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地骨皮 Lycium Root Bark (Lycii Radicis Cortex) wolfberry bark - Di GU Pi

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地骨皮

 编辑
地骨皮,别名:枸杞皮,为茄科枸杞属植物,是枸杞Lycium chinense Mill.的根皮。可入药,具有凉血除蒸、清肺降火功效。常生于山坡、荒地、丘陵地、盐碱地、路旁及村边宅旁,分布于我国东北、河北、山西、陕西、甘肃南部以及西南、华中、华南和华东各省区;朝鲜,日本,欧洲有栽培或逸为野生。
中文学名
地骨皮
拉丁学名
Cortex Lycii
别    称
枸杞皮
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
管状花目
茄科
茄族
枸杞属
枸杞皮
分布区域
中国

形态特征编辑

多分枝灌木,高0.5-1米,栽培时可达2米多;枝条细弱,弓状弯曲或俯垂,淡灰色,有纵条纹,棘刺长0.5-2厘米,生叶和花的棘刺较长,小枝顶端锐尖成棘刺状。叶纸质或栽培者质稍厚,单叶互生或2-4枚簇生,卵形、卵状菱形、长椭圆形、卵状披针形,顶端急尖,基部楔形,长1.5-5厘米,宽0.5-2.5厘米,栽培者较大,可长达10厘米以上,宽达4厘米;叶柄长0.4-1厘米。
花在长枝上单生或双生于叶腋,在短枝上则同叶簇生;花梗长1-2厘米,向顶端渐增粗。花萼长3-4毫米,通常3中裂或4-5齿裂,裂片多少有缘毛;花冠漏斗状,长9-12毫米,淡紫色,筒部向上骤然扩大,稍短于或近等于檐部裂片,5深裂,裂片卵形,顶端圆钝,平展或稍向外反曲,边缘有缘毛,基部耳显著;雄蕊较花冠稍短,或因花冠裂片外展而伸出花冠,花丝在近基部处密生一圈绒毛并交织成椭圆状的毛丛,与毛丛等高处的花冠筒内壁亦密生一环绒毛;花柱稍伸出雄蕊,上端弓弯,柱头绿色。
浆果红色,卵状,栽培者可成长矩圆状或长椭圆状,顶端尖或钝,长7-15毫米,栽培者长可达2.2厘米,直径5-8毫米。种子扁肾脏形,长2.5-3毫米,黄色。花果期6-11月。[1] 

生长习性编辑

常生于山坡、荒地、丘陵地、盐碱地、路旁及村边宅旁。[1]  生于山坡、田野向阳干燥处;有栽培。喜光照。对土壤要求不严,耐盐碱、耐肥、耐旱、怕水渍。以肥沃、排水良好的中性或微酸性轻壤土栽培为宜,盐碱土的含盐量不能超过0.2%,在强碱性、粘壤土、水稻田、沼泽地区不宜栽培。

地理分布编辑

分布于我国东北、河北、山西、陕西、甘肃南部以及西南、华’中、华南和华东各省区;朝鲜,日本,欧洲有栽培或逸为野生。[1]  主产山西、河南、浙江、江苏;全国大部分地区均产。

栽培技术编辑

常见方法

用种子繁殖或扦插繁殖。
枸杞种植枸杞种植
种子繁殖:可选用优良品种,以采果大、色鲜艳、无病虫斑的成熟果实,夏季采摘后,用30-60℃温水浸泡,搓揉种子,洗净,晾干备用。在播种前用湿沙(1:3)拦匀,置20℃室温下催芽,待有30%种子露白时或用清水浸泡种子一昼夜,再行播种。春、夏、秋季均可播种,以春播为主。春播3月下旬至4月上旬,按行距40cm开沟条播,深1.5-3cm,覆土1-3cm,幼苗出土后,要根据土壤墒情,注意灌水。苗高1.5-3cm,松土除草1次,以后每隔20-30d松土除草1次。苗高6-9cm,时定苗,株距12-15cm,每1hm2留苗15万-18万株。结合灌水在5、6、7月追肥肥3次,为保证苗木生长,应及时去除幼株离地40cm,部位生长的侧芽,苗高60cm时应行摘心,以加速主干和上部侧枝生长,当根粗0.7cm时,可出圃移栽。
扦插繁殖:在优良母株上,采粗0.3cm,以上的已木质化的一年生枝条,剪成18-20cm长的插穗,扎成小捆竖在盆中用100×10-6α-萘乙酸浸泡2-3h,然后扦插,按株距6-10cm斜插在沟内,真土踏实。

田间管理

在5、6、7月种中耕
枸杞 种植枸杞 种植
除草1次,10月下旬-11月上旬施羊粪、厩肥、饼肥等作基肥、追肥可于5月施尿素和6-7月施磷、钾复合。幼树整形,枸杞栽后当年秋季在主干上部的四周选3-5人生长粗壮的枝条作主枝,并于20cm左右处短截,第2年春在此枝上发出新枝时于20-25cm处短截作为骨干枝。第3、4年仿照第2年办法继续利用骨干枝上的徒长枝扩大,加高充实树冠骨架。经过5-6年整形培养进入成年树阶段。成年树修剪,每年春季剪枯枝、交叉枝和根部萌蘖枝,夏季去密留疏,剪去徒长枝、病虫枝及针刺枝。秋季全面修剪,整理树冠,选取留良好的结果枝。

病虫害防治

病害有枸杞黑果病,为害花蕾、花和青果。可在结果期用1:1:100波尔多液喷射;雨后立即喷50%退菌特可温性粉剂600倍液,效果较好。根腐病,可用50%托布津1000-1500倍液或50%液或50%多菌灵1000-1500倍液浇注根部。虫害有枸杞实蝇,防治可在越冬成虫羽化时,在杞园地面撒50%西维因粉45kg/hm2,摘除蛆果深埋、秋冬季灌水或翻土杀死土内越冬蛹。枸杞负泥虫可在春季灌溉松土,破坏越冬声所杀死虫源,4月中旬于杞园地面撒5%西维因粉(1kg兑细土5-7kg),杀死越冬成虫,敌百虫800-1000倍液防治。还有枸杞蚜虫枸杞瘿螨等为害。

药用价值编辑

药材简介:【异名】杞根、地骨、地
地骨皮-采摘地骨皮-采摘
辅、地节(《本经》),枸杞根,苟起根(《本草经集注》),枸杞根皮(《药性论》),山杞子根、甜齿牙根、红耳堕根(《河南中药手册》),山枸杞根、狗奶子根皮(《山东中药》),红榴根皮(《中药材手册》),狗地芽皮(《四川中药志》)。
【考证】出自《外台秘要
【来源】为茄种植物枸杞等的根皮。植物形态详"枸杞子"条。
【采集】春初或秋后采挖,洗净泥土,剥下根皮,晒干。
【药材】干燥根皮为短小的筒状或槽状卷片,大小不一,一般长3~10厘米,宽0.6~1.5厘米,厚约3毫米。外表面灰黄色或棕黄色,粗糙,有错杂
地骨皮-植物性状地骨皮-植物性状
的纵裂纹,易剥落。内表面黄白色,较平坦,有细纵纹。质轻脆,易折断,断面不平坦,外层棕黄色,内层灰白色。臭微。味微甘。以块大、肉厚、无木心与杂质者为佳。
采制:全年采挖,剥取根皮,晒干。
性状:根皮呈筒状、槽状或不规则卷片。筒直径0.5~2cm,厚1~3mm。外表面土黄色或灰黄色,粗糙,有交错裂纹,易剥落;内表面黄白色,有细纵纹。质脆,折断面分内外两层,外层较厚,土黄色;内层类白色。微有香气,味稍甜。
化学成分:根皮含甜菜碱(betaine)、枸杞酰胺(lyciumamide)、β-谷甾醇,柳杉酚(sugiol)、蜂蜜酸(melissic acid)、亚油酸和桂皮酸。
性味:性寒,味甘。
功能主治:凉血除蒸,清肺降火。用于阴虚潮热、骨蒸盗汗、肺热咳嗽、咯血、衄血。内热消渴。
附注:同属植物宁夏枸杞L. barbarum L.的根皮,亦作地骨皮用。
全国大部分地区有生产。

