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桑葉 Mulberry Leaf (Mori Folium) Sang Ye

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桑叶

 

(桑科桑属植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
桑叶,(Mulberry Leaf),学名:Folium Mori。中药名,是桑科植物桑的干燥叶,是蚕的日常食物,又名家桑、荆桑、桑椹树、黄桑叶等,我国南北各地广泛种植桑树,桑叶产量丰富。的主要食物。完整叶片呈或宽卵形,长约15厘米,宽约10厘米,叶柄长约4厘米,叶片基部心脏形,顶端微尖,边缘有锯齿,叶脉密生白柔毛。老叶较厚黄绿色。嫩叶较薄,暗绿色。质脆易,握之扎手。气淡,味微苦涩。药用一般认为霜后采者质佳。到2014年,有人将桑叶的芽头做成了菜式,而使桑叶有了食疗的价值,因其桑叶的芽头营养价值丰富而被大众喜爱,被现代人称为桑芽菜。又以南浔辑里村,国丝文化园的桑树芽最为出众,考虑到穿珠湾水的灌溉,其桑叶芽的微量元素比一般桑芽的要高出很多。[1] 
桑椹儿果幼时青绿,成熟后呈黑紫色、紫红色,味酸甜可口。
中文学名
桑叶
拉丁学名
Morus alba
别    称
绿萝、家桑、荆桑、桑椹树、黄桑叶、桑枣树
二名法
Moraceae 植物桑 Morus alba L. 
植物界
种子植物
亚    门
被子植物
双子叶植物
蔷薇
桑科
桑属
分布区域
我国南北各地种植广泛,长江中下游地区为多
英文名
Mulberry Leaf
药材学名
Folium Mori

形态特征编辑

落叶灌木或小乔木,高3-15m。树皮灰黄色或黄褐色,浅纵裂,幼枝有毛。
桑叶-原植物果实桑叶-原植物果实
叶互生,卵形至阔卵形,长6~15cm,宽4~12cm。先端尖或钝,基部圆形或近心形,边缘有粗齿,上面无毛,有光泽,下面绿色,脉上有疏毛,脉腋间有毛;叶柄长1~2.5cm。雌雄异株,骨朵花序腋生;雄花序早落;雌花序长1~2cm,花柱不明显或无,柱头2。
完整叶片呈卵形、宽卵形、心形,长约15厘米,宽约10厘米,叶柄长约4厘米,叶片基部心脏形,顶端微尖,边缘有锯齿,叶脉密生白柔毛。老叶较厚黄绿色。嫩叶较薄,暗绿色。质脆易碎,握之扎手。气淡,味微苦涩。药用一般认为霜后采者质佳。聚花果桑椹)熟时紫黑色、红色或乳白色。花期4~5月,果期6~7月。
多皱缩,破碎。完整者有柄,叶片上面黄绿色或浅黄棕色,有的有小疣状突起;下表面色较浅,叶脉突起,小脉网状,脉上被疏毛,脉基具簇毛。质脆。气微,味淡、微苦、涩。

生长习性编辑

喜光,对气候、土壤适应性都很强。耐寒,可耐-40℃的低温,
耐旱,耐水湿,也可在温暖湿润的环境生长。喜深厚疏松肥沃的土壤,能耐轻度盐碱(0.2%)。抗风,耐烟尘,抗有毒气体。根系发达,生长快,萌芽力强,耐修剪,寿命长,一般可达数百年,个别可达数千年。
新育成的桑品种已有千余个。如浙江和江苏有湖桑和火桑两个桑品种群。湖桑一般枝条粗长,叶形大,硬化迟,适应性强。火桑有红皮火桑和白皮火桑,其新梢嫩叶呈紫红色。四川有川南乐山嘉定桑,枝条长,叶稀叶质好;川东北的冠桑枝条细直,皮色青灰。山东有鲁桑,枝条粗短、节密、硬化早、耐寒。

