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金銀花 Lonicera Flower (Lonicerae Japonica Flos) Honeysuckle - Jin Yin Hua

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金银花

 编辑
金银花 ,又名忍冬(学名:Lonicera japonica)。“金银花”一名出自《本草纲目》,由于忍冬花初开为白色,后转为黄色,因此得名金银花。药材金银花为忍冬科忍冬属植物忍冬及同属植物干燥花蕾或带初开的花。[1] 
金银花,三月开花,五出,微香,蒂带红色,花初开则色白,经一、二日则色黄,故名金银花。又因为一蒂二花,两条花蕊探在外,成双成对,形影不离,状如雄雌相伴,又似鸳鸯对舞,故有鸳鸯藤之称。[2] 
本种最明显的特征在于具有大形的叶状苞片。它在外貌上有些象华南忍冬,但那个种的苞片狭细而非叶状,萼筒密生短柔毛,小枝密生卷曲的短柔毛,与本种明显不同。这个种的形态变异非常大,无论在枝、叶的毛被、叶的形状和大小以及花冠的长度、毛被和唇瓣与筒部的长度比例等方面,都有很大的变化。但所有这些变化看来较多地同生态环境相联系,并未显示与地理分布之间的相关性。
金银花自古被誉为清热解毒的良药。它性甘寒气芳香,甘寒清热而不伤胃,芳香透达又可祛邪。金银花既能宣散风热,还善清解血毒,用于各种热性病,如身热、发疹、发斑、热毒疮痈、咽喉肿痛等症,均效果显著。[3] 
中文学名
忍冬
拉丁学名
Lonicera japonica Thunb.
别    称
金银藤、银藤、二色花藤、二宝藤、右转藤、子风藤、鸳鸯藤、二花
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
合瓣花亚纲
茜草目
忍冬科
忍冬族
忍冬属
亚    属
忍冬亚属
金银花
药用部位
以花蕾或带初开的花入药
功    效
清热解毒药

形态特征编辑

金银花的形态金银花的形态
金银花属多年生半常绿缠绕及匍匐茎的灌木。小枝细长,中空,藤为褐色至赤褐色。卵形叶子对生,枝叶均密生柔毛和腺毛。夏季开花,苞片叶状,唇形花有淡香,外面有柔毛和腺毛,雄蕊和花柱均伸出花冠,花成对生于叶腋,花色初为白色,渐变为黄色,黄白相映,球形浆果,熟时黑色。
金银花幼枝洁红褐色,密被黄褐色、开展的硬直糙毛、腺毛和短柔毛,下部常无毛。叶纸质,卵形至矩圆状卵形,有时卵状披针形,稀圆卵形或倒卵形,极少有1至数个钝缺[2]  ,长3~5厘米,顶端尖或渐尖,少有钝、圆或微凹缺,基部圆或近心形,有糙缘毛,上面深绿色,下面淡绿色,小枝上部叶通常两面均密被短糙毛,下部叶常平滑无毛而下面多少带青灰色;叶柄长4~8毫米,密被短柔毛。
总花梗通常单生于小枝上部叶腋,与叶柄等长或稍较短,下方者则长达2~4厘米,密被短柔后,并夹杂腺毛;苞片大,叶状,卵形至椭圆形,长达2~3厘米,两面均有短柔毛或有时近无毛;小苞片顶端圆形或截形,长约1毫米,为萼筒的1/2~4/5,有短糙毛和腺毛;萼筒长约2毫米,无毛,萼齿卵状三角形或长三角形,顶端尖而有长毛,外面和边缘都有密毛;花冠白色,有时基部向阳面呈微红,后变黄色,长 (2~) 3~4.5 (~6)厘米,唇形,筒稍长于唇瓣,很少近等长,外被多少倒生的开展或半开展糙毛和长腺毛,上唇裂片顶端钝形,下唇带状而反曲;雄蕊和花柱均高出花冠。
花蕾呈棒状,上粗下细。外面黄白色或淡绿色,密生短柔毛。花萼细小,黄绿色,先端5裂,裂片边缘有毛。开放花朵筒状,先端二唇形,雄蕊5,附于筒壁,黄色,雌蕊1,子房无毛。气清香,味淡,微苦。以花蕾未开放、色黄白或绿白、无枝叶杂质者为佳。[1] 
果实圆形,直径6~7毫米,熟时蓝黑色,有光泽;种子卵圆形或椭圆形,褐色,长约3毫米,中部有1凸起的脊,两侧有浅的横沟纹。花期4~6月(秋季亦常开花),果熟期10~11月。[1] 

植物形态

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    金银花全株
    金银花全株(23张)
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    金银花花果
    金银花花果(15张)

生长习性编辑

金银花适应性很强,喜阳、耐阴,耐寒性强,也耐干旱和水湿,对土壤要求不严,但以湿润、肥沃的深厚沙质壤上生长最佳,每年春夏两次发梢。根系繁密发达,萌蘖性强,茎蔓着地即能生根。喜阳光和温和、湿润的环境,生活力强,适应性广,耐寒,耐旱,在荫蔽处,生长不良。生于山坡灌丛或疏林中、乱石堆、山足路旁及村庄篱笆边,海拔最高达1500米。[1] 

产地分布编辑

中国各省均有分布。朝鲜和日本也有分布。在北美洲逸生成为难除的杂草。金银花的种植区域主要集中在山东陕西河南河北湖北江西广东等地。
其中,山东省临沂市平邑县为金银花的主产区,种植面积最大,野生品种居多,历史悠久,约有50万亩。金银花多野生于较湿润的地带,如溪河两岸、湿润山坡灌丛、疏林中。[1] 
其次,封丘金银花有1500多年的种植历史,梁代著名医学家陶弘景所著《名医别录》中有明确记载。1984年封丘县金银花栽培面积已达10028亩,当年最高金银花收购量为25万余公斤,被国家确定为金银花生产基地。封丘金银花的品种优良,花蕾粗长肥厚,色艳质佳,香气扑鼻,药用效力高。

主要价值编辑

经济价值

树型金银花“金花3号”示范基地树型金银花“金花3号”示范基地
忍冬是一种具有悠久历史的常用中药,始载于《名医别录》,列为上品。“金银花”一名始见于李时珍《本草纲目》,在“忍冬”项下提及,因近代文献沿用已久,现已公认为该药材的正名,并收入《中国药典》。此外,尚有“银花”、“双花”、“二花”、“二宝花”、“双宝花”等药材名称。
中国作为商品出售的金银花原植物总数不下17种(包括亚种和变种),而以本种分布最广,销售量也最大。商品药材主要来源于栽培品种,以河南的“南银花”或“密银花”和山东的“东银花”或“济银花”产量最高,品质也最佳,供销全国并出口。野生品种来自华东、华中和西南各省区,总称“山银花”或“上银花”,一般自产自销,亦有少量外调。因药材供不应求,不少地区正积极开展引种栽培,金银花的产区日见扩大。[3] 
以药养花、经济效益显著:在金银花行间套药材的种植模式可以使经济效益显著提高。金银花生长前期套种甘草,其经济效益和以上的分析基本相同。同时通过对甘草的施肥、浇水管理,金银花从中得到了充足养分而旺盛生长。第一年可采收金银花20kg,市价35元/kg,亩收入700元。第二年采收金银花60kg,亩收入2000元,再加上套种甘草的收入,效益相当可观。 第三年金银花进入了丰产期,亩产干花150~200kg,效益可达5000元以上。同时其行内形成了一定的隐蔽度,为喜湿、耐荫的半夏生长提供了天然生存条件,所以半夏长势良好,效益可想而知,可谓是一举多得。
金银花广泛的药用价值和保健用途,给商家带来了无限的商机。国家商业部南京野生植物研究所利用现代科学技术,研究开发的金银花茶,产品俏销香港、新加坡和美国。用金银花提取的医用原料“绿原酸”每公斤售价高达1000元以上,在国内外市场仍是供不应求的抢手货。金银花也可以不经加工,烘晒成干品后直接出口创汇,中国每年出口金银花创汇达数千万美元。[4] 