药材性状

【炮制】拣
地骨皮地骨皮
去杂质及木心,略洗,晒干,切段。
【性味】甘,寒。
①《本经》:"味苦,寒。"
②《别录》:"大寒,无毒。"
③《纲目》:"味甘淡,寒。"
【归经】入肺、肝、肾经。
①《汤液本草》:"足少阴,手少阳经。"
②《雷公炮制药性解》:"入肺、肾二经。"
③《本草汇言》:"入足少阴、足厥阴经。"
【功用主治】清热,凉血。治虚劳潮热盗汗,肺热咳喘,吐血,衄血,血淋,消渴,高血压,痈肿,恶疮。
①《本经》:"主五内邪气,热中消渴,周痹。"
②《别录》:"主风湿,下胸胁气,客热头痛,补内伤大劳嘘吸,坚筋,强阴,利大小肠,耐寒暑。"
地骨皮
地骨皮 (5张)
③《药性论》:"细锉,面拌熟煮吞之,主治肾家风。"
④《食疗本草》:"去骨热消渴。"
⑤《本草别说》:"治金疮。"
⑥李杲:"治在表无定之风邪,传尸有汗之骨蒸。"
⑦王好古:"泻肾火,降肺中伏火,去胞中火,退热,补正气。"
⑧《日用本草》:"治上膈吐血;煎汤漱口,止齿血,治骨槽风。"
⑨《纲目》:"去下焦肝肾虚热。"
⑩《本草述》:"主治虚劳发热,往来寒热,诸见血证,鼻衄,咳嗽血,咳嗽、喘,消瘅,中风,眩晕,痉痼,腰痛,行痹,脚气,水肿,虚烦,悸,健忘,小便不通,赤白浊。"
【用法与用量】内服:煎汤,3~6钱;或入丸、散。外用:煎水含漱、淋洗,研末撒或调敷。
【宜忌】脾胃虚寒者忌服。
①《医学入门》:"忌铁。"
②《本草汇言》:"虚劳火旺而脾胃薄弱,食少泄泻者宜减之。"
③《本草正》:"假热者勿用。"

文献论述

1、李杲:四物汤内加地
地骨皮地骨皮
骨皮、牡丹皮,治妇人骨蒸最妙。地骨皮治足少阴、手少阳有汗而骨蒸者。
2.《纲目》:枸杞之滋益不独子,而根亦不止于退热而已。但根、苗、子之气味稍殊,而主治亦未必无别。盖其苗乃天精,苦甘而凉,上焦心肺客热者宜之;根乃地骨,甘淡而寒,下焦肝肾虚热者宜之,此皆三焦气分之药,所谓热淫于内,泻以甘寒也。至于子则甘平而润,性滋而补,不能退热,止能补肾润肺,生精益气,此乃平补之药,所谓精不足者,补之以味也。分而用之,则各有所主,兼而用之,则一举两得。世人但知用黄芩、黄连苦寒以治上焦之火,黄柏、知母苦寒以治下焦阴火,谓之补阴降火,久服致伤元气,而不知枸杞、地骨,甘寒平补,使精气充而邪火自退之妙,惜哉!予尝以青蒿佐地骨退热,屡有殊功,人所未喻者。
3.《本草汇言》:王绍隆云,骨中火热为眚,煎熬真阴,以地中之骨皮,甘寒清润,不泥不滞,非地黄、麦冬同流。
4.《本草正》:地骨皮,枸杞根也,南者苦味轻,微有甘辛,北者大苦性劣,入药惟南者为佳。其性辛寒,善入血分,凡不因风寒而热在精髓阴分者最宜。此物凉而不峻,可理虚劳,气轻而辛,故亦清肺。
5.《药品化义》:地骨皮,外祛无定虚邪,内除有汗骨蒸,上理头风,中去胸胁气,下利大小肠,通能奏效。入泻白散,清金调气,疗肺热有余咳嗽;同养血药,强阴解肌,调疮痘不足皮焦。以其性大寒,酒煎二两,治湿热黄疸最为神效。牡丹皮能去血中热,地骨皮能去气中之热,宜别而用。
6.《本草新编》:地骨皮,非黄柏、知母之可比,地骨皮虽入肾而不凉肾,
地骨皮地骨皮
止入肾而凉骨耳,凉肾必至泄肾而伤胃,凉骨反能益肾而生髓,黄柏、知母泄肾伤胃,故断不可多用以取败也,骨皮益肾生髓,断不可少用而图功。欲退阴虚火动,骨蒸劳热之症,用补阴之药,加地骨皮或五钱或一两,始能凉骨中之髓,而去骨中之热也。
7.《本草备要》:朱二允曰,地骨皮能退内潮,人所知也,能退外潮,人实不知。病或风寒散而未尽,作潮往来,非柴、葛所能治,用地骨皮走表又走里之药,消其浮游之邪,服之未有不愈者,特表明之。
8.《要药分剂》:丹溪云,地骨皮能治风者,肝肾同治也;肝有热则自生风,与外感之风不同,热退则风自息。夫地骨皮本非入肝之药,丹溪云然者,以肝肾同位而同治,骨皮既能退肾家虚热,则龙火不炽,雷火亦平,自能息肝热所生之风,虽不入肝经,而肝风亦并治也。且骨皮入肾、三焦二经之外,不入肝,更不入肺,即肺中伏火亦能降泄,则不必疑于肝风之不能息也。总之,肾药兼治肝,乙癸同源也。肾药兼治肺,金水相涵也。
9.《本草述钩元》:地骨皮,能裕真阴之化源,而不伤元阳,故与苦寒者特殊。凡人真阴中有火,自相蒸烁,而见有汗骨蒸,宜此对待之。须知此味不兼养血,却专以益阴为其功,虽能除热、却不以泻火尽其用,即曰益阴气者,便能泻火,但直以为泻火而用,则此味专以除热,不能治虚矣。彼病后之虚烦地仙散,及健忘之读书丸,心气不足、惊悸健忘之补心丹,并赤白浊之清心莲子饮,可概谓之泻火乎?或曰,兹味治风,风正阳之淫气所化者也,独不谓之泻火乎?不知益阴气以退三焦之虚阳,但令阴气得为阳守,所程治效,总完一个阴气耳。其有不病于阴弱阳盛,止由阴气不足而亦用此为滋益之元者。故于各证之治,须当识此义也。
10.《藏府药式补正》:地骨皮,能清骨中之热,泄火下行,以视桑皮,则寒凉又胜一筹。而清肺热,导气火,亦引皮肤水气顺流而下,不嫌燥烈伤津、破耗正气,则与桑皮异曲同工。杞根皮苦寒清肃,直入下焦肝肾,能疗骨蒸里热,而气味俱清,尚不至铲灭真阳,损害元气,然终属清泄凉降之品,绝无滋养能力。
地骨皮地骨皮
11.《本经》:主五内邪气,热中消渴,周痹。
12.《别录》:主风湿,下胸胁气,客热头痛,补内伤大劳嘘吸,坚筋,强阴,利大小肠,耐寒暑。
13.《药性论》:细锉,面拌熟煮吞之,主治肾家风。
14.《食疗本草》:去骨热消渴。
15.《本草别说》:治金疮。李杲:治在表无定之风邪,传尸有汗之骨蒸。王好古:泻肾火,降肺中伏火,去胞中火,退热,补正气。
16.《日用本草》:治上膈吐血;煎汤漱口,止齿血,治骨槽风。
17.《本草述》:主治虚劳发热,眩晕,痉痫,腰痛,行痹,脚气水肿,虚烦,悸,健忘,小便不通,赤白浊。