经济价值编辑

桑叶是桑科植物桑的干燥叶。初霜后采收,除去杂质,晒干而得,是一种发散风热药,既可内服,也可外敷。其性寒,味甘、苦,有疏散风热、清肺润燥、清肝明目的功效,可治疗风热感冒,肺热燥咳,头晕头痛,目赤昏花的病症。[2] 
现代中、西医把桑叶和桑叶生物制剂作为改善糖尿病及其他各种疑难杂症的药物而使用,认为其药效极为广泛。有清肺润燥、止咳、去热、化痰、治盗汗;补肝、清肝明目、治疗头晕眼花、失眠、消除眼部疲劳;消肿、清血‘治疗痢疾、腹痛、减肥、除脚气、利大、小肠;抗应激、凉血、降血压、降血脂、预防心肌梗塞、脑溢血、祛头痛、长发;降血糖、抗糖病等。
抗凝血作用
桑叶提取物能明显延长小鼠体内全血凝固时间和显著延长家兔血浆的激活部分凝血活酶(APTI)时间,凝血酶原(PT)时间和凝血酶(TT)时间。由于凝血过程启动环节份外源性和内源性两个环节,APTI反映内源性凝血途径的活性,PT反映外源性凝血途径的活性,而TT反映的是两者共同途径即凝血酶活性,说明桑叶对凝血酶——纤维蛋白原反应有直接抑制作用。
降血压作用
桑叶中的芸香苷、槲皮素、槲皮苷能增加离体及在位蛙心的收缩力与输出量,并减少心率。芸香苷使蟾蜍下肢及兔耳血管收缩,槲皮素可扩张冠状血管,改善心肌循环。γ-氨基丁酸、芸香苷、槲皮素有降血压的作用。γ-氨基丁酸是神经传达物质,能促进脑组织的新陈代谢和恢复脑细胞功能,同时,能改善脑部血液流动,增强血管紧张素转换酶Ⅰ的活性,促使血压下降。
降血糖血脂、降胆固醇、抗血栓形成和抗动脉粥样硬化作用
桑叶有抑制脂肪肝的形成、降低血清脂肪和抑制动脉粥样硬化形成的作用。活性成分包括DNJ、植物甾醇、黄酮类等。
桑叶中含有强化毛细血管、降低血液黏度的黄酮类成分,另外桑叶茶内含有抗体内LDL-脂蛋白氧化的成分,所以桑叶在减肥、改善高脂血症的同时,又有预防心肌梗死和脑溢血的作用。日本专家土井佳代证实,桑叶提取物对高脂血症血清脂质升高及动脉粥样硬化有抑制作用。桑叶茶可使高脂血症大鼠血清高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)、HDL-C/TC明显升高(p<0.05),总胆固醇(TC)、LDL-C、三酰甘油(TG)明显降低(p<0.05),过氧化脂质(LPO)显著降低(p<0.001),说明桑叶茶可降低血脂血糖、软化血管、清除体内过氧化物,从而对高脂血症血清脂质升高及动脉粥样硬化有抑制作用(黄代青等,1995)。
抑菌、抗炎作用
桑叶汁对大多数革兰氏阳性菌革兰氏阴性菌以及部分酵母菌有良好的抑制生长作用(樊黎生,2001)。而且所需的抑菌浓度低、pH值范围为宽(4~9)、热稳定性强。桑中的芸香苷能显著抑制大鼠创伤性浮肿,并能阻止结膜炎、耳郭炎、肺水肿的发展。桑叶具有较强的抗炎作用,与祛风、清热功效相符(陈福君等,1995)
抗病毒、抗肿瘤作用
桑叶能预防癌细胞生成,提高人体免疫力,主要功能成分是DNJ、类黄酮、桑素、γ-氨基丁酸及维生素,能抑制染色体突变和基因突变。DNJ有显著的抗逆转录酶病毒活性(Tierney,1995)。其IG30为1.2~2.5 μg/mL,且随DNJ剂量的增加,抑制力增强(欧阳臻,2003)。DNJ对肿瘤转移的抑制率是80.5%,其抑制机理可能是DNI通过抑制糖苷酶的活性在肿瘤细胞表面产生未成熟的碳水化合物链,削弱了肿瘤的转移能力。