药用价值

豫封一号金银花豫封一号金银花
金银花自古以来就以它的药用价值广泛而著名。其功效主要是清热解毒,主治温病发热、热毒血痢、痈疽疔毒等。现代研究证明,金银花含有绿原酸、木犀草素苷等药理活性成分,对溶血性链球菌、金黄葡萄球菌等多种致病菌及上呼吸道感染致病病毒等有较强的抑制力,另外还可增强免疫力、抗早孕、护肝、抗肿瘤、消炎、解热、止血(凝血)、抑制肠道吸收胆固醇等,其临床用途非常广泛,可与其它药物配伍用于治疗呼吸道感染菌痢、急性泌尿系统感染、高血压等40余种病症。
金银花性寒,味甘,入肺、心、胃经,具有清热解毒、抗炎、补虚疗风的功效,主治胀满下疾、温病发热,热毒痈疡和肿瘤等症。其对于头昏头晕、口干作渴、多汗烦闷、肠炎、菌痢、麻疹肺炎乙脑流脑、急性乳腺炎、败血症阑尾炎、皮肤感染、痈疽疔疮、丹毒、腮腺炎、化脓性扁桃体炎等病症均有一定疗效。
金银花藤煲水后对小孩湿疹等皮肤瘙痒有一定治疗作用,对畜禽的多种至病的病菌、病毒有抑制作用,在动物饲养过程中若能添加一定剂量的金银花藤叶(忍冬藤)粉或煲水,对预防和治疗动物的温病发热、风热感冒、咽喉炎症、肺炎、痢疾、 肿溃疡、丹毒蜂窝组织炎等症均有相当好的作用。用连翘板蓝根煎金银花汤可以治疗腮腺炎;金银花茶可以祛暑明目;连翘金银花凉汤可治疗外感发热咳嗽。同时将金银花、菊花、桔梗和甘草加水煮沸10分钟,侯凉,当饮料饮用,可治疗咽喉炎扁桃体炎
已生产的金银花制剂有“银翘解毒片”、“银黄片”、“银黄注射液”等。“金银花露”是金银花用蒸馏法提取的芳香性挥发油及水溶性溜出物,为清火解毒的良品,可治小儿胎毒、疮疖、发热口喝等症;暑季用以代茶,能治温热痧痘、血痢等。茎藤称“忍冬藤”,也供药用。金银花的有效成份为绿原酸和异绿原酸。这是植物代谢过程中产生的次生物质,其含量的高低不仅取决于植物的种类,而且可能在很大程度上受气候、土壤等生态、地理条件以及物候期的影响。[3] 
金银花茶有独特的减肥功能,还能抑制与杀灭咽喉部的病原菌,对老人和儿童有抗感染功效。经常服用金银花浸泡或煎剂有利于风火目赤、咽喉肿痛、肥胖症、肝热症和肝热型高血压的治疗与康复。[5] 

优劣区别

金银花药用价值和保健用途广泛,社会需求量大。金银花的成色不同,药用效果也不同。下面介绍如何鉴别金银花的优劣。 
  金银花为忍冬科植物忍冬的花蕾,性味甘寒。中国大部地区均产,而以山东产量最大,但是河南产的质量最佳,为道地产地。金银花有清热解毒,疏散风热,凉血止痢,降血降火,消咽利膈之功效。河南产金银花质优价廉,市场上冒充产地的问题比较大,建议购买知名品牌生产的金银花。治温病发热,热毒血痢,痈疡,肿毒,瘰疬,痔漏。气清香,味淡、微苦。由于忍冬花初开为白色,后转为黄色,因此得名金银花。
成色越好的金银花药效越好,价值也更高,因此,需要学会分辨。我们来看看不同成色的金银花如何鉴别。
  金银花商品国家标准分为四等:
  一等:货干,花蕾呈捧状,上粗下细,略弯曲,表面绿白色,花冠厚稍硬,握之有顶手感;气清香,味甘微苦。开放花朵、破裂花蕾及黄条不超过5%。无黑条、黑头、枝叶、杂质、虫蛀、霉变;
  二等:与一等基本相同,唯开放花朵不超过5%。破裂花蕾及黄条不超过10%;
  三等:货干,花蕾呈棒状,上粗下细,略弯曲,表面绿白色或黄白色,花冠厚质硬,握之有顶手感。气清香,味甘微苦。开放花朵、黑头不超过30%。无枝叶、杂质、虫蛀、霉变; 
  四等:货干。花蕾或开放花朵兼有,色泽不分。枝叶不超过3%,无杂质、虫蛀、霉变。只有知道如何鉴别金银花,才可以确保购买到好的金银花,这样才能更好地治疗疾病。
临床
  1. 温病初期:常与;连翘、薄荷、淡豆鼓等同用,具有清热解毒、疏风解表作用,可用以温病初期,发热微恶寒风寒,口微渴,如银翘散;
  2. 痈疽疔毒:常与蒲公英、紫地丁、野菊花等同用,能增强清热解毒作用,可用以痈疽疔毒,红肿疼痛,如五味消毒饮。
  3. 温病中期:常与黄芩栀子、石膏、竹茹芦根等同用,具有清热解毒、透邪外出、和胃止呕作用,可用以邪热壅阻,胃气不和,发热烦躁,胸膈痞闷,口渴干呕,舌红苔燥,脉象滑数。
  4. 赤痢:常与黄连、赤芍、木香、马齿苋等同用,具有清热理肠、化滞和血作用,可用以湿热中阻、损伤肠络脂膜,下痢脓血,血多于脓,腹痛,里急后重。
  5. 疫痢:常与生地黄、赤芍、丹皮、黄连、黄柏、白头翁等同用,具有清热解毒、凉血止痢作用,可用以疫毒侵袭肠胃,与气血搏结,痢下鲜紫脓血,壮热口渴,烦躁不安,甚至神昏谵语。
处方用名:用生药写银花、二花、双花、金银花、二宝花、忍冬花、河南花、山东花;用炒药写炒银花、炒双花、炒忍冬花;用炭药写银花炭、二花炭等。
用量:生药10~30g;炒药10~20g;炭药10~15g。
药方选录
①预防乙脑、流脑:金银花、连翘。大青根、芦根、甘草各15g。水煎代茶饮,每日一剂,连服三至五天。(《江西草药》)
②治太阴风温、温热,冬温初起,但热不恶寒而渴者:连翘50g,银花50g,苦桔梗30g,薄荷30g,竹叶20快,生甘草25g,荆芥穗20g,淡豆豉25g,牛蒡子30g。上杵为散,每服30g,鲜苇根汤煎服。(《温病条辨》银翘散)
③治痢疾:金银花(入铜锅内,焙枯存性)25g。红痢以白蜜水调服,白痢以沙糖水调服。(《惠直堂经验方》忍冬散)
④治热淋:金银花、海金沙藤、天胡荽、金樱子根、白茅根各50g。水煎服,每日一剂,五至七天为一疗程。(《江西草药》)
⑤治胆道感染,创口感染:金银花50g,连翘、大青根、黄芩、野菊花各25g。水煎服,每日一剂。(《江西草药》)
⑥治疮疡痛甚,色变紫黑者:金银花连枝叶(锉)100g,黄芪200g,甘草50g。上细切,用酒一升,同入壶瓶内,闭口,重汤内煮三、二时辰,取出,去滓,顿服之。(《活法机要》回疮金银花散)
⑦治一切肿毒,不问已溃未溃,或初起发热,并疔疮便毒,喉痹乳蛾:金银花(连茎叶)自然汁半碗,煎八分服之,以滓敷上,败毒托里,散气和血,其功独胜。(《积善堂经验方》)
⑧治痈疽发背初起:金银花250g,水十碗煎至二碗,入当归100g,同煎至一碗,一气服之。(《洞天奥旨》归花汤)
⑨治一切内外痈肿:金银花200g,甘草150g。水煎顿服,能饮者用酒煎服。(《医学心悟》忍冬汤)
⑩治大肠生痈,手不可按,右足屈而不伸:金银花150g,当归100g,地榆50g,麦冬50g,玄参50g,生甘草15g,薏仁25g,黄芩10g。水煎服。(《洞天奥旨》清肠饮)

观赏价值

金银花由于匍匐生长能力比攀援生长能力强,故更适合于在林下、林缘、建筑物北侧等处做地被栽培;还可以做绿化矮墙;亦可以利用其缠绕能力制作花廊、花架、花栏、花柱以及缠绕假山石等等。优点是蔓生长量大,管理粗放,缺点是蔓与蔓缠绕,地面覆盖高低不平,使人感觉杂乱无章。[4] 