实用选方

①治骨
地骨皮地骨皮
蒸肌热,解一切虚烦躁,生津液:地骨皮(洗,去心)、防风(去钗股)各50克,甘草(炙)0.5克。细末,每服10克,水一盏,生姜三片,竹叶七片,煎服。(《本事方》地仙散
②治热劳:地骨皮100克,柴胡(去苗)50克。上二味捣罗为散,每服10克,用麦门冬(去心)煎汤调下。(《圣济总录》地骨皮散
③治虚劳口中苦渴,骨节烦热或寒:枸杞根白皮(切)五升,麦门冬二升,小麦二升。上三味,以水二斗,煮麦熟,药成去滓,每服一升,日再。(《千金方》枸杞汤)
④治小儿肺盛,气急喘嗽:地骨皮、桑白皮(炒)各50克,甘草(炙)5克。上锉散,入粳米一撮,水二小盏,煎七分,食前服。(《小儿药证直诀》泻白散
⑤治吐、下血:枸杞根皮、子,为散,煎服。(《普济方》)
⑥治血淋:地骨皮,酒煎服。若新地骨皮加水捣汁,每盏入酒少许,空心温服更妙。(《经验广集》地骨酒)
⑦治消渴日夜饮水不止,小便利:地骨皮(锉)、土瓜根(锉)、栝楼根(锉)、芦根(锉)各75克,麦门冬(去心,焙)100克,枣七枚(去核)。上六味锉如麻豆;每服20克,水一盏,煎取八分,去滓温服。(《圣济总录》地骨皮饮
⑧治消渴唇干口燥:枸杞根五升(锉皮),石膏一升,小麦三升。上三味切,以水煮,麦熟汤成,去滓,适寒温饮之。(《医心方》枸杞汤)
⑨治时行目暴肿痒痛:地骨皮(切)三斤。以水三斛,煮取三升,绞去滓,更内盐二两,煎取一升,洗目。(《圣济总录》地骨皮汤
⑩治风虫牙痛:枸杞根白皮煎醋漱之。用水煎饮亦可。(《肘后方》)
⑾治膀胱移热于小肠,上为口糜,生疮溃烂,心胃壅热,水谷不下:柴胡、地骨皮各15克。水煎服之。(《兰室秘藏》地骨皮汤)
⑿治耳聋,有脓水不止:地骨皮25克,五倍子0.5克。上二味捣为细末,每用少许,掺入耳中。(《圣济总录》地骨皮散)
⒀治瘭疽著手足、肩背,忽发累累如赤小豆,剥之汁出者:枸杞根、葵根叶。煮汁,煎如糖服之。(《千金方》)
⒁治肠风痔漏,下血不止:地骨皮、凤眼根皮各等分(同炒,微黄色)。捣为细末,每服15克,空心温酒调服。忌油腻。(《经验方》地骨皮散)
地骨皮的图片
地骨皮的图片 (20张)
⒂治痔疾:枸杞根、地龙(捣)。枸杞根旋取新者,刮去浮赤皮,只取第二重薄白皮,暴干捣罗为末,每秤一两,别入地龙末5克,和匀,先以热虀汁洗煠患处,用药干掺,日可三次用。(《圣济总录》枸杞散)
⒃治气瘘疳疮,多年不愈:地骨皮不以多少,杵为细末,每用纸燃蘸絍疮口内,频用自然生肉,更用米饮调10克,无时,日进三服。(《外科精义》应效散)
⒄治妇人阴肿或生疮:枸杞根煎水频洗。(《永类钤方》)
⒅肾经虚损,眼目昏花,或云翳遮睛。和枸杞子500克,好酒润透。分作四份:一份用蜀椒一两炒,一份用小茴香一两炒,一份用芝麻一两炒,一份用川楝肉一两炒。炒后拣出枸杞,加熟地黄白术白茯苓各50克,共研为末,加炼蜜做成丸子,每天服适量。此方名"四神丸"。
⒆壮筋骨,补精髓。用枸杞根、生地黄甘菊花各一斤,捣碎,加水一石,煮取汁五斗,以汁炊糯米五斗,拌入细曲,照常法酿酒,待熟澄清,每日饮三碗。此方名"地骨酒"。
⒇骨蒸烦熟(包括一切虚劳烦热及大病后烦热)。用地骨皮100克、防风50克,甘草(炙)25克,和匀后。每取25克,加生姜五片,水煎服。此方名"地仙散"。
(21)肾虚腰痛。和枸杞根、杜仲、萆解和一斤,好酒三斗浸泡,密封土罐中再放锅内煮一天,常取饮服。
(22)赤眼肿痛。用地骨皮三斤,加水三斗,煮成三升,去渣,放进盐一两,再煮成二程式,频用洗眼和点眼。
(23)小便出血。用新地骨皮洗净,捣取自然汁。无汁则加水煎汁。每服一碗
地骨皮 原生态植物地骨皮 原生态植物
,加一点酒,饭前温服。
(24)风虫牙痛。用枸杞根白皮,煎醋含漱。
(25)口舌糜烂(膀胱移热于小肠,口舌生疮,心胃热水谷不下)。用柴胡、地骨皮各15克,水煎服。此方名"地骨皮汤"。
(26)男子下疳。先以浆水洗过。再搽地骨皮末,即可生肌止痛。
(27)妇女阴肿或生疮。用枸杞根煎水多洗。
(28)痈疽恶疮,脓血不止。有地骨皮不拘多少,洗净,刮去粗皮,取出细穰。以地骨皮煎汤洗,令脓血尽,以穰敷贴患处,很快见效。
(29)足趾鸡眼,作痛作疮。用地骨皮同红花研细敷涂。
(30)目涩有翳。用枸杞叶车前叶各100克,捣出汁,以桑叶裹悬阴地一夜。取汁点眼,不过三、五次,即见效。
(31)五劳七伤,房事衰弱。用枸杞叶250克,切细,加粳米二合,豉汁适量,一起煮成粥。每日食用,有效。[1-2] 

药材鉴定

形状鉴别:根皮筒状、槽状或不规则卷片,大小不一,一般长3-10cm,直径0.5-2cm,厚1-3mm。外表面土黄色或灰黄色,粗糙,有不规则纵裂纹,易成鳞片状剥落;内表面黄白色,具细纵条纹。质松脆,易折,折断面分内外两层;内层灰白色。气微,味微甘,后苦。以筒粗,肉厚,整齐,无木心及碎片者为佳。
显微鉴别:根皮横切面:落皮层较厚,有2-3条木栓组织环带,最内的木栓层为完整的环带,外侧的则交错连接,可见颓废的筛管及射线细胞。韧皮部较宽,占根皮厚度一半;纤维单个散在或少数成束,偶见石细胞;射线宽1-2列细胞。本口薄壁细胞含淀粉粒,有的含草酸钙砂晶。
粉末特征:
1、米黄色。
2.草酸钙砂晶随处散在,有的薄壁细胞充满砂晶,形成砂晶囊。
3、纤维常与射线细胞连接;纤维梭形或纺锤形,长110-230μm,壁厚3-11μm,木化或微木化,具稀疏斜纹孔,有的胞腔含黄棕色物。
4.淀粉粒单粒类圆形或椭圆形;复粒由2-8分粒组成。此外,可见石细胞、木栓细胞及落皮层薄壁细胞。