朝鲜学者Kim(2000发现桑叶中分离纯化的两种类黄酮槲皮素-3-β-D吡喃葡萄糖苷和槲皮素-3-7-二氧-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷对人早幼粒白血病细胞(HL-60)的生长表现出显著的抑制效应。桑叶中的桑素具有抗癌活性,桑叶中的维生素具有抑制变异原效应
抗衰老、抗疲劳作用
浙江大学临床药理研究所通过4年的实验(
桑叶
桑叶 (2张)
 等,2004),证实桑叶具有类似于人参的补益和抗衰老作用。人参属于热补,而桑叶属于清补,无忌限,无论老幼均可使用,且四季皆宜
另外,桑叶中所含的槲皮素、酚类化合物、维生素C等成分能通过抑制或清除自由基来防止氧化损伤。桑叶具有类似人参的补益与抗衰老、稳定神经系统功能的作用,能缓解生理变化引起的情绪激动,提高体内超氧化物歧化酶的活性,阻止体内有害物质的产生,减少或消除已经产生并积滞于体内的脂褐质黄东等,2000)。桑叶能提高小鼠对高温刺激的耐受能力和防止由于应激刺激引起的肾上腺皮质分布功能低下,而当肾上腺功能低下时,桑叶可使之恢复正常。桑叶能延长小鼠游泳及转棒时间,具有增强机体耐力作用,能延长果蝇的寿命。能有效地清除生物氧化产生的超氧阴离子,具有延缓衰老的作用(唐法娣等,2000)。
抗丝虫病作用
单味桑叶注射液有抗丝虫病的作用,桑叶片可用于治疗丝虫性象皮肿和乳糜尿(姚连初,1996;王培义,1999),其作用机制可能是桑叶所含芸香苷、槲皮素、异槲皮素、香豆素、氯原酸等成分抗炎、消肿、软化组织及抗菌等作用的综合结果。
解痉、抗溃疡作用
桑叶中的槲皮素能降低肠、支气管平滑肌的张力,其解痉作用强于芸香苷,芸香苷能降低大鼠的胃运动功能,并能解除氯化钡引起的小肠平滑肌痉挛,皮下注射芸香苷5~10 mg/kg能显著降低大鼠因结扎幽门引起胃溃疡的病灶数(徐爱良等,2005)。
药用配伍
(1)用于风热感冒,头痛咳嗽。本品甘寒质轻,轻清疏散,长于凉散风热,又能清肺止咳,故常用于风热感冒或温病初起,温邪犯肺,发热,头痛,咳嗽等症,常配菊花、连翘、杏仁等同用,如桑杏汤。
(2)用于肺热燥咳。本品苦寒清泄肺热,甘寒益阴,凉润肺燥,故可用于燥热伤肺、干咳少痰,轻者可配杏仁、沙参、贝母等同用,如桑杏汤;重者可配生石膏、麦冬阿胶等同用,如清燥救肺汤。
(3)用于肝阳眩晕,目赤昏花。本品苦寒,兼入肝经,有平降肝阳之效,故可用于治疗肝阳上亢,头痛眩晕,常配菊花、石决明、白芍等同用;本品技能疏散风热,又能清泻肝火,
益阴凉血明目,故配菊花、夏枯草、车前子等清肝明目支配,可用治疗肝经风热,肝火上攻所致目赤、涩痛、流泪等实证;配合滋补精血之黑芝麻,即桑麻丸,又可用于肝阴不足,眼目昏花之虚证。
(4)用于血热妄行之吐血、衄血等症。本品甘寒,尚有凉血止血之功效。可单用,或配伍其他止血药同用。
煎服5~10g;或入丸散嫩桑叶(去蒂洗净暴干为末)一斤,巨胜子(即黑芝麻,淘净)四两,白蜜一斤。(用量根据《医方集解》补入)将芝麻擂碎熬浓汁,和蜜炼至滴水成珠,入桑叶末为阿胶桑麻膏。早盐汤下,晚酒下。
外用煎水洗眼。该品蜜制能增强润肺止咳的作用,故肺燥咳嗽多用蜜制桑叶。
美容作用
桑叶为桑科植物桑的经霜树叶,中医药学认为,桑叶性味苦、甘、寒,有散风除热、清肝明目之功效。经研究证明,桑叶还有良好的皮肤美容作