药(毒)理学编辑

金银花水浸液灌胃,对家兔、犬等无明显毒性反应,对呼吸、血压、尿量均无影响。小鼠皮下注射本品浸膏的LD50为53g/kg。绿原酸具有致敏原作用,可引起变态反应,但口服无此反应,因绿原酸可为小肠分泌物转化为无致敏活性的物质。溶血试验结果表明:蒸晒品0.1~0.5mL均在3小时内无溶血现象;生晒品0.1~0.5mL在加药后立即出现溶血现象;贵州山银花0.1~0.5mL均在3小时内无溶血现象;河南蜜银花pH6.0时0.1~0.3mL无溶血现象;山东济银花:0.1~0.5mL均在3小时无溶血现象。5种材料的LD50顺序为:蜜银花<济银花<蒸晒品<贵州商品,灰毡毛忍冬蒸晒品无溶血性,而生晒的有溶血性,故作注射液原料,必须采用蒸晒品。[6] 
1、抗病原微生物作用:体外实验表明,花和藤对多种致病菌如金黄色葡萄球菌溶血性链球菌、大肠杆菌、痢疾杆菌霍乱弧菌伤寒杆菌、副伤寒杆菌等均有一定抑制作用,对肺炎球菌脑膜炎双球菌绿脓杆菌结核杆菌亦有效。水浸剂比煎剂作用强,叶煎剂比花煎剂作用强。若和连翘合用,抗菌范围还可互补;与青霉素合用,能加强青霉素对耐药金黄色葡萄球菌的抗菌作用,这可能是在抑制细菌体内蛋白质合成上有协同的作用。
2、抗炎和解热作用腹腔注射金银花提取液0.25g/kg,能抑制大鼠角叉菜胶性脚肿。另有报道金银花注射液30~40g/kg能减轻蛋清性脚肿程度。腹腔注射金银花提取液8g/kg,2次/天,连续6天,对大鼠巴豆油性肉芽囊,也有明显抗渗出和抗增生的作用。早期报道金银花具有明显的解热作用,但用霍乱菌苗、马铃薯杆菌、枯草浸液等给家兔耳静脉注射,致热,未证实金银花煎剂5g/kg灌胃有退热作用,认为这可能和使用的金银花制剂、剂量或家兔的耐受性不同有关。
3、加强免疫机能作用:金银花煎剂稀释至1:1280的浓度,仍能促进白细胞的吞噬功能。小鼠腹腔注射金银花注射液,也有明显促进炎性细胞吞噬功能的作用。
4、中枢兴奋作用经电休克、转笼等多种实验方法证明口服绿原酸后,可引起大鼠、小鼠等动物中枢神经系统兴奋,其作用强度为咖啡因的1/6,二者合用无相加及增强作用。
5、降血脂作用大鼠灌胃金银花2.5g/kg能减少肠内胆固醇吸收,降低血浆中胆固醇含量。体外实验也发现金银花可和胆固醇相结合,但四妙勇安汤(金银花、玄参、当归、甘草)治疗家兔实验性动脉粥样硬化。未观察到有降血脂和主动脉壁胆固醇含量的作用。
6、抗内毒素鲎试验法测定内毒素含量,300%金银花(忍冬)注射液以1:2~1:64稀释,体外试验无论用凹片法或试管法,均明显降低试液中的内毒素含量,其中1:2~1:8的稀释管与阴性对照管一样呈液态,阳性对照呈凝胶状。金银花(忍冬)蒸馏液6g/kg静脉注射,对绿脓杆菌内毒互2.8mg/kg静脉注射引起的兔体温下降及白细胞数下降有对抗作用,金银花(忍冬)蒸馏液7.5g/kg或注射液2.5g/kg腹腔注射,对绿脓杆菌内毒素65mg/kg腹腔注射的小鼠有保护作用,减少小鼠死亡率。
7、其它作用曾有体外筛选实验报告金银花的水及酒浸液对肉瘤180及艾氏腹水癌有明显的细胞毒作用。金银花提取物口服对大鼠实验性胃溃疡有轻度预防效果。口服大剂量绿原酸能增加胃肠蠕动,促进胃液及胆汁分泌。绿原酸及其分解产物对大鼠离体子宫有兴奋作用。此外,绿原酸还能轻微增强肾上腺素及其去甲肾上腺素对猫和大鼠的升压作用,但对猫的瞬膜反应无影响。[6]  [7] 

栽培技术编辑

金银花的适应性很强,对土壤和气候的选择并不严格,以土层较厚的沙质壤土为最佳。山坡、梯田、地堰、堤坝、瘠薄的丘陵都可栽培。繁殖可用播种、插条和分根等方法。[3]  在当年生新枝上孕蕾开花。对土壤要求不严,酸性,盐碱地均能生长。根系发达,生根力强,是一种很好的固土保水植物,山坡、河堤等处都可种植,故农谚讲:“涝死庄稼旱死草,冻死石榴晒伤瓜,不会影响金银花”。[4] 

种子繁殖

4月播种,将种子在35~40℃温水中浸泡24h,取出拦2~3倍湿沙催芽,等裂口达30%左右时播种。在畦上按行距21~22cm开沟播种,覆土1cm,每2天喷水1次,10余日即可出苗,秋后或第2年春季移栽,每1h㎡用种子15kg左右。[8] 

扦插繁殖

一般在雨季进行。在夏秋阴雨天气,选健壮无病虫害的1~2年生枝条截成30~35cm,摘去下部叶子作插条,随剪随用。在选好的土地上,按行距1.6m、株距1.5m挖穴,穴深16~18cm,每穴5~6根插条,分散形斜立着埋土内,地上露出7~10cm,左右,填土压实(透气透水性好的沙质土为佳)。[9] 
扦插的枝条开根之前应注意遮阴,避免阳光直晒造成枝条干枯。也可采用扦插育苗;在7~8月间,按行距23~26cm,开沟,深16cm左右,株距2cm,把插条斜立着放到沟里,填土压实,以透气透水性好的沙质土为育苗土,开根最快,并且不易被病菌侵害而造成枝条腐烂。栽后喷一遍水,以后干旱时,每隔2天要浇水1遍,半月左右即能生根,第2年春季或秋季移栽。

整形修剪

剪枝是在秋季落叶后到春季发芽前进行,一般是旺枝轻剪,弱枝强剪,枝枝都剪,剪枝时要注意新枝长出后要有利通风透光。对细弱枝、枯老枝、基生枝等全部剪掉,对肥水条件差的地块剪枝要重些,株龄老化的剪去老枝,促发新枝。幼龄植株以培养株型为主,要轻剪,山岭地块栽植的一般留4~5个主干枝,平原地块要留1~2个主干枝,主干要剪去顶稍,使其增粗直立。
整形是结合剪枝进行的,原则上是以肥水管理为基础,整体促进,充分利用空间,增加枝叶量,使株型更加合理,并且能明显地增花高产。剪枝后的开花时间相对集中,便于采收加工,一般剪后能使枝条直立,去掉细弱枝与基生枝有利于新花的形成。摘花后再剪,剪后追施一次速效氮肥,浇一次水,促使下茬花早发,这样一年可收4次花,平均每667平方米可产干花150~200kg。[9] 

田间管理

追肥:栽植后的头1~2年内,是金银花植株发育定型期,多施一些人畜粪、草木灰、尿素、硫酸钾等肥料。栽植2~3年后,每年春初,应多施畜杂肥、厩肥、饼肥、过磷酸钙等肥料。第一茬花采收后即应追适量氮、磷、钾复合肥料,为下茬花提供充足的养分。每年早春萌芽后和第一批花收完时,开环沟浇施人粪尿、化肥等。每种肥料施用250g,施肥处理对金银花营养生长的促进作用大小顺序为:尿素+磷酸二氢铵,硫酸钾复合肥,尿素,碳酸氢铵,其中尿素+磷酸二氢铵、硫酸钾复合肥、尿素能够显著提高金银花产量,结合营养生长和生殖生长状况以及施肥成本,追肥以追施尿素+磷酸二氢铵(150g+100g)或250g硫酸钾复合肥为好。[9] 

收获加工

金银花采收最佳时间是清晨和上午,此时采收花蕾不易开放,养分足、气味浓、颜色好。下午采收应在太阳落山以前结束,因为金银花的开放受光照制约,太阳落后成熟花蕾就要开放,影响质量。不带幼蕾,不带叶子,采后放入条编或竹编的篮子内,集中的时候不可堆成大堆,应摊开放置,放置时间最长不要超过4小时。
金银花商品以花蕾为佳,混入开放的花或梗叶杂质者质量较逊。花蕾以肥大、色青白、握之干净者为佳。5、6月间采收,择晴天早晨露水刚干时摘取花蕾,置于芦席、石棚或场上雄开晾晒或通风阴干,以1~2天内晒干为好。晒花时切勿翻动,否则花色变黑而降低质量,至九成干,拣去枝叶杂质即可。忌在烈日下曝晒。阴天可微火烘干,但花色较暗,不如晒干或阴干为佳。[3] 

病虫防治

金银花褐斑病介绍金银花褐斑病介绍
褐斑病:叶部常见病害,造成植株长势衰弱。多在生长后期发病,8~9月份为发病盛期,在多雨潮湿的条件下发病重。发病初期在叶上形成褐色小点,后扩大成褐色圆病斑或不规则病斑。病斑背面生有灰黑色霉状物,发病重时,能使叶片脱落。防治方法:剪除病叶,然后用1:1.5:200比例的波尔多液喷洒,每7~10天1次,连续2~3次:或用65%代森锌500倍稀释液或托布津1000~1500倍稀释液,每隔7天喷1次,连续2~3次。
白粉病:在温暖干燥或植株荫蔽的条件下发病重;施氮过多,植株茂密,发病也重。发病初期,叶片上产生白色小点,后逐渐扩大成白色粉斑,继续扩展布满全叶,造成叶片发黄,皱缩变形,最后引起落花、落叶、枝条干枯。防治方法;清园处理病残株;发生期用50%托布津1000倍液或BO-10生物制喷雾。
蚜虫:危害叶片、嫩枝,引起叶片和花蕾卷曲,生长停止,产量锐减。4~6月虫情较重,“立夏”前后,特别是阴雨天,蔓延更快。防治方法:用40%乐果1000~1500倍稀释液或灭蚜松(灭蚜灵)1000~1500倍稀释液喷杀,连续多次,直至杀灭。
尺蠖:茬花后幼虫蚕食叶片,引起减产。防治方法:入春后,在植株周围1米内挖土灭蛹。幼虫发生初期,喷2.5%鱼藤精乳油400~600倍液;或用敌敌畏、敌百虫等喷杀 ,但花期要停止喷药。[10] 
炭疽病:叶片病斑近圆形,潮湿时叶片上着生橙红色点状黏状物。防治方法:清除残株病叶,集中烧毁;移栽前用1:1:150~200波尔多液浸种5~10分钟;发病期喷施65%代森锌500倍液或50%退菌特800~1000倍液。
天牛:植株受害后,逐渐衰老枯萎乃至死亡。防治方法:成虫出土时,用80%敌百虫1000倍液灌注花墩。在产卵盛期,7~10天喷1次90%敌百虫晶体800。1000倍液;发现虫枝,剪下烧毁;如有虫孔,塞入80%敌敌畏原液浸过的药棉,用泥土封住,毒杀幼虫。[9] 