主要成分

根皮含桂皮酸(Cinnamic acid)和多量酚类物质、甜菜碱(Betaine).尚分离得柯碱A(地骨皮甲素,Kukoamine A)、枸杞素A (Lyciumin A)、枸杞素B(Lyciumin B)、β-谷甾醇(β-Sitosterol)、亚油酸(Linoleic acid)、亚麻酸(Linolenic acid)、卅一酸等.
地骨皮地骨皮
枸杞根皮含生物碱:甜菜碱(betaine)[1],苦可胺(kukoamine)A[2]及用于免疫调节,剂,杀病毒剂,肿瘤抑制剂等的1,2,3,4,7,-五羟基-6-氮杂双环[3。3。0]辛烷(1,2,3,4,7-pen-tahydroxy-6nitro-bicycol[3,3,0]-octane)和1,4,7,8-四羟基-6-氮杂双环[3,3,0]辛烷(1,4,7,8-tetrahydroxy-6-nitrobicycol[3,3,0]-octane)[3]。又含抗肾素作用兼抗血管紧张素Ⅰ转变酶活性作用的枸杞环八肽(lyciumin)A和B[4,5]。还含具抗血管紧张素Ⅰ转变酶活性作用的有机酸:(S)-9-羟基-10E,12Z-十八碳二烯酸[(S)-9-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid]和(S)9-羟基10E,12Z,15Z-十八碳三烯酸[(S)-9-hydroxy-10E,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid][6]。尚含枸杞酰胺(lyciumamide)即是乙酸橙黄胡椒酰胺酯(aurantiamideacetae)[7],亚油酸(linoleic acid)[1]。亚麻酸(linollenic acid),蜂花酸(melissic acid),桂皮酸(cinnamic acid),柳杉酚(sugiol),5α-豆甾烷-3,6-二酮(5α-stig-mastane-3,6-dine)[8],东莨菪素(scopoletin)[6],β-谷甾醇葡萄糖甙(β-sitosterol glucoside)[9],东莨菪素(scopoletin)[6],β-谷甾醇葡萄糖甙(β-sitoserol glucosde)[9]等。根含以正二十三烷(n-tricosane)和正三十三烷(n-trtriaconetane)为主的具15-33个碳原子的正烷烃;具18-31个碳原子的长链醇;胆甾醇(cholesterol),菜油甾醇(campesterol),豆甾醇(stigmasterol),谷甾醇(sitosterol)以及硬脂酸(steraric acid),棕榈酸(palmitic acid),油酸(oleic acid)[10]。
同属植物宁古枸杞根含生物碱:阿托品(atropine)和天仙子胺(hyoscyamine)[11]。

功效作用

1。对心血管系统的作用 
地骨皮地骨皮
用地骨皮的浸剂、酊剂及煎剂给麻醉犬、猫、兔静脉注射均有明显的降压作用,并伴有心率减慢和呼吸加快;给不麻醉大鼠灌胃亦有明显降压作用。地骨皮注射剂给麻醉犬静脉注射0.375g/kg能使其血压下降至零而死亡,小剂量重复注射未见快速耐受现象。地骨皮甲醇提取物给大鼠静脉注射0.5g(生药)/kg 亦有明显降压活性。地骨皮降压期间,心电图可见心率减慢,P-R间期延长、T波减低,中毒剂量可使豚鼠心脏产生房室传导的部分性乃至完全性阻滞。地骨皮的降压作用除有中枢参与外,还可能与其阻断交感神经末梢及直接舒张血管的作用有关。此外,枸杞素A 和枸杞素B 有抗肾上腺皮质激素和肾素的作用,亦为其降压作用机制之一。
2。 降血糖和降血脂作用 给家兔灌服地骨皮煎剂,先使血糖短时间升高,然后持久降低,4~8小时后尚未恢复。对于注射肾上腺素引起的高血糖并无明显对抗作用,但可缩短高血糖维持时间。家兔皮下注射地骨皮浸膏,亦可使血糖降低。地骨皮水煎剂对四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠胰岛B 细胞的形态结构损害有一定的减轻作用。地骨皮浸膏灌胃,能使实验性家兔血清总胆固醇含量下降,但对甘油三酯含量影响不大,对肝脏脂肪含量亦无明显影响。甜菜碱则有抗脂肪肝作用。
3. 抗病原微生物作用 地骨皮煎剂对伤寒杆菌、甲型副伤寒杆菌与弗氏痢疾杆菌有较强的抑制作用,但对金黄色葡萄球菌无作用;对流感亚洲甲型京科68-1病毒株有抑制其细胞病变作用;对结核杆菌为低效抑菌药物。
4。解热作用 地骨皮水提取物、乙醇提取物及乙醚残渣水提取物灌服或注射对人工发热家兔有显著退热作用。其乙醚提取物及乙醇提取后残渣之水提取物并无作用。其解热作用比氨基比林弱,约与其他解热药相等。
5. 其他作用 地骨皮水煎剂对正常小鼠脾细胞产生白细胞介素-2有抑制作用;对环磷酰胺所致小鼠脾细胞白细胞介素-2产生降低有显著提高增强作用;对硫唑嘌呤所致白细胞介素-2产生超常有抑制作用。

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
  • 1.  枸杞  .中国植物志.2013-12-31[引用日期2013-12-31]
  • 2.  地骨皮  .二天堂药站.2012-09-8[引用日期2012-09-8]
http://baike.baidu.com/view/49471.htm

Digupi editor
Digupi alias: wolfberry bark, Solanaceae, genus wolfberry, Chinese wolfberry Lycium chinense Mill is the root bark. It can be used as medicine, in addition to having a cooling steam, Qingfei down as other effects. Often hillslopes, wasteland, hills, saline, roadsides and edge of the village adjacent to the house, located in Northeast China, southern Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu and southwest, central, south and eastern provinces; Korea, Japan, Europe, cultivated or Yi wild.
Chinese scientific name Digupi Latin name Cortex Lycii aka Wolfberry leather bound Flora door Door Gang angiosperms dicotyledons outline tubular flowers. Branch family Solanaceae family genus Solanum genus wolfberry Chinese wolfberry skin distribution area
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 Geographical distribution of common methods of cultivation techniques ▪ ▪ 5 field management ▪ pest control ▪ medicinal properties medicinal value ▪ ▪ practical literature on election party drug identification ▪ ▪ ▪ Efficacy main ingredient
Morphological characteristics editor
Digupi - botanical ecology
Digupi - Botanical Ecology (2)
Multi-branched shrub, 0.5-1 m, up to 2 meters when cultivated; thin branches, bent or arcuate drooping, pale gray, with longitudinal stripes, 0.5-2 cm long thorns, leaves and flowers of long spines , sprig top acute thorns into shape. Leaf quality thicker paper or grower, leaf alternate or 2-4 pieces clustered, ovate, ovate diamond, oblong, ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, base cuneate, 1.5-5 cm long, 0.5-2.5 cm wide, the larger growers, up to 10 cm or more, four centimeters wide; petiole 0.4-1 cm long.
Spent long branches solitary or double leaf axils, in the same leaves clustered on short branches; pedicels 1-2 cm long, gradually thickening towards the top. Calyx 3-4 mm long, usually 3-lobed or 4-5 cracked teeth, lobes much destined hair; corolla funnel-shaped, 9-12 mm long, lilac, tube suddenly expand upward, slightly shorter than or nearly equal entablature lobes, 5-parted, lobes ovate, top blunt, flat or slightly curved outwardly anti-edge destined hair, ear base significantly; stamens slightly shorter than the corolla, or because of corolla lobes extend outreach and corolla, filaments in the past corolla tube wall at the base of the dense circle of hair and wool woven into the oval-shaped clump, clump of hair and other high places also a dense loop pile; style slightly protruding stamens, upper arched, stigma green.
Berry red, ovate, growers can grow oblong or oblong-shaped, top tip or obtuse, 7-15 mm long, growers up to 2.2 cm long, 5-8 mm in diameter. Seeds flat kidney-shaped, 2.5-3 mm long, yellow. Fruit period from June to November. [1] 
Growth habit editor
Often hillslopes, wasteland, hills, saline, roadsides and edge of the village adjacent to the house. [1] Born in the hillside, sunny and dry fields; cultivated. Hi light. Strict requirements on the soil, salinity, Naifei, drought, fear of water damage. With fertile, well-drained neutral or slightly acidic loam cultivation appropriate, saline-alkali soil salt content should not exceed 0.2%, in strongly alkaline, clay loam, rice paddies, swamps should not be cultivated.
Geographical Distribution Edit
Distributed in Northeast China, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu and southern Southwest China ', the South China and East China provinces and autonomous regions; Korea, Japan, Europe, cultivated or wild Plaza. [1] The main producing Shanxi, Henan, Zhejiang, Jiangsu; most of the country are produced.
Cultivation Technical Editor
Common methods

