus bloodshot eyes water all the best with pink silk drying. Then apply it. Such as dry by sesame oil dressing wet from dry mixed. But malignant sore mouth full of real soft Silk care of. Medium hard without pus is not available. As there is pus swollen soft wash applicator in accordance with the law before. ("Universal Relief" Wonderful Gardenia bulk) [6]
twenty two. Governance chancre sores: Gardenia 一枚 go Rang late alum batter hekou fire load saved for the end. Wash the dry-doped. ("Miraculous remedy" Gardenia bulk) [6]
Pharmacokinetics
Geniposide (Geniposide) is stable, unchanged at 37 ℃ pH1.8 gastric juice, but dissolve in the intestine can be metabolized substance genipin (Genipin). Hydroxyl iso Geniposide (Gardenoside) acid and heat labile, in the gastric juice can be converted into deacetylase Asperuloside methyl (Deacetylasperulosidic acid metbylester, DAM) and Paederia times methyl glucoside (Scan-doside methylester, SSM). DAM was dissolved in the intestines converted DAM-genin, while SSM converted SSM-genin.
Pharmacological effects
1. Effects on liver function
① The SD rats were divided into four groups; A was the control group; group B as normal animals, with 2g crude drug extract orally; group C bile duct ligation, causing hyperbilirubinemia animals; D group hyperbilirubinemia animals, and fed with gardenia extract 2g crude drugs. Experimental liver protein Y, Z protein, BSP clearance, bilirubin and related enzyme assay determination. [6]
Experimental results show:
1) Gardenia extract had no effect on serum alkaline phosphatase and vitality liver homogenates of animals caused by bile duct ligation alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity increased nearly 2-fold. However, there is no effect on the extract of Gardenia elevated enzyme activity. [6]
2) Gardenia extract minimal impact on rat serum and intrahepatic lactate dehydrogenase, the enzyme activity of 4 fluctuations animal groups were within the normal range. [6]
3) Gardenia extract had no effect on normal animal serum GOT. After bile duct ligation, 7-fold increase in serum GOT, gardenia extract can significantly reduce elevated enzyme up to 40%. GOT intrahepatic more stable, four groups of animals were not significantly changed. [6]
4) Gardenia extract the enzyme activity without affecting normal animals, but the animals can make the common bile duct ligation elevated enzyme activity returned to normal, gardenia extract can be considered a GT UDP does not increase vitality. [6]
5) Determination of urea glycoside liver diphosphate - glucose dehydrogenase showed bile duct ligation can be reduced enzyme activity, gardenia extract can increase enzyme activity in normal animals, but also can reduce the elevated enzyme activity. [6]
6) gardenia extract can increase the normal animal protein Y, Z amount of protein, but can not be reduced due to the bile duct ligation of protein Y, Z to increase the amount of protein. Show gardenia role of the anti-hyperbilirubinemia Y protein, protein Z little relationship. [6]
7) After the animals were dosed intravenously BSP (2g / 100g of body weight) were measured in the blood and bile BSP clearance, we found the time to reach the peak has a corresponding extension indicates that the liver is discharged from the BSP by the arrest process. [6]
8) gardenia can reduce serum bilirubin content, but with glucuronic acyl transferase-independent. It follows that Gardenia extract was non-toxic effect on the liver cells, gardenia extract can reduce levels of serum bilirubin levels, but the jaundice mechanism is more complex, it does not increase the UDP-GT vigor, nor increase the liver Y protein and the protein, but also not as tarragon, endocrine increase the amount of bile. [6]
② liver protective effect
1) ICR of rats in advance (24 or 48 hours ago) to at Gardenia extract prevented because galactosamine induced fulminant hepatitis. [6]
2) to rats in isothiocyanates a- naphthylisothiocyanate 50mg / kg, can increase serum bilirubin and serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase, such as daily for at Gardenia Sub crude extract (1.5g / kg, orally, three days) allows because serum bilirubin isothiocyanate a- naphthylisothiocyanate poisoned rats, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase decreased. Gardenia extract component Geniposide also have this effect. [6]