发展历史编辑

神农本草经》载:“金银花性寒味甘,具有清热解毒、凉血化淤之功效,主治外感风热、瘟病初起、疮疡疔毒、红肿热痛、便脓血”等。
《本草纲目》中详细论述了金银花具有“久服轻身、延年益寿”的功效。二十世纪八十年代,国家卫生部对金银花先后进行了化学分析,结果表明:金银花含有多种人体必须的微量元素和化学成分,同时含有多种对人体有利的活性酶物质,具有抗衰老,防癌变,轻身健体的良好功效。
金银花最早栽培记载见于宋代《苏沈内翰良方》,其中称:“可移根庭栏间,以备急。”许多地方县志也有记载,如清光绪二十二年《费县志》称:“花有黄白故名金银花,从前间有之,不过采以代茶,至嘉庆初,商旅贩往他处,……不数年山角水湄栽植几遍。”由此可知,金银花有着悠久的栽培历史。
1984年国家中医药管理局将其确定为35种名贵中药材之一,后来又被确定为药食兼用品种。金银花药用历史悠久,早在3000年前,我们祖先就开始用它防治疾病,在《名医别录》中被列为上品。

争议编辑

微博截图微博截图
2014年8月12日,湖南省纪委预防腐败室副主任陆群在其新浪实名微博“御史在途”称,国家药典委把中国南方地区传承上千年的“金银花”更名为“山银花”后,给数以千万计的百姓造成重大经济损失。陆群指称这不是表面上的一个学术问题,中间存在黑幕,为此实名举报国家食药监总局。
食药监总局直属单位国家药典委员会昨天在其官方网站挂出声明,再次解释:关于“金银花”和“山银花”的分类问题,声明如下:“金银花”作为药名首见于南宋的《履巉岩本草》。《中国药典》自1963年版开始收载金银花,1963年版《中国药典》规定供药用的金银花植物来源只有一种,即忍冬科植物忍冬的干燥花蕾。1977年版《中国药典》在金银花标准中增收了其他3个植物来源,分别是山银花(华南忍冬)、红腺忍冬和毛花柱忍冬。经查当年的药典技术档案,由于刚刚结束“文化大革命”,药典工作属恢复初期,新增的3个来源未能找到支持其收载入药典的相关研究资料。
鉴于实践中金银花、山银花药材在药用历史、来源、性状、化学成分等方面的差异,经过专业委员会审定,2005年版《中国药典》将金银花和山银花分列进入药典目录。金银花是忍冬科植物忍冬的干燥花蕾。山银花有4种,即“红腺忍冬”“华南忍冬”“灰毡毛忍冬”“黄褐毛忍冬”。2005年版《中国药典》颁布后,食品药品监管部门发文并通过多种形式要求实际使用金银花或山银花的企业应在处方中予以明确标示,以确保消费者在购买药品时获得准确的药品信息。为了引导种植者合理种植,一些产区媒体曾做了相关科普知识报道。[11] 
据河南一药学专家介绍,金银花和山银花在药性上没多大区别。金银花又称“二花”,最早时,忍冬科的忍冬是金银花主流品种,不存在分类。由于药性相同,在国内,广东、广西、湖南等地也用忍冬科的山银花、红腺忍冬和毛花柱忍冬等作为金银花入药,且使用广泛。1977年,国家在制定药典时,考虑到各地用药的实际情况,承认金银花包括了以上这4个品种。该专家认为,其实这几种植物来源在临床上有相似性,可以互相代替,比如清热解毒,在效果方面,差异并没有那么大。
2005年,国家有关部门认为忍冬科忍冬和其他几种还是有差异,主要是在化学成分、药理研究方面,所以在金银花标准上只保留了忍冬科的忍冬,把其他3种归入山银花。金银花的主要产地是山东沂蒙山、临沂以及河南的封丘等地。[11] 
2014年11月初,国家食药监总局官网发布消息,在《食品药品监管总局办公厅关于〈中国药典〉分列管理中药材品种有关问题的复函》中称,各生产企业将处方中金银花明确为山银花的,应将金银花变更为山银花投料生产,并按要求进行备案说明。对此,陆群公开表示,此次复函对南方的“山银花”来说是一个重大利好消息,起码现可以把“山银花”用作处方备案,“原是把‘山银花’赶出了市场,没有合法的地位,虽名义上可以备案,但实际上是故意制造障碍不予备案。[12-13] 
2015年6月18日,新版中国药典发布:未将山银花归入金银花。[14] 
山银花山银花
金银花金银花

忍冬属

忍冬亚属
空枝组
 短萼忍冬 金花忍冬 金银忍冬 平卧忍冬
 长白忍冬 新疆忍冬 毛花忍冬
囊管组
短冠亚组
 粘毛忍冬 异叶忍冬 吉隆忍冬 丁香叶忍冬
 倒卵叶忍冬 华西忍冬
大苞亚组
 异萼忍冬 微毛忍冬 短柱忍冬 刚毛忍冬
 藏西忍冬 垫状忍冬 齿叶忍冬 冠果忍冬
 唇花忍冬
蓝果亚组
 蓝果忍冬
葱皮亚组
 葱皮忍冬 白背忍冬
郁香亚组
 截萼忍冬 灰毛忍冬 北京忍冬 郁香忍冬
 矮小忍冬 短尖忍冬 早花忍冬 单花忍冬
蕊帽亚组
 蕊被忍冬 女贞叶忍冬 蕊帽忍冬 赤水忍冬
 绢柳林忍冬
紫花亚组
 杯萼忍冬 玉山忍冬 理塘忍冬 小叶忍冬
 瘤基忍冬 袋花忍冬 短苞忍冬 毛药忍冬
 四川忍冬 太白忍冬 唐古特忍冬 毛果忍冬
红花亚组
 短梗忍冬 甘肃忍冬 柳叶忍冬 紫花忍冬
 下江忍冬 红脉忍冬 黑果忍冬 凹叶忍冬
 华北忍冬
直管组
 沼生忍冬 狭叶忍冬 钟花忍冬 矮生忍冬
 细叶忍冬 越桔叶忍冬 岩生忍冬 棘枝忍冬
 毛冠忍冬 管花忍冬
忍冬组
 长距忍冬 淡红忍冬 西南忍冬 滇西忍冬
 醉鱼草状忍冬 海南忍冬 华南忍冬 匍匐忍冬
 水忍冬 锈毛忍冬 黄褐毛忍冬 大果忍冬
 菰腺忍冬 卵叶忍冬 忍冬 长花忍冬
 卷瓣忍冬 大花忍冬 灰毡毛忍冬 云雾忍冬
 短柄忍冬 皱叶忍冬 细毡毛忍冬 毛萼忍冬
轮花亚属
 长睫毛忍冬 盘叶忍冬 云南忍冬 肉叶忍冬
 贯月忍冬 川黔忍冬
以上物种均分布于中国

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
  • 1.  忍冬 Lonicera japonica Thunb.  .中国植物物种信息数据库[引用日期2013-10-29]
  • 2.  金银花的最早出处  .中国金银花交易网[引用日期2014-05-14]
  • 3.  忍冬  .中国植物志[引用日期2013-11-20]
  • 4.  金银花经济价值及繁殖栽培技术《农村实用技术》 -2011年3期唐密林
  • 5.  金银花的功效与作用  .菜瓢谷[引用日期2013-11-11]
  • 6.  金银花药理学研究 《安徽医药》 ISTIC -2003年4期 季雪峰
  • 7.  金银花药理学研究进展《内蒙古中医药》 -2012年22期马永梅李静马蕾
  • 8.  兰阿峰, 2006 - 西北农林科技大学:植物学 金银花生物学特性的研究
  • 9.  金银花高产栽培技术 《农家参谋·种业大观》 -2011年3期 穆玉洁
  • 10.  双花  .凤凰网[引用日期2013-11-11]
词条标签:
药品  植物  中药