Propagation by seed or cuttings propagation.
Wolfberry plant
Wolfberry plant
Seed propagation: You can use varieties to picking fruit, bright color, no pests spot ripe fruit, after the summer harvest, with 30-60 ℃ warm water, rub the seeds, wash, dry spare. Before sowing with wet sand (1: 3) stopped uniform, set at 20 ℃ ambient temperature germination, until 30% of the seed Lu Bai or soaked with water when the seeds for one day, re-seeding. Spring, summer, autumn can be planted in spring based. Spring in late March to early April, according to the spacing 40cm ditching drill, deep 1.5-3cm, casing 1-3cm, seedling emergence, according to soil moisture, pay attention to irrigation. Height 1.5-3cm, tillage weed 1, after every 20-30d tillage weeding 1 times. Height 6-9cm, Dingmiao, spacing 12-15cm, every 1hm2 Liumiao 150,000 -18 trees. Combined with irrigation in May and June and July to recover fertilizer three times, in order to ensure the growth of seedlings, young plants should be removed from the ground 40cm, part of the growth of lateral buds, height 60cm topping should be performed, in order to accelerate the growth of the trunk and the upper part of the collateral, as root 0.7cm thick, it can Chupu transplanting.
Cutting Propagation: the good mother plants, mining thick 0.3cm, more than a year already lignified shoot cut into 18-20cm long cuttings, tied into small bundles erected in pots soaked with 100 × 10-6α- Naphthylacetate 2-3h, then cutting, press spacing 6-10cm Xiecha in the trench, Matsuchi ease.
Field management

5, 6, July kinds Cultivators
Wolfberry plant
Wolfberry plant
Weeding 1, in late October - November to early application of sheep manure, manure, cake and so on as basal fertilizer urea can be in May and June to July phosphorus and potassium compound. Saplings shaping, medlar year after transplanting fall in the upper part of the trunk around 3-5 people selected for the main branch growth stout branches, and cutting back to about 20cm Department, the second issue in the spring when new shoots at the branches in 20-25cm stubs as the backbone branches. The first three or four years modeled way to continue to use the first 2 years of leggy branches expanding branches backbone, heightening full crown skeleton. After 5--6 years into adulthood tree shaping culture stage. Adult tree pruning every spring cut branches, crossing branches and roots sprout branches, dense summer to remain sparse, cut leggy branches, worms branches and acupuncture branches. Fall comprehensive pruning, crown finishing chosen to remain good results branches.
Pest Control

Diseases are black wolfberry fruit disease, damage buds, flowers and fruit. Using the results can be 1: 1: 100 Bordeaux mixture spray; spray 50% immediately after the rain tuzet can warm powder 600 times better. Root rot can be used 50% or 50% thiophanate 1000-1500 times solution or 50% carbendazim 1000-1500 times pouring roots. There wolfberry fruit fly pest, prevention and treatment in the winter when adult emergence, in the face of Qi garden spread 50% carbaryl powder 45kg / hm2, removal of maggots deep fruit, autumn and winter watering or tilling the soil to kill overwintering pupae territories. Wolfberry Oulema spring irrigation in loose soil, the sound of destruction to kill overwintering insect, Qi garden in mid-April to face Caesar 5% carbaryl powder (1kg against the fine soil 5-7kg), kill overwintering adults, the enemy hundred insects 800-1000 times control. There Wolfberry wolfberry gall mite damage.
Medicinal value edit
About herbs: [Synonym] Qi root, ground bone, ground
Digupi - Picking
Digupi - Picking
Daisuke, to the section ("Classic"), wolfberry root, Gou from the root ("Annotations of Materia Medica"), wolfberry root bark ("resistance"), mountain wolfberries root, sweet tooth root, red-eared fall root ("Henan Traditional Chinese Medicine Manual "), mountain wolfberry root, root bark dog breast (" Shandong medicine "), red garnet root bark (" Chinese herbal medicines Handbook "), the dog to Nha (" Sichuan Chinese Medicine Chi ").
[Research] from the "Taiwan Miyao"
[Source] for tomato plants wolfberry root bark. Plant morphology in detail "medlar" section.
[Collection] early spring or autumn excavation, wash the soil, root bark peeled off and dried.
[Medicine] dried root bark for a short cylindrical or trough-shaped winding, sizes, usually from 3 to 10 cm long, 0.6 to 1.5 cm wide, 3 mm thick. The outer surface of pale yellow or brown, rough, jumbled
Digupi - plant traits
Digupi - plant traits
Longitudinal cracks, easy to peel off. The inner surface of yellow-white, relatively flat, with thin vertical lines. Qingcui quality, easily broken, section is not flat, the outer layer of brown, gray lining. Slightly smelly. Slightly sweet taste. To block large, flesh, no wooden heart and impurities were better.
Collect and process: annual excavation, stripping the root bark and dried.
Properties: The root bark has a cylindrical shape, trough-shaped or irregular winding. Barrel diameter 0.5 ~ 2cm, thickness of 1 ~ 3mm. The outer surface of khaki or grayish yellow, rough, staggered crack, easy to peel off; inner surface yellowish-white, with thin vertical stripes. Brittle fracture surface points inside and outside layers, the outer thick khaki; inner white. Slight aroma, taste slightly sweet.
Chemical composition: root bark contains betaine (betaine), wolfberry amide (lyciumamide), β- sitosterol, sugiol (sugiol), honey acid (melissic acid), linoleic acid and cinnamic acid.
Taste: cold, sweet.
Indications: cooling addition to steam, clearing the lungs pathogenic fire. For deficiency hot flashes, night sweats Gu Zheng, Hyperactivity cough, hemoptysis, epistaxis. Heat diabetes.
Note: The same plant Ningxia wolfberry root bark L. barbarum L., also known as Digupi use.
Most of the country has a production.
Medicinal properties