3) the impact on the liver: Rats were Crocetin 50mg / kg 8 on days liver function was not affected, but can cause acute liver discoloration. As high doses of 100mg / kg 2 周 can cause liver damage and black patina, but the low dose 10mg / kg 40 天 does not produce the above-mentioned case, the liver damage and black variations are completely reversible. Therefore, even at very high doses crocin on rat liver toxicity is extremely small, can not be achieved when people take such a high dose, so the prime saffron as a food coloring agent is very safe. [6]
2. Effects on bile secretion
Rats, rabbits proved, gardenia with gallbladder role. Its alcohol extract and Gardenia glycosides, crocin etc. can increase bile secretion. Rat oral, intravenous or duodenal give to Geniposide 25mg / kg caused increased secretion of bile to the duodenum administration most significant, several with potency dehydrogenase cholate quite. [6]
3. Impact of gastric secretion and gastrointestinal motility
Duodenum give Geniposide 25mg / kg, make the pylorus-ligated rats reduction of gastric secretion, decreased total acidity, pH value increased, the role of atropine sulfate equivalent to 1 / 5-1 / 10. Intravenous Geniposide and its aglycone (Genipin), doses of 100mg / kg and 25mg / kg, can inhibit the rat gastric motility and spontaneity pilocarpine (Pilocarpine) induced gastric contractions, but the effect is short. Low concentrations (1: 25,000) Gardenia alcohol extract can be excited rat, rabbit intestinal motility, high concentrations (1: 1,000) is suppressed. Mouse and guinea pig ileum in vitro tests showed Geniposide have weak anti-acetylcholine and anti-histamine effect. [6]
4. Promote the role of the pancreas
Yang Zhen and other juvenile pancreas with biliary cannulation of Gardenia and the effects of different extracts of bile flow and pancreatic trypsin activity in rats showed that extracts of gardenia and several significant benefits pancreas, gallbladder and pancreas drop enzyme effects. Geniposidic have the most significant decrease in pancreatic amylase, and its hydrolyzate increase genipin pancreaticobiliary strongest flow, short duration. Pei Kai Tak study suggests that gardenia promote pancreatic secretion may be related to maintaining pancreatic cell membrane structure and function is directly related to, and thus demonstrate the efficacy of the treatment of pancreatitis gardenia basis from the cellular level. Preliminary observation also found there gardenia membrane lipid peroxidation products to reduce the role. [6]
5. The effect on the central nervous system
Intraperitoneal injection of alcohol extract of Gardenia (Gardenia fruit after crushing ethanol percolation percolate concentrated under reduced pressure to alcohol at 50 ℃, made of 300% concentrate) 5.69g / kg, can reduce the spontaneous activity (pedal method), compared with the control group P <0.01, and the ratio of sodium pentobarbital and cyclohexanone (intravenous injection, 50mg / kg) have a synergistic effect, can extend the sleep time by nearly 12 times. However, if the treatment group mice fed 35g / kg Gardenia alcohol percolate, and then were in 1.2.3 hour intravenous hexobarbital sodium 50mg / kg, recording righting reflex time results only in 2 Gardenia hour dosing group can significantly prolong hexobarbital sodium sleep time (P <0.05). But gardenia for amphetamine-induced activities without antagonism. Gardenia mice injected alcohol extract 5.69g / kg, body temperature can be reduced by an average 3 ℃, intraperitoneal injection of 200mg / kg body temperature dropped more than seven hours sustainable. [6]
6. effect on the cardiovascular system
Gardenia decoction and alcohol extract of anesthesia or without anesthesia cats, rabbits, rats, whether orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously
Gardenia - original plant cultivation
Gardenia - original plant cultivation
Administration has antihypertensive effect, antihypertensive effect of adrenaline boost its role and blocked carotid artery pressure reflective element are affected. Nor strengthen hypotensive effect of acetylcholine. Give antihistamines such as diphenhydramine, had no effect on blood pressure lowering effect gardenia. Its antihypertensive effect is not caused due to the release of histamine. Intravenous injection of procaine not change hypotensive effect of gardenia, stating its hypotensive effect has nothing to do with the afferent nerve fibers. No blocking effect on ganglion. After cutting the fans on both sides of the vagus nerve, blood pressure lowering effect of gardenia significantly reduced or completely disappeared, atropine also cancel its hypotensive effect. So that the gardenia hypotensive effect caused by tension in the central part of the degree, gardenia hypotensive effect is to strengthen the extension of the brain