Honeysuckle editor
Honeysuckle, also known as honeysuckle (scientific name: Lonicera japonica). "Honeysuckle" one from the "Compendium of Materia Medica", due to open early honeysuckle white, and changed to yellow, hence the name honeysuckle. Herbs Lonicera honeysuckle Lonicera and drying the same plant with buds or open flowers. [1] 
Honeysuckle, flowering in March, five, slightly fragrant, reddish pedicle, early flowers open the color white, after one or two days the color yellow, named honeysuckle. And because a pedicle two flowers, two flower exploration outside, pairs, inseparable, like a female and male companions, duck deemed to dance, it is duck vine said. [2] 
This species is the most obvious form is characterized by having a large leafy bracts. It looks somewhat like the South China honeysuckle, but that kind of leafy bracts narrowly rather than fine, calyx densely pubescent twigs densely pubescent curly, and this species is significantly different. Morphological variation of this species is very large, in terms of branches, leaves hair is, the length of the leaf shape and size, and corolla, the length of proportion with the hairs and the lip portion of the barrel, there has been a great change. But all these changes seem more to be linked with the ecological environment, and did not show correlation between geographical distribution.
Honeysuckle has always been known as detoxification medicine. It Gan cold aroma, not Shang Wei Gan Hanqing heat, aroma can be reached through Quxie. Honeysuckle both declared scattered wind-heat, clear solution is also good blood poisoning, for a variety of hot sexually transmitted diseases, such as fever, rash, hair patches, heat canker carbuncle, sore throat, etc, are the effect is significant. [3]
Chinese scientific name Latin name honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Thunb. Nickname silver cane, rattan silver, two-color flower vine, two treasure rattan, cane, turn right, son acutum, duck cane, two flowers circles Flora door angiosperm Dicotyledon Gang Asia Gang gamopetalous Asia Division Head outline madder family Caprifoliaceae Lonicera Belong subgenus Lonicera honeysuckle Lonicera Asian species with medicinal parts with buds or open flowers medicine drug detoxification effect
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 main habitat of the economic value value ▪ ▪ ▪ merits of the medicinal value of the difference between the ornamental value ▪ 5 drugs (drug) cultivation techniques Pharmacology 6 ▪ ▪ Cutting Propagation Seed propagation pruning ▪ ▪ ▪ harvest field management ▪ pest control development process 7 History 8 Dispute
Morphological characteristics editor
Honeysuckle form
Honeysuckle form
Honeysuckle is a perennial semi-evergreen shrub wrapped and stolons. Twigs slender, hollow, rattan is brown to russet. Opposite ovate leaves, branches and leaves are densely pubescent and glandular hairs. Summer flowering, bracts leaflike, lipped flowers have light fragrance, outside pubescent and glandular hairs, protruding stamens and style are corolla, flowers paired axillary, early color is white, fade to yellow, yellow and white matched, spherical berries, ripe black.
Honeysuckle clean shoots reddish-brown, densely covered with brown, carried out hard straight rough hair, glandular hairs and pubescent, the lower often without hair. Leaves papery, ovate to oblong-ovate, sometimes ovate-lanceolate, thin round ovate or obovate, rarely one to several blunt missing [2], 3 to 5 cm long, top tip or gradually sharp, little blunt, round or slightly concave missing, base rounded or nearly heart-shaped, with rough edges hair, dark green above, pale green below, twigs upper leaves usually on both sides densely short coarse hair, the lower Ye Changping slip hairless And here with the number of gray; petiole 4-8 mm, densely pubescent.
Peduncle usually solitary sprig upper leaf axils, and petiole as long as or slightly shorter, while those below up to 2 to 4 cm, after densely pubescent, and mixed glandular hairs; bracts large, leaflike, ovate to oval, up to 2 to 3 cm, both sides are pubescent or sometimes nearly hairless; bracteoles top round or truncate, ca. 1 mm, 1 / 2-4 / 5 calyx, there are short coarse hair and glandular hairs; calyx tube ca. 2 mm, glabrous, calyx teeth ovate-triangular or long triangle, top tip and hairy, outside and edges have been densely hairy; corolla white, sometimes leaving it sunny micro base red, yellow after variable length (2-3) 3 to 4.5 (1-6) cm, lip, tube slightly longer than the lip, rarely nearly as long, outside much anatropous conduct or conduct semi rough and long glandular hairs hair, upper lip lobes blunt tip, lower lip strip and inflection; stamens and style are higher than the Corolla.
Bud is a rod, on rough up fine. Outside yellowish-white or pale green, densely pubescent. Calyx small, yellow-green, apex 5-lobed, lobes hairy edge. Open flowers tubular, apex bilabiate, stamens 5, attached to the cylinder wall, yellow, pistil 1, ovary glabrous. Gas fragrance, tasteless, slightly bitter flavor. In buds did not open, the color yellow or green and white, no impurities were better foliage. [1] 
The fruit is round, diameter of 6 to 7 mm, blue-black when ripe, shiny; seeds ovoid or elliptical, brown, about 3 mm, the middle there is a raised ridge, flanked by shallow horizontal grooves. Flowering from April to June (autumn flowering fairly frequently), fruit ripening 10 to 11 months. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Honeysuckle whole plant
Honeysuckle whole plant (23)
 
 
Honeysuckle fruit
Honeysuckle flower and fruit (15)
Growth habit editor
Honeysuckle adaptable, Xi Yang, shade-tolerant, cold strong, also resistant to drought and wet, the soil not strict, but the moist, fertile soil deep sandy optimal growth, made twice a year in spring and summer Shoot. Dense root system developed, sprout strong ground vine that is able to take root. Hi sunshine and mild, moist environment, life and strong, wide adaptability, cold, drought, in shade, poor growth. Born in the hillside scrub or woodland, rubble, mountain foot fence side street and villages, up to 1500 m above sea level. [1] 
Geographic distribution Editor
Chinese provinces are distributed. Korea and Japan also have distribution. In addition to generating difficult weeds in North America Plaza. Honeysuckle planting areas are mainly concentrated in Shandong, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangxi, Guangdong and other places.
Among them, Pingyi County, Linyi City, Shandong Province honeysuckle as the main producing areas, the largest acreage, mostly wild species, has a long history of about 50 acres. Honeysuckle more wild in the wetter areas, such as river on both sides, moist hillside thickets, woodland. [1] 
Secondly, Fengqiu honeysuckle planting 1,500 years of history, the famous physician Liang Hongjing book "doctors do not record" in a clear record. 1984 Fengqiu County honeysuckle planting area has reached 10028 acres, when the maximum amount of 25 million acquisition of honeysuckle kg, is determined as the honeysuckle production base. Fengqiu honeysuckle fine varieties, long thick buds hypertrophy, Seyan good quality, fragrant, medicinal effect is high.
The main value edit
Economic Value

Tree honeysuckle "Golden Flower 3" demonstration bases
Tree honeysuckle "Golden Flower 3" demonstration bases
Honeysuckle is a commonly used Chinese medicine has a long history, was contained in the "doctors do not record" as a top grade. "Honeysuckle" a beginning in the Li's "Compendium of Materia Medica" in the "Honeysuckle" item mentioned, well-established because of modern literature, has been recognized as the name the herbs, and income "Chinese Pharmacopoeia." In addition, there are "Silver Flower", "double", "two flowers", "two treasure flower", "double treasure flower" and other herbs name.
China plant as honeysuckle original total no less than 17 kinds of goods sold (including subspecies and varieties), and to present the most widely distributed species, is also the largest sales volume. Commodity ingredients mainly from cultivar to Henan "South Silver Flower" or "dense Silver Flower" and Shandong, "Dong Silver Flower" or "economic Yinhua" the highest yield, quality is the best, and marketing the country and exported. Wild species from Eastern, Central and southwestern provinces, collectively, "Lonicera" or "the Silver Flower", generally homegrown, also a small amount of redeployment. Because medicine in short supply, many regions are active in the introduction and cultivation, honeysuckle areas become increasingly expanded. [3]
In medicine flowers, significant economic benefits: in between sets herbs honeysuckle row planting patterns can make economic efficiency improved significantly. Honeysuckle licorice interplanting growth stage, its economic benefits and the above analysis is basically the same. Meanwhile licorice through fertilization, watering management, honeysuckle derive sufficient nutrients and thrive. The first annual harvest honeysuckle 20kg, price 35 yuan / kg, mu income 700 yuan. The second year of harvest honeysuckle 60kg, mu income 2000 yuan, plus income on interplanting liquorice, benefits are considerable. Honeysuckle entered a third year high yield of dried flowers per mu 150 ~ 200kg, efficiency up to 5000 yuan. At the same time its row with a certain degree of concealment for hi wet, shade of Pinellia growth provides a natural living conditions, so Banxia growing well, efficiency can be imagined, it can be said to serve multiple purposes.
Honeysuckle wide range of medicinal value and health care purposes, to bring unlimited business opportunities. State Department of Commerce, Nanjing Institute of wild plants using modern science and technology, research and development of honeysuckle tea, product Qiaoxiao Hong Kong, Singapore and the United States. Medical raw material with honeysuckle extract "chlorogenic acid" price up to more than 1000 yuan per kilogram, in the domestic market is still a popular commodity in short supply. Honeysuckle may not be processed, bake tan direct exports dry goods, China's annual export volume amounted to tens of millions of honeysuckle. [4]
Medicinal Value