[Cooked] Picking
Digupi
Digupi
Impurities and wooden heart, slightly washed, dried, cut into sections.
】 【Taste sweet, cold.
① "The Classic": "bitter, cold."
② "Do not record": "Big Chill, non-toxic."
③ "outline": "sweet and light, cold."
[Meridian] lungs, liver and kidney.
① "Herbal Decoction": "Foot Shao, Shaoyang hand."
② "Thunder concocted herbal solution": "lung, kidney two classics."
③ "Materia Medica words": "into the Foot Shao, foot Jue Yin."
【Indications】 heat, cooling. Rule Consumption hot flashes, night sweats, Hyperactivity cough, vomiting, epistaxis, discredited, diabetes, hypertension, carbuncles, malignant sore.
① "The Classic": "Lord V to evil, avid thirst, Zhou Bi."
② "Do not record": "Lord rheumatism, lower chest gas, off heat, headache, internal injuries make up a large labor Hush smoke, strong tendons, strong Yin, Lee large intestine, resistant to cold and heat."
Digupi
Digupi (5)
③ "medicinal theory": "fine file, flour mixed with cooked boiled swallow, attending kidney family tradition."
④ "Herbal": "boneless hot thirst."
⑤ "Herbal Do not say": "metallurgy sore."
⑥ Li Gao: "No government in the form prescribed by Feng Xie, Gu Zheng Chuan Khan corpse there."
⑦ Wang Hao Gu: "diarrhea kidney fire, reducing lung ambush fire to the cell in the fire, fever, corrections gas."
⑧ "Daily Materia Medica": "the rule diaphragm vomiting; Jiantang mouthwash, tooth stopping blood, cure bone trough wind."
⑨ "outline": "go under the coke kidney Hot."
⑩ "Materia Medica": "Indications consumptive fever, cold and heat exchanges, all with blood evidence, epistaxis, coughing blood, coughing, wheezing, Xiaodan, stroke, dizziness, spasm obstinate disease, low back pain, the line weakness, beriberi, edema, virtual trouble , palpitations, forgetfulness, difficulty in urination, red gonorrhea. "
Usage and Dosage】 Oral: decoction, 3 to 6 money; or into pills, powder. External: Jianshui rinse, rinse, spread or transfer deposited into powder.
[Taboo] stomach Deficiency Jifu.
① "Introduction to Medicine": "bogey iron."
② "Materia Medica words": "Consumption Huo and weak stomach, eat less diarrhea are advised to reduce it."
③ "Materia Medica is": "false heat Convicted of use."
Literature on

1, Li Gao: Siwutang within plus ground
Digupi
Digupi
Bone skin, moutan, cure most wonderful woman Gu Zheng. Digupi cure foot Shao, Shaoyang hand there are those who sweat and Gu Zheng.
2. "Outline": wolfberry AIDS benefit not just the child, but the root of it nor ending fever. But roots, shoots, son of smell a little special, but also not attending no other. Miao is the day cover its fine, Kugan and cool off the hot coke cardiopulmonary are advised; root is ground bone, sweet pale and cold, the next focus of the liver and kidney are advised Hot, euphemistically triple burner gas per drug, called hot kinky on the inside, diarrhea with Ganhan also. As the child is gamping and moist, sex AIDS and complement, not fever, kidney and lungs can stop, spermatogenic Qi, which was reinforcing drugs, the so-called fine is insufficient, fill them with flavor also. Divide and use it, you all have the Lord, and will use it, then do both. But people know with a skullcap, berberine bitter cold to fire on the rule of coke, Cork, under the rule of coke Anemarrhena bitter cold to yin fire, that the yin pathogenic fire, Jiufu injury strength, but I do not know wolfberry, ground bone, 甘寒平 fill, so refined gas and Xiehuo charge from the back of the wonderful, Xizai! They taste with artesunate Junior to bone fever, frequently Shugong, people who did not Yu.
3. "Materia Medica words": Wangshao Long cloud, hot bone of calamity and suffering really overcast to land in the bone skin, Gan Hanqing Run, mud does not lag, non-yellow, Radix with the flow.
4. "Materia Medica is": Digupi, wolfberry root is also the South's bitter taste light, slightly Camsing, north were great bitterness of poor, but south of medicine is preferred. Sheen their sexual cold, good into the blood, where not due to cold and heat in the essence of the negative points are the most appropriate. This was cool but not steep, you can manage Consumption, gas light and Sheen, hence clearing the lungs.
5. "Drugs of justice": Digupi, remove no fixed imaginary evil outside, inside except sweat Gu Zheng, theoretically head wind, going chest gas, under Lee large intestine, can work through. The diarrhea White Powder, Qingjin breathing, treatment Hyperactivity cough surplus; with nourishing agents, strong Yin Jie Ji, tone skin sores pox insufficient focus. Its Big Chill, Jiu Jian twenty-two, the most magic cure heat jaundice. Moutan able to heat the blood, Digupi able to go in the hot gas, should do and use.
6. "New Materia Medica": Digupi, non Treats, comparable Anemarrhena, the Digupi although not cool kidney into the kidney,
Digupi
Digupi
Stop into the kidney and bone ear cool, cool Kidney to vent kidney and Shang Wei, cool kidney and bone marrow trans can, Cork, Anemarrhena vent kidney Shang Wei, not much to take it off the loser, bone skin Yishen marrow, and FIG off essential work with. Yin fire move to retreat, Gu Zheng labor heat of the disease, with the yin of the drug, plus Digupi or five money or one or two, before they can cool in the bone marrow, bone away in the heat too.
7. "Herbal medicine prepared to": Zhuer Yun said, Digupi can retire internal tide, people know too, can retire outside the wave of people really do not know. Disease or cold scattered and entirely, as tidal exchanges, non-wood, GE can cure with Digupi table and went walking in the drug, eliminate its evil plankton, the service of No unhealed, the special show.
8. "To the drug sub-agent": Dan cloud, Digupi can cure the wind, the liver and kidney Tongzhi also; liver hot as from wind, and different exogenous wind, hot wind from the interest back then. Cardiff Digupi hepatic of this non-drug, then who Danxi cloud to liver and kidney Tongzhi with bits of bone skin both back home and Hot kidney, the dragon fire is not blazing, thunderbolt also flat, since heat can interest liver Health of the wind, although hepatic classics, but also wind and cure liver also. Bone and skin into the kidney, triple burner than two classics, not the liver, but not into the lungs, which can also decrease lung ambush fire to vent, I do not doubt in the interest liver wind also. Overall, kidney medicine to rid the liver, B Kuei homologous also. Renal medicine and Zhifei, Goldwater phase Han also.
9. "Herbal said hook element": Digupi can really Yin Yu of the source, without injury Yuanyang, and bitter cold were so special. Mortal really yin fire, autocorrelation steam sparkle, and see sweat Gu Zheng, should this treatment of. This Notice does not smell and blood, but specifically to the Yin and its function, although able to remove heat, but not in order to make the best use Xiehuo that beneficial chi said, who will be able to purging fire, but straight and use that Xiehuo , this flavor designed to remove heat, can not cure imaginary carry on. He is tired of the disease after the virtual cents scattered and forgetful of the study pills, heart qi deficiency, palpitation forgetfulness of Bu Xin Dan, a pure heart lotus seeds and red clouding the drink, can be summarized that the Xiehuo Down? Or we can say, is hereby flavor governance wind, wind Zhengyang Wanton gas as of those who are, not only that of Xiehuo Down? I do not know the benefits to false positive chi retreat triple burner, but so too yin yang defend, the treatment process efficiency, total finished a chi ear. There is no disease in the shade of its weak yang, yin and also stop by the inadequate use this as a benefit of the yuan by AIDS. Therefore, in the syndrome of the rule shall be deemed to know this righteousness.
10. "Tibetan government drug type correction": Digupi, bone of heat can be clear, Xiehuo down, with visual mulberry, and the cold edge. And Qingfei heat, conductivity gas fire, also cited skin moisture downstream, never too dry strong disability allowance, breaking consumption righteousness, and mulberry is similar. Qi root bark of the bitter cold of the purges, straight into the next focus of the liver and kidney, can cure Gu Zheng in the heat, and smell all clear, it is not to shovel off the real sun, vitality damage, and then cool down eventually belong Qingxie goods, no ability to nourish.
Digupi
Digupi
11. "The Classic": the main V to evil, avid thirst, Zhou Bi.
12. "Do not record": the main rheumatism, lower chest gas, off heat, headache, internal injuries make up a large labor Hush smoke, strong tendons, strong Yin, Lee large intestine, resistant to cold and heat.
13. "Medicinal theory": fine file, mix cooked cooking surface swallow, attending kidney family traditions.
14. "Herbal": boneless hot thirst.
Fifteen. "Herbal mention": metallurgy sores. Li Gao: no fixed rule in the table Feng Xie, pass corpse there Gu Zheng Khan. Wang Hao Gu: diarrhea kidney fire, reducing lung ambush fire to the cell in the fire, fever, corrections gas.
16. "Daily Materia Medica": on governance diaphragm vomiting; Jiantang mouthwash, tooth stopping blood, cure bone trough wind.
17. "Materia Medica": Indications consumptive fever, dizziness, epileptic spasm, back pain, the line weakness, beriberi, edema, imaginary trouble, palpitations, forgetfulness, difficulty in urination, whitish red.
Practical election party