parasympathetic center. Gardenia peripheral resistance also reported little effect on isolated rat heart perfusion experiments show gardenia extract can reduce myocardial contractility. Anesthetized dogs, mice intravenously Gardenia extract 500mg / kg induced ventricular systolic blood pressure is due to the volume and cardiac output. Im saffron acid (crocin hydrolyzate) 0.01mg / kg, can reduce cholesterol fed rabbits incidence of atherosclerosis. When the rats were intravenously injected large doses of 1g / kg of methanol extract of Gardenia, ECG can exhibit myocardial injury and atrioventricular block. But anesthetized rabbits intravenously Geniposide 30mg / kg, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram B have no significant effect. Hot gardenia fruit extract can stimulate the in vitro proliferation of bovine aortic endothelial cells, so that intimal be repaired. [6]
7. antibacterial
Gardenia decoction of diphtheria bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi inhibit a variety of skin fungi have different degrees of inhibition. [6]
8. The effect caused by diarrhea
Deacetylation Asperuloside methyl have diarrhea effect, median effective dose in mice was 0.53g / kg, administered 6 hours after the start of diarrhea. Hydroxy isopropyl Geniposide also cathartic effect, half of the mice were orally effective amount of 1.2g / kg, 3 hours after the service began to role. Cathartic effect Geniposide median effective dose of 300mg / kg, after taking three hours work. Geniposide acid cathartic effect median effective dose> 800mg / kg. [6]
9. analgesic effect
Geniposide and hydrolysates Genipin mice by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid-induced writhing movement inhibited. [6]
10. The anti-inflammatory and treatment of soft tissue injury in rats
Gardenia with ethanol extraction, concentrated under reduced pressure at below 40 ℃ to thick paste (G1); the ethanol extraction residue after water percolation, percolate water bath, evaporated (G2); the G1 portion dissolved in methanol plus diatomaceous earth mix in different organic solvent elution, respectively, was recovered solvent petroleum ether (G3), chloroform fraction (G4), the ethyl acetate fraction (G5), methanol portion (G6).
Then Geniposide (CA), hydrocortisone cream (HU), hydrocortisone injection (HI), trauma analgesic cream (HE) as a control. Observation of therapeutic effect and anti-inflammatory action of each separate part of gardenia soft tissue injury animal model. The results are as follows:
1. Gardenia each separate part of the treatment effect of soft tissue injury model:
1) Gardenia experimental treatment of soft tissue injury model in mice: mice by a special model is made of soft tissue hit, and then were coated
Gardenia - original plant shape
Gardenia - original plant shape
Medicine, 1 day, 4 times in a row, five days after death, according to the appearance of observation, divided into five groups score, at the same time observe the tissue sections, sub-four score. Gardenia G2.G3.G4 soft tissue injury in mice no therapeutic effect, G5 and G6 with a better therapeutic effect. After four dressing, observed from the outside has been basically cure, no bleeding, bleeding lesions. Histological observation, I saw a small amount of mild muscle fiber swelling and punctate hemorrhage, and trauma analgesic cream to soft tissue injury treatment had no significant effect.
Experimental treatment 2) G5.G6 soft tissue injury in rabbits with a similar Experiments show that, G5.G6 soft tissue injury in rabbits also have significant therapeutic effect, one hour after dressing, rabbit resume normal activities, bleeding, bleeding lesions improved markedly. Dressing 4 days, look no obvious bleeding and bleeding lesions. The animals were sacrificed 5 days histological observation, see mild swelling of muscle fibers, a bit like the inner part of the tissue bleeding and bleeding lesions. Further experiments proved traumatic balm bleeding and tissue damage, bleeding had no significant effect. [6]
Drugs (poison) Neo