Yu Feng One honeysuckle
Yu Feng One honeysuckle
Honeysuckle since ancient times for its medicinal value widely famous. Its main effect is detoxification, attending febrile disease, fever, hot sera dysentery, ulcer boils and other drugs. Modern studies have shown that honeysuckle chlorogenic acid, luteolin glycosides and other pharmacologically active ingredient of hemolytic streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and other pathogenic bacteria and viruses and other upper respiratory tract infections have a strong restraining force, in addition but also enhance immunity, anti-pregnancy, liver, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hemostatic (blood clotting), inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol, its clinical use is very extensive, it can be compatible with other drugs for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, bacteria dysentery, acute urinary tract infections, high blood pressure and more than 40 kinds of diseases.
Honeysuckle cold, sweet, lungs, heart, stomach, clearing and detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, tonic treatment efficacy of wind, attending under fullness disease, febrile disease fever heat toxin carbuncle ulcers and tumors embolism. Its for dizziness dizziness, dry mouth for thirst, sweating boredom, enteritis, dysentery, measles, pneumonia, encephalitis, meningitis, acute mastitis, septicemia, appendicitis, skin infections, ulcer boils, erysipelas, mumps, suppurative tonsillitis and other diseases have a certain effect.
Honeysuckle vine boil water after the child eczema and other skin itching have some therapeutic effect on a variety of livestock to disease bacteria, virus inhibition in animal breeding process if we add a certain amount of honeysuckle vine leaves (honeysuckle) powder or boiling water, the prevention and treatment of animals febrile disease, fever, common cold, throat inflammation, pneumonia, diarrhea, swollen ulcer, erysipelas, cellulitis embolism have a very good effect. With forsythia, Radix honeysuckle soup fried treat mumps; honeysuckle tea can Qushu eyesight; forsythia honeysuckle cold soup treat exogenous fever cough. While honeysuckle, chrysanthemum, licorice bellflower and add boiling water 10 minutes, Hou cold, when the beverage drinking, treat pharyngitis and tonsillitis.
Honeysuckle preparations have been produced "Yinqiaojiedu film", "silver porn", "silver yellow injection" and so on. "Honeysuckle" honeysuckle by distillation of aromatic volatile oil and slipped out of the water-soluble substance, to yield clear fire detoxification, can cure children Taidu, boils, fever gulp embolism; summer season for tea, energy Governance warm pox fever, bloody diarrhea and so on. Stem vine called "honeysuckle", but also for medicinal purposes. Active ingredient honeysuckle chlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid. This is a secondary substance produced during the metabolism of plants, which depends not only on the level of content of plant species, and may be affected by the ecological climate, soil, geographical conditions and phenology largely. [3]
Honeysuckle tea has a unique slimming feature, but also inhibit and kill pathogens throat, the elderly and children have anti-infective effect. Often taking honeysuckle decoction soak in favor of wind, fire, or red eyes, sore throat, obesity, liver fever and liver heat hypertension treatment and rehabilitation. [5]
The difference between the pros and cons

Honeysuckle extensive medicinal value and health purposes, social demand. Honeysuckle Coupler different medicinal effect is different. Here's how to identify the pros and cons of honeysuckle.
Lonicera plant honeysuckle flower buds, cold and sweet. Most areas of China are produced, and the largest output in Shandong, Henan, but the quality of the production of the best, for the authentic origin. Honeysuckle detoxification, evacuation wind-heat, cooling Zhili, lowering blood pathogenic fire, eliminate the effect of the pharynx and diaphragm. Henan honeysuckle cheap on the market posing the origin of the problem is relatively large, it is recommended to buy well-known brand manufacturers of honeysuckle. Governance febrile disease, fever, hot sera dysentery, carbuncle ulcers, swollen poison, scrofula, anal fistula. Gas fragrance, tasteless, slightly bitter flavor. Since the beginning of the open honeysuckle white, and changed to yellow, hence the name honeysuckle.
Fineness better honeysuckle better efficacy, value is also higher, therefore, we need to learn to distinguish. Let's look at how to identify different fineness of honeysuckle.
Honeysuckle merchandise and other national standards are divided into four:
First: dry goods, bud was like holding on rough up fine, slightly curved surface green and white, thick corolla slightly harder, grip the Covered feel; Gas fragrance, sweet and slightly bitter. Open flowers, buds and yellow striped rupture does not exceed 5%. No black stripes, black, foliage, impurities, moth-eaten, moldy;
Second: the first class is basically the same, only less than 5% open flowers. Rupture buds and yellow shall not exceed 10%;
Third: dry goods, bud rod-shaped, rough up fine, slightly curved surface greenish white or yellowish-white, corolla thick hard, hold the Covered feel. The faint scent, sweet and slightly bitter. Open flowers, black does not exceed 30%. No leaves, impurities, moth-eaten, moldy;
Four and so on: dry goods. Buds or open flowers both, regardless of color. Leaves no more than 3%, no impurities, moth-eaten, moldy. Only those who know how to identify honeysuckle, before you can buy to ensure good honeysuckle, so as to better treat the disease.
Clinical
Early febrile disease: often associated with; forsythia, mint, pale Dougu equivalent to use, with detoxification, the role of wind-dispersing solution table can be used to initial febrile disease, fever, micro aversion to cold cold, mouth slightly thirsty, as Yinqiaosan;
Ulcer drug boil: often with dandelion, purple to the small, wild chrysanthemum equated with, can enhance the detoxification effect, can be used to boil ulcer drug, swelling and pain, such as Wuweixiaoduyin.
Mid febrile disease: often and skullcap, gardenia, gypsum, Zhuru, reed rhizome equivalent to use, with detoxification, thoroughly evil out, vomiting and stomach action, can be used to obstruct evil heat resistance, Stomach discord, fever, irritability, Xiongge nausea, retching, thirst, red tongue dry, pulse a few slip.
Dysentery: often associated with berberine, red peony root, woody, purslane equivalent to use, with heat treatment intestine, stagnation and blood effects, can be used to damp heat resistance, intestinal collateral damage lipid membranes, diarrhea, sepsis, blood than pus, abdominal pain, tenesmus.
Phytophthora dysentery: often with Rehmanniae, red peony, Dan, berberine, Treats, Pulsatilla equivalent to use, with detoxification, cooling Zhili effect, can be used to Immunotoxin invasion stomach, and blood pump end, dysentery fresh purple pus , strong heat, thirst, irritability and even coma and delirium.
Prescriptions name: The crude drug to write Yinhua, two flowers, double flowers, honeysuckle, two treasure flower, honeysuckle, flower Henan, Shandong and flowers; write fry with fried medicine honeysuckle, double flowers fried, fried honeysuckle; with charcoal medicine Write Yinhua charcoal, charcoal and other two flowers.
Dosage: crude drug 10 ~ 30g; speculation medicine 10 ~ 20g; charcoal medicine 10 ~ 15g.
Prescription selection
① prevent encephalitis, meningitis: honeysuckle, forsythia. Daqing roots, reed rhizome, licorice 15g. Decoction behalf of the tea, one day, and even served three to five days. ("Jiangxi herbs")
② rule lunar air temperature, warm, warm early winter, but heat is not chill Erke By: forsythia 50g, Silver Flower 50g, bitter bellflower 30g, mint 30g, bamboo leaves 20 fast, raw licorice 25g, Nepeta ear 20g, Semen 25g, Arctium 30g. The pestle as a casual, each serving 30g, fresh reed root soup decoction. ("Warm Diseases identified" Yinqiaosan)
③ dysentery: honeysuckle (into the copper pots, baking dry-existence) 25g. Red dysentery with Baimi water transfer service, to scour sand sugar transfer service. ("Hui Tong experience straight party" Lonicera bulk)
④ rule hot shower: honeysuckle, vine Bodhisattva, the day coriander, laevigata root, rhizome each 50g. Shuijianbi daily, five to seven days for a course. ("Jiangxi herbs")
⑤ treatment of biliary tract infections, wound infections: honeysuckle 50g, forsythia, Daqing root, skullcap, wild chrysanthemum 25g. Shuijianbi day one. ("Jiangxi herbs")
⑥ cure sore Tongshen, discoloration Zihei by: honeysuckle even foliage (file) 100g, Astragalus 200g, licorice 50g. On fine-cut, with a liter of wine, into the pot with the bottle, closed, heavy soup cooked within three, two hour out, to the dregs, of Dayton clothing. ("Living law confidential" Honeysuckle sore back scatter)
⑦ cure all swollen poison, do not ask do not collapse has collapse, or the beginning of the heat, and boils it poison, Houbi milk moth: honeysuckle (with stems) natural juice bowl, fried eighth clothes, putting in sediment , sepsis Torrey, bulk gas and blood, its power alone win. ("Charitable Church experience side")
⑧ cure ulcer hair back since the beginning: honeysuckle 250g, ten bowls of water, fry two bowls, the angelica 100g, with fry bowl, a stretch of service. ("Cave Austria aims to" return to flower soup)
⑨ cure all internal and external carbuncles: honeysuckle 200g, licorice 150g. Decoction Dayton clothing, wine drinkers can decoction. ("Medical Heart Awakening" Honeysuckle soup)
⑩ treatment of colorectal carbuncle, hand can not press, bend the right foot without extension: honeysuckle 150g, angelica 100g, Burnet 50g, Radix 50g, Scrophulariaceae 50g, licorice 15g, barley 25g, Scutellaria 10g. Decoction. ("Cave Austria aims to" bowel drink)
Ornamental value