① treatment of bone
Digupi
Digupi
Muscle steaming hot solution of all virtual irritability, raw body fluid: Digupi (wash, to heart), wind (to the hairpin shares), 50 grams of licorice (Sunburn) 0.5 g. Fine, each serving 10 grams, water one, three pieces of ginger, bamboo leaves seven, decoction. ("Competent party" Sin bulk)
② heat treatment labor: Digupi 100 grams, Bupleurum (to shoot) 50 g. Two flavor pound Luo powder, 10 grams per serving, with Ophiopogon (to heart) Jiantang tune. ("San Franciscans overall record," Digupi bulk)
③ rule Consumption mouth bitter thirst, or cold joints Fanre: wolfberry root white (cut) five liters, MaiMenDong two liters, two liters of wheat. On the shamisen, two bucket with water, boiled wheat cooked, to the dregs drug into, each serving one liter, day again. ("Qian Jin Fang" wolfberry soup)
④ cure children with lung Sheng, shortness of breath Asthma: Digupi, Morus alba (fried), 50 grams of licorice (Sunburn) 5 g. Scattered on the file, into the rice a pinch, two small cup of water, fried seven former food service. ("Pediatric drug card straight tactic" spilled white powder)
⑤ rule spit of blood: wolfberry root bark, son, is scattered, decoction. ("Universal Relief")
⑥ governance discredited: Digupi, wine decoction. If the new Digupi Daozhi water per cup into the wine a little, hollow warm clothes even better. ("Experience gather" ground bone wine)
⑦ cure diabetes than drinking the night, a small convenience: Digupi (file), Kwa root (file), Trichosanthes root (file), reed rhizome (file) for each 75 grams, Ophiopogon (to heart, baking) 100 grams, jujube seven (to the core). Liu Wei as Matou on file; 20 grams per serving, a water Jianqu eight, to the dregs, warm clothes. ("San Franciscans overall record," Digupi drink)
⑧ governance Diabetes lips dry mouth: wolfberry root five liters (filing skin), gypsum one liter, three liters of wheat. On the shamisen cut to boiled, cooked wheat soup into, to the dregs, proper cold temperature drink. ("Medical Heart Party" wolfberry soup)
Line ⑨ with violence when swollen eye itching: Digupi (cut) pounds. Three cups of water, Zhuqu three liters, twist to the dregs, more inner salt twenty-two, Jianqu one liter, wash the head. ("San Franciscans overall record," Digupi soup)
⑩ governance wind worm toothache: wolfberry root decoction white vinegar rinse it. Drink can with water to cook. ("Rear elbow")
⑾ cure bladder Heat Transfer in the small intestine, for the mouth Mi, canker sores, heart and stomach obstruct heat, Mizutani less than: Radix, Digupi 15 grams each. Shuijianbi it. ("Blue Room cache" Digupi soup)
⑿ cure deafness, have pus than: Digupi 25 grams, gallic 0.5 g. Two flavor pound fine, each with a little incorporation ears. ("San Franciscans overall record," Digupi bulk)
⒀ rule felon with hand, foot, shoulder, suddenly developed numerous such as red bean, stripping the juice out of those: wolfberry root, sunflower roots and leaves. Broth, fried, such as sugar of service. ("Qian Jin Fang")
⒁ treatment of intestinal wind anal fistula, lower than blood: Digupi, water hyacinth root bark each decile (fry, yellow). Pound fine, 15 grams per serving, hollow temperature wine transfer service. Avoid greasy. ("Experience side" Digupi bulk)
Digupi pictures
Digupi pictures (20)
⒂ cure hemorrhoids: wolfberry root, earthworm (pound). Wolfberry root spin take new person, scrape the floating red skin, just take a second weight thin white, dry ramming Luo for the end of violence, each weighing twelve, do not enter earthworm end 5 grams, and absorbed, first with hot spice sauce Ye wash the affected area, medication dry mixed, days can be three times. ("San Franciscans overall record," Chinese wolfberry powder)
⒃ governance gas fistula malnutrition sores, unhealed for many years: Digupi not to much, clubbing fine, every paper dipped 絍 burning sores, frequent natural raw meat, rice drink tune more with 10 g, no time, Nissin three. ("Surgical essence" should effect powder)
⒄ governance woman cloudy swelling or sores: wolfberry root Jianshui wash frequently. ("Wing type seal side")
⒅ kidney deficiency, eyes dim, or clouds cover the eye. And medlar 500 grams, wine run through. Divided into four parts: one with Shujiao twelve fry, a twelve fried with cumin, a twelve fried with sesame, a twelve fried meat with TSN. Fried picked wolfberry, plus Rehmannia, Atractylodes, Poria 50 grams, a total of research for the end, plus refining honey made into balls, served right amount every day. The party name "four gods pill."
⒆ strong bones, make up the essence. With wolfberry root, traditional Chinese medicine, chamomile each pound, mashed, add water, a stone, boiled juice five bucket to cook glutinous rice juice five bucket, mix a fine song, wine law as usual, until cooked clarification, daily drink three bowls. The party name "ground bone wine."
⒇ Gu Zheng trouble cooked (including all consumptive Fanre and after serious illness Fanre). With Digupi 100 grams, wind 50 grams, licorice (Sunburn) 25 g, and after uniform. Take 25 grams each, plus ginger five, decoction. The party name "Sin scattered."
(21) kidney back pain. And wolfberry root, Eucommia, castor seed solution and pound, three measures of wine soaked, sealed earthenware jars and put the pot boiling in the day often take Beverage.
(22) red eyes and throat. With Digupi pounds, add water three bucket, boiled three liters, to the residue, into salt twelve, then boiled two programs, the frequency with eyewash and eye.
(23) urinary bleeding. With new Digupi washed, chopped taking the natural juice. No juice, then add water dextrose. Each serving bowl
Digupi original ecological plant
Digupi original ecological plant
, Add a little wine, meals, warm clothes.
(24) Air insect toothache. With wolfberry white root, fried vinegar rinse.
(25) tongue erosion (bladder Heat Transfer in the small intestine, mouth sores, stomach heart, Mizutani no less). Bupleurum, Digupi 15 grams, decoction. The party name "Digupi soup."
(26) man chancre. Whey washed first with. Then paint Digupi end, it can myogenic pain.
(27) Women cloudy swelling or sores. Wash with wolfberry root Jianshui.
(28) malignant sore ulcer, pus beyond. There are informal Digupi number, wash, scrape the bark, remove fine Rang. In Digupi decoction to wash, so that pus do, Rang applicator to the affected area soon bear fruit.
(29) toe corns, ached for sores. Digupi with saffron with finely applicator.
(30) head Shibuya have shade. With wolfberry leaves, plantain leaves of 100 grams, pound juice, mulberry wrap hanging Shade night. Juice eye, but three, five, that is effective.
(31) debility, sexual weakness. 250 grams with a medlar leaves, cut thin, add rice two together, soy sauce amount, congee together. Daily consumption, and effective. [1-2]
Medicine identification