Gardenia alcohol percolation concentrate (300%) 1 administration, intraperitoneal injection and oral median lethal dose in mice was 17.1g / kg and 107.48 / kg. Geniposide (Geniposide) and gardenia aqueous extract of low acute toxicity in mice, former oral, intraperitoneal injection, intravenous injection of lethal dose of 3g / kg. Aqueous extract intraperitoneal injection of lethal dose of 5g / kg. Genipin (Genipin) l doses observed 72 hours, its oral, intraperitoneal injection, intravenous injection of lethal dose in mice were 237.190 and 153mg / kg. Mice fed the ethanol extract of gardenia median lethal dose of 107.4g / kg, intraperitoneal injection of 27.45g / kg. Gardenia ethanol extract 10g / kg orally, for four consecutive days, the mice hexobarbital sodium sleep duration, liver grayish green, ethanol extract 4g / kg or didanosine Geniposide 250mg / kg irrigation stomach, for four days, can rat liver microsomal P-450 content and Nitroanisole demethylase activity decreased liver grayish green. Gardenia marrow micronucleus test, Ames test and chromosome aberration test indicate testicle, gardenia no mutagenic, teratogenic effects. [6]
Chemical composition editor
Fruit containing iridoid class components: Geniposide (gardenoside), both Jue son glycosides (geniposide), both sub-prime gentiobioside Jue glycosides (genipin-1-gentiobioside), Gardenia glycosides (shanzhiside), gardenia ketone glycosides (gardo-side), Paederia times methyl glucoside (scandoside methyl ester), both Jue son glycosides acid (geniposidic acid), deacetyl Asperuloside acid (deacetyl asperulosidic acid), deacetylation car clover methyl glucoside (methyl deacetyl asperulosidate), 10- acetyl glycosides are Jue son (10-acetylgeniposide) 6〃- coumaric acid are Jue sub-prime gentian disaccharide glycosides (6〃-p-coumaroyl genipin gentiobio-side ʱ?? And acids containing ingredients: chlorogenic acid (chlorogenic acid), 3,4- two -O- caffeoyl its quinine acid (3, -4-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid), 3-O- caffeoyl - 4-O- erucic acid Ji Kuining acid (3-O-caffeoyl-4-O-sinapoyl quinic acid), 3,5- two -O- caffeoyl -4-O- (3- hydroxy-3-methyl) pent diacyloxy Ji Kuining acid [3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O- (3-hydroxy-3-methyl) glutaroyl quinic acid], 3,4- two coffee-acyl-5 (3-hydroxy-3 - methyl glutaryl) quinic acid [3,4-dicaffeovl-5- (3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaroyl) quinic acid], saffron acid (cro-cetin), crocin (crocin), ursolic acid (ursolic acid), crocin glucoside (crocin glucoside) and the like. Also contain flavonoids: rutin (rutin) and D- mannitol (D-mannitol), β- sitosterol (β-sitosterol), choline (choline), nonacosane (nonacosane), lutein ( xanthophyll) and so on.
Peel and seeds also contain Geniposide are Jue son glycosides are glycosides acid Jue son, both sub-prime gentian Jue double glycosides.
Flower containing Triterpenes: gardenia acid (gradenlic acid) A, B and gardenia acid (gardenic acid) gardenia leaves contain glycosides, saponins are Jue son, gardenia aldehyde (cerbinal), hedione (methyl dihydrojasmonate), benzyl acetate, lemon (limonene), linalool (linalool) and the like.
Rhizome containing D- mannitol, oleanolic acid (oleanolic acid), stigmasterol (sing-masterol) [6]
Plant Culture Editor
Florid: "Joy", as the summer is full of vitality unknown hope and joy.
Flower divination: You have the mind of Gratitude, to be honest, as long as people have a little good for you, you will be reported to the mind thanks. This is because you have a Santa Claus, do not understand the misunderstandings, and you make your Huaikang sincere joy, forgiveness of others also allows you full of joy.
Flower maxim: sometimes put their own likes and dislikes manifested.
Also explained that the language of flowers gardenia - "eternal love and agreement." Beautiful sustenance. The effect is because this flower bud conceived from the beginning of winter, until near the summer solstice will bloom, bud of longer, more distant Qingfen; gardenia tree leaves, frost, snow and rain also after years of green does not wither. Thus, although seemingly casual bloom, it is experiencing a long-term effort and persistence. Perhaps gardenia such growth habit is more in line with the language of flowers. Not only is the place of love, plain, durable, warm, under refined appearance, the implication is beautiful, tough, mellow essence of life.
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Entry pictures
Entry pictures (9)
Gardenia
Gardenia (2)
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Gardenia
▪ ▪ Hainan spoon leaves gardenia gardenia gardenia ▪ ▪ ▪ large gardenia gardenia angustifolia
Reference material
1. gardenia. Flora of China [reference date 2013-11-28]
2. Tanghe: businessmen gathered Gardenia was "stolen." Farmer Daily. 2006-09-14 [reference date 2015-06-10]
3. Gardenia Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis. China Species Information Database [reference date 2012-11-3]
4. How potted gardenia? ʱ?? Xiantao City Bureau of Parks [reference date 2013-11-28]
















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