Due to prostrate growth honeysuckle climbing ability than the ability to grow, it is more suitable for forest, forest edge, building on the north side, etc. do be cultivated; you can also do green parapet; also can take advantage of its ability to produce flowers gallery wrapped, flower, flower fields, style and wound rockery and so on. The advantage is vine growing large, extensive management, the drawback is the vine twining vine, uneven ground cover, people feel disorganized. [4]
Drugs (poison) Pharmacology editor
Honeysuckle flooding was fed on rabbits, dogs and other no obvious toxicity, respiration, blood pressure, urine output had no effect. Mice were injected subcutaneously extract LD50 of this product 53g / kg. Chlorogenic acid has allergens, can cause allergic reactions, but no such oral response, due to chlorogenic acid secretion into the small intestine can no allergenic activity of substance. Hemolysis test results showed that: 0.1 ~ 0.5mL steam drying products are no hemolysis phenomenon within three hours; sun-dried goods 0.1 ~ 0.5mL hemolysis occurs immediately after dosing; Guizhou Lonicera 0.1 ~ 0.5mL are within 3 hours no hemolysis; Henan honey Yinhua pH6.0 when 0.1 ~ 0.3mL no hemolysis; Shandong Jinan Yinhua: 0.1 ~ 0.5mL were three hours without hemolysis. LD50 order of five kinds of materials are: honey Yinhua <Franciscan Yinhua <steam drying product <Guizhou commodity, macranthoides steam drying product is non-hemolytic, born sun hemolytic, pretending injection materials must be used steam drying product. [6]
1, the original microbial resistance: In vitro experiments showed that flowers and vines on a variety of pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, E. coli, Shigella, Vibrio cholera, typhoid bacillus, paratyphoid bacillus etc. There are certain inhibitory effect on pneumococcus, meningococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also effective. Flooding agent stronger than the decoction, leaves decoction decoction is stronger than spend. If the combination and forsythia, antibacterial range also complementary; combined with penicillin, can enhance the antibacterial effect of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which may be in inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis in vivo on a synergistic effect.
2, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect: intraperitoneal injection of honeysuckle extract 0.25g / kg, can inhibit the rat carrageenan of swollen feet. Another report honeysuckle injection 30 ~ 40g / kg egg white can reduce the degree of swollen feet. Intraperitoneal injection of honeysuckle extract 8g / kg, 2 times / day for six days, on rat croton oil granuloma sac, there was a marked anti-exudative and anti-proliferative effect. Early reports have a significant antipyretic effect honeysuckle, but with the cholera vaccine, potato subtilis, infusions, etc. to the rabbit ear vein injection, pyrogenic, unconfirmed honeysuckle decoction 5g / kg orally have cooling effect, that this possible and tolerability of different formulations used honeysuckle, or rabbits dose related.
3, to strengthen the role of immune function: honeysuckle decoction diluted to 1: 1280 concentration, able to promote leukocyte phagocytosis. Intraperitoneal injection of honeysuckle injection, but also significantly promote the role of inflammatory phagocytosis.
4, the central excitatory effects: electric shock by a variety of experimental methods, cage and other evidence after oral administration of chlorogenic acid, which can cause rats, mice and other animals of the central nervous system stimulant, caffeine and its intensity is 1/6, two recipients with no sum and enhancement.
5, lipid-lowering effect: Rats were honeysuckle 2.5g / kg can reduce the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, lowering plasma cholesterol levels. In vitro experiments also found that the combination of honeysuckle and cholesterol, but Simiao An soup (honeysuckle, Scrophulariaceae, angelica, licorice) in treatment of rabbits atherosclerosis. Not observed and the aortic wall cholesterol lowering effect.
6, anti-endotoxin: Limulus test method using internal measurement toxin content, 300% honeysuckle (Lonicera) injection of 1: 2 to one sixty-four diluted in vitro test whether concave plate method or the tube method, were significantly lower in the test solution The endotoxin content, with 1: 2 to 1: 8 dilution tube and negative control tube as in liquid form, the positive control was gelatinous. Honeysuckle (Lonicera) distillates 6g / kg intravenously within Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin mutual 2.8mg / kg iv induced rabbit body temperature drops and the decline in the number of white blood cells have antagonism, honeysuckle (Lonicera) distillates 7.5g / kg or injection liquid 2.5g / kg intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin within 65mg / kg intraperitoneal injection in mice has a protective effect, reducing the mortality rate of mice.
7. Other effects: In vitro screening experiments had reports of water and wine honeysuckle extract on sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma obvious cytotoxicity. Honeysuckle extract on experimental gastric ulcer of oral mild preventive effect. High dose of chlorogenic acid can increase the stomach and intestines, promote secretion of gastric juice and bile. Chlorogenic acid and its decomposition products on rat uterine stimulant. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid also slightly enhance the pressor effect of epinephrine and norepinephrine on cats and rats, but had no effect on the cat's eye blink response. [6] [7]
Cultivation Technical Editor
Honeysuckle adaptability to the soil and climate of choice is not critical, with thick sandy loam soil is best. Hillside, terraced, weir, dam, barren hills can be cultivated. Reproductive available sowing, cuttings and sub-root and other methods. [3] In the current year new branches bud blossom. Strict requirements on the soil, acidic, saline could grow. Developed root, rooting ability, is a good solid soil water conservation plants, hills, embankments, etc. can be planted, so Nongyan say: "waterlogged crops dry dead grass dead, frozen to death pomegranate melon sunburn, does not affect honeysuckle. " [4]
Seed propagation

April planting, soak the seeds in warm water for 35 ~ 40 ℃ 24h, remove the bar 2 to 3 times the wet sand germination, etc. gap of around 30 percent when planting. On the stretch of row spacing 21 ~ 22cm ditching planting, soil 1cm, water once every two days, more than 10 days to emergence, the second in the spring or autumn transplanting, seed per 1h㎡ about 15kg. [8] 
Cutting Propagation

Usually during the rainy season. In the summer rainy weather, choose healthy pest-free 1 to 2 years old branches cut into 30 ~ 35cm, put off the lower part of the leaf for cutting, with the cut with the use. On the chosen land, according to the spacing 1.6m, 1.5m spacing digging, hole depth 16 ~ 18cm, 5 to 6 per hole cuttings dispersed form the inner oblique buried, the ground is exposed 7 ~ 10cm, so, fill Soil compaction (air permeable good sandy soil is better). [9] 
We should pay attention to the root before cutting branches open shade, avoid direct sunlight cause dry branches. May also be cuttage; in July to August, according to the spacing 23 ~ 26cm, trenching, about 16cm deep, spacing 2cm, the cutting obliquely into the ditch stand, fill compacted to ventilation good permeability The sandy soil of the nursery soil, roots and the fastest, and not easy to be against bacteria causing decay branches. After transplanting spray water again, after drought, watering every two days 1 times, about half that is able to take root, the second in the spring or autumn transplanting.
Pruning

After pruning the leaves fall to the spring before germination were generally prosperous sticks light cut, strong shear weak branches, ulterior motives are cut, pay attention to grow new branches after pruning to be advantageous when the air and light. On thin branches, withered old branches, groups, and all other cut branches of fertilizer to poor land heavier pruning, plant age aged cut old branches, trigger a new branch. Young plants to develop plant type-based, lighter cut, mountain plots planted generally stay four to five main branches, the plain land to stay 1 to 2 main branches, the trunk to cut the top a little to increase crude upright.
Plastic is a combination of pruning carried out, based on the principle basis for the fertilizer and water management, the overall promotion, full use of space, increasing the amount of foliage, so plant type is more reasonable, and can significantly increase spend productive. Prune after flowering time is relatively concentrated, easy harvesting and processing, usually after cutting of branches upright, remove thin branches and basal shoots in favor of the formation of new flowers. Defloration after the cut, after cut once available nitrogen topdressing, pouring water, prompting Xiacha flower early onset, so close four times a year to spend, on average per 667 square meters can produce Dried 150 ~ 200kg. [9] 
Field management