Shape identification: root bark tubular, trough-shaped or irregular winding, sizes, general long 3-10cm, diameter 0.5-2cm, thick 1-3mm. The outer surface of khaki or grayish yellow, rough, irregular longitudinal cracks, flaking easily into scaly; the inner surface of yellow-white, with thin vertical stripes. Quality crisp, easy to break, break points inside and outside surface layers; inner gray. Gas micro, taste slightly sweet, bitter. In barrel crude, flesh, neat, no wooden heart and debris preferred.
Microscopic identification: root bark cross-section: Falling thicker cortex, there are 2-3 cork tissue annulus, the innermost layer of cork to the full annulus, cross-connected outside of the visible screen and decadent ray cells. Phloem wide, accounting for half of the root bark thickness; fibers scattered single or a few bundles, occasional stone cells; ray width 1-2 rows of cells. The mouth of thin-walled cells containing starch grains, some containing calcium oxalate crystal sand.
Powder characteristics:
1, beige.
2. Calcium oxalate crystal sand scattered everywhere, some thin-walled cells filled with crystal sand, forming a crystal sand bag.
3, fiber often connected with the ray cell; fiber spindle or spindle-shaped, long 110-230μm, wall thickness 3-11μm, wood-based or micro-wood, with sparse twill hole, some cell cavity containing a yellowish brown substance.
4. Starch grains single grain round or oval; complex particles composed by a 2-8 tablets. In addition, visible stone cells, cork cells and colonies cortical parenchyma cells.
The main ingredient

The root bark contains cinnamic acid (Cinnamic acid) and large amounts of polyphenols, betaine (Betaine). Shang Ke was isolated base A (Digupi A prime, Kukoamine A), wolfberry hormone A (Lyciumin A), wolfberry prime B (Lyciumin B), β- sitosterol (β-Sitosterol), linoleic acid (Linoleic acid) linolenic acid (Linolenic acid), Sayi acid.
Digupi
Digupi
Wolfberry root bark contains alkaloids: betaine (betaine) [1], bitter may amine (kukoamine) A [2] and for immunomodulation, agents, virucidal agents, tumor inhibitors 1,2,3,4 , 7, - five-hydroxy-6-azabicyclo [3.3.0] octane (1,2,3,4,7-pen-tahydroxy-6nitro-bicycol [3,3,0] -octane) and 1,4,7,8- tetrahydroxy-6-aza-bicyclo [3,3,0] octane (1,4,7,8-tetrahydroxy-6-nitrobicycol [3,3,0] -octane) [ 3]. And yet the role of containing anti-renin activity against angiotensin Ⅰ transition effects wolfberry ring octapeptide (lyciumin) A and B [4,5]. Also contains a transition activity against angiotensin Ⅰ Effect of organic acids: (S) -9- hydroxy -10E, 12Z- octadecadienoic acid [(S) -9-hydroxy-10E, 12Z-octadecadienoic acid] and (S) 9- hydroxy-10E, 12Z, 15Z- octadecatrienoic acid [(S) -9-hydroxy-10E, 12Z, 15Z-octadecatrienoic acid] [6]. Still with wolfberry amide (lyciumamide) that is acid orange pepper amide ester (aurantiamideacetae) [7], linoleic acid (linoleic acid) [1]. Linolenic acid (linollenic acid), melissic acid (melissic acid), cinnamic acid (cinnamic acid), sugiol (sugiol), 5α- stigmastan-3,6-dione (5α-stig-mastane-3, 6-dine) [8], scopoletin (scopoletin) [6], β- sitosterol glucoside (β-sitosterol glucoside) [9], scopoletin (scopoletin) [6], β- sitosterol glucoside (β-sitoserol glucosde) [9] and the like. Root 15-33 carbon atoms containing n-alkanes in positive tricosane (n-tricosane) and n-alkyl thirty-three (n-trtriaconetane) dominated with; having 18-31 carbon atoms, long-chain alcohols; cholesterol (cholesterol), vegetable oil sterols (campesterol), stigmasterol (stigmasterol), sitosterol (sitosterol) and stearic acid (steraric acid), palmitic acid (palmitic acid), oleic acid (oleic acid) [10].
The same plant rather ancient Chinese wolfberry root contains alkaloids: atropine (atropine) and hyoscyamine (hyoscyamine) [11].
Efficacy

1. Effects on the cardiovascular system
Digupi
Digupi
With Digupi of infusion, tincture and decoction to the anesthetized dogs, cats, rabbits intravenously have significant antihypertensive effect, accompanied by heart rate and breathing speed up; to not anesthetized rats fed also significantly down effect. Digupi injection to anesthetized dogs intravenous injection 0.375g / kg can make blood pressure drops to zero and death, and no small dose of rapid tolerance phenomenon repeated injections. Digupi methanol extract to rats intravenously 0.5g (crude drug) / kg also significantly hypotensive activity. During Digupi buck, ECG shows the heart rate, PR interval prolongation, T-wave reduction, toxic doses can produce partial guinea pig heart and even complete atrioventricular block. Digupi antihypertensive effect of participation in addition to a central, but also may be related to blocking the sympathetic nerve endings and direct vasodilatory effects. Moreover, Chinese wolfberry and wolfberry A prime B prime anti-adrenal hormones and the role of renin, also one of its antihypertensive effect mechanism.
2. Hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effect in rabbits fed to Digupi decoction, the first increase in short-term blood sugar, then reduce lasting, yet to resume after 4 to 8 hours. For injection of epinephrine-induced hyperglycemia no obvious antagonism, but can shorten the duration of hyperglycemia. Rabbits subcutaneously Digupi extract can also lower blood sugar. Digupi water decoction of structural damage morphological alloxan diabetic mouse pancreatic B cells have a certain role in mitigation. Digupi extract orally, to make experimental rabbit serum total cholesterol content decreased, but little impact on the triglyceride content of liver fat content had no significant effect. Betaine is anti-fatty liver.
3. The original microbial resistance Digupi decoction of typhoid bacillus, paratyphoid bacillus with Freund Shigella has strong inhibitory effect, but no effect on Staphylococcus aureus; influenza Asian influenza Beijing Branch 68 -1 virus strains inhibited cytopathic effect; antimicrobial drugs for TB is inefficient.
4. Antipyretic effect Digupi water extract, ethanol extract and ether extract residue water fed or injected rabbits on artificial fever had significant cooling effect. Water residue obtained after the extract has no role in its ether extract and ethanol extract. Its antipyretic effect than aminopyrine weak, about equal with other antipyretic drugs.
5. Other effects Digupi water decoction of normal mouse spleen cells to produce interleukin-2 inhibition; spleen cells of mice induced by interleukin-2 production reduced significantly enhance enhancement effect; azathioprine-induced interleukin-2 produced extraordinary inhibition.
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Entry pictures
Entry pictures (13)
Digupi
Digupi (5)
Digupi pictures
Digupi pictures (20)
Digupi
Digupi (5)
Digupi
Digupi (6)
Digupi
Digupi (5)
Soil Digupi
Soil Digupi (7)
Digupi - botanical ecology
Digupi - Botanical Ecology (2)
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Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. Wolfberry. Flora of China. 2013-12-31 [reference date 2013-12-31]
2. Digupi. Two drug paradise station. 2012-09-8 [reference date 2012-09-8]













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