Dressing: the first 1 to 2 years after planting, the honeysuckle plant development of stereotypes, some of Ren Chufen Dorsch, ash, urea, potassium and other fertilizers. 2 to 3 years after planting, early spring each year, should be applied miscellaneous livestock manure, manure, cake, superphosphate and other fertilizers. The first crop of flowers after harvest should recover the right amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer, provide sufficient nutrients to Xiacha flowers. After a year in early spring bud harvested when the first flower and open-loop trench watering human waste and fertilizers. Each fertilizer 250g, fertilization promoted the order of honeysuckle vegetative growth are: urea + ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium sulfate compound fertilizer, urea, ammonium bicarbonate, which urea + ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium sulfate compound fertilizer, urea can significantly improve the yield honeysuckle, combining nutrition and reproductive growth conditions and fertilization costs, fertilizer to topdressing urea + ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (150g + 100g) or 250g of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer as well. [9] 
Harvest processing

The best time is early morning harvest honeysuckle and morning, when the harvest is not easy to open buds, nutrient feet, smell strong, good color. Harvest should be in the afternoon the sun goes down before the end, because of the open honeysuckle constrained by the light, the sun behind mature buds should open and affect the quality. Within the basket without the young bud, without leaves, postharvest edited or bamboo into strips, can not concentrate when stacked in piles, you should spread out place, place the longest time not more than four hours.
Honeysuckle flower buds better commodities, mixed open flower or leaf stem mass impurities were relatively Johnson. Bud mast, color plainer, the better grip and clean person. May and June harvest, choose sunny morning dew removal of buds just dry, placed in Luxi, dolmen or male open field drying or ventilation dry in 1 to 2 days to dry as well. Do not flip when the sun flower, black and otherwise reduce the quality of color, to 90% dry leaves to pick impurities can. Avoid exposure to the sun. Cloudy may Weihuo drying, but color darker, as dried or dried better. [3]
Pest control

Honeysuckle leaf spot introduction
Honeysuckle leaf spot introduction
Leaf spot: common leaf diseases cause plants are growing weak. More in the growth of late onset 8 to September is the peak incidence at the onset of heavy rain and wet conditions. Early onset form small brown spots on the leaves, brown circular lesion enlarged or irregular spots. Gray and black spots on the back of birth mold shaped, the incidence of heavy, make the leaves fall off. Control methods: cut off diseased leaves, then with 1: 1.5: 200 ratio of Bordeaux mixture spray once every 7 to 10 days, for 2 to 3 times: 65% or zineb 500 times dilution or Topsin 1000 ~ 1500-fold dilution, 1 spray every seven days, for 2 to 3 times.
Powdery mildew: the onset of warm, dry or heavy plant under shade conditions; too much nitrogen fertilizer, lush plants, the incidence is also heavy. The early stages, produce white dots on the leaves, gradually expanded into a white powder spots, continues to expand covered the whole leaf, causing the leaves yellow, shrinkage deformation, and finally lead to falling, leaves, branches dry. Control methods; Qing Yuan handle sick plants; the occurrence of 50% thiophanate 1000 times or BO-10 spray biological system.
Aphids: damage leaves, twigs, leaves and buds cause curling, growth stopped, production plummeted. 4 to 6 months pests heavier, "the beginning of summer" before and after, especially rainy days, spread faster. Control methods: by 40% from 1000 to 1500 times dimethoate diluent or off pine aphid (Aphis off Spirit) from 1000 to 1500-fold dilution Pensha, repeatedly, until the kill.
Looper: The crop of flowers larvae nibble blades, causing cuts. Control methods: After the spring, digging around the plant within one meter off the pupae. Early larvae, spray 2.5% rotenone EC 400 ~ 600 times; or dichlorvos, trichlorfon Pensha, but flowering to stop spraying. [10]
Anthrax: Leaves nearly circular spots, with students when wet sticky substance orange-red spots on the leaves. Control methods: remove the diseased leaves stubble, concentrated fire; before transplanting with a 1: 1: 150 to 200 Bordeaux mixture Soaking 5 to 10 minutes; onset of spraying 65% zineb 500 times or 50% tuzet 800 ~ 1000 times.
Beetles: the plant after the victim, gradually withered aging and death. Control methods: The adult unearthed, with 80% trichlorfon 1000 times perfusion spend pier. In the spawning peak 7 to 10 days spray 1 times 90% trichlorfon crystal 800.1000; found worms branches, cut burned; if wormholes, stuffed 80% of cotton wool soaked in liquid dichlorvos, with clay seal, kill larvae. [9] 
Development history Edit
"Shen Nong's Materia Medica" set: "honeysuckle cold sweet, clearing and detoxifying, cooling blood stasis effect, attending exogenous wind-heat, blast early, sore boils poison, pain, swelling, pus and blood will," and so on.
"Compendium of Materia Medica" honeysuckle discussed in detail with the "Jiufu light-weight, longevity" effect. 1980s, the Ministry of Health has conducted honeysuckle chemical analysis results showed that: Honeysuckle contains many essential trace elements and chemical composition, while the human body contains a variety of beneficial active enzyme substances, has anti-aging, anti-cancer, a good effect Qingshenjianfei fitness.
The earliest record found in cultivated honeysuckle Song "Su Shen recipe inside John," which said: "The court can shift between the root bar to emergency preparedness." County also recorded in many places, such as two years of the Qing dynasty, "Fee County," said: "There are yellow and white flower named honeysuckle, between the past have, however, taken to tea, to the early Jiaqing, Business trafficked to his office, not a few years ...... Mae planting hill angle of water several times." From this, honeysuckle has a long of cultural history.
1984 State Administration of TCM will be identified as one of 35 kinds of expensive medicines, and later was determined to be drug and edible varieties. Honeysuckle long history of medicinal, as early as 3,000 years ago, our ancestors began to use it to prevent disease, in the "doctors do not record" was listed as the top grade.
Dispute editor
Microblogging screenshot
Microblogging screenshot
August 12, 2014, deputy director of the Hunan Provincial Commission for Discipline Inspection to prevent corruption in their room Lu Qun real name Sina microblogging "Censor-in-transit," said the National Committee of the Chinese pharmacopoeia southern heritage thousands of years "Honeysuckle" was renamed "Hill Yinhua "After tens of millions of people to cause significant economic losses. Lu Qun alleged this is not an academic issue on the surface, in the middle shady existence, for which the State Food and Drug Administration to report real name.
Food and Drug Administration units directly under the General Administration of the State Pharmacopoeia Commission yesterday in a statement on its official website to hang out again to explain: on "Honeysuckle" and "Hill Yinhua" classification problems, the following statement: "Honeysuckle" as the name of the drug first appeared in the Southern Song "Lu crags Materia Medica. " "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" since the beginning of 1963 edition reproduces honeysuckle, 1963 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" provisions for medicinal honeysuckle plants is only one source, namely plant Lonicera Caprifoliaceae dry bud. 1977 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" standard income in honeysuckle other three plant sources, are Lonicera (honeysuckle South China), and hair style red gland honeysuckle Lonicera. The investigation then pharmacopoeia technical file, since the just-concluded "Cultural Revolution", pharmacopoeia work belongs to the early recovery, the additional three sources could not find any research data to support their income loaded Pharmacopoeia.
Given the practice of honeysuckle, mountain Yinhua medicinal herbs differences in history, sources, properties, chemical composition, etc., through professional committee approval, 2005 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" will honeysuckle Lonicera breakdown and directory into the pharmacopoeia. Honeysuckle plants is Lonicera Caprifoliaceae dry bud. Lonicera There are four kinds, namely "red gland honeysuckle" "honeysuckle South China", "macranthoides" "fulvotomentosa." After the 2005 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" promulgated, food and drug supervision departments issued a document and the actual use of honeysuckle or Lonicera requirements through various forms of enterprise should be clearly indicated in the prescription, to ensure that consumers get accurate drug information in the purchase of drugs ʱ?? In order to guide growers reasonable planting, the media has done a number of areas related to science knowledge reported. [11]
According to Henan, a pharmacy experts, and honeysuckle Lonicera not much difference in potency. Honeysuckle, also known as "two flowers", the first time, is honeysuckle Lonicera Caprifoliaceae mainstream varieties, there is no classification. For the same potency in the country, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan and other places also with honeysuckle Lonicera Branch, hair style red gland honeysuckle and honeysuckle Lonicera like as a medicine, and is widely used. In 1977, the state in the development of pharmacopoeia, taking into account the actual situation in the country of drugs, including more than recognition of honeysuckle these four varieties. The experts believe that, in fact, these types of plant origin in clinical similarity, can replace each other, such as detoxification, in effect, the differences are not so great.
In 2005, the state authorities believe Caprifoliaceae Lonicera and several other still there are differences, mainly in the chemical constituents, pharmacological research, it retained only in the honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae honeysuckle standards, the other three kinds of classified Lonicera ʱ?? The main origin of honeysuckle Shandong Yimeng Mountain, Linyi and Fengqiu Henan and other places. [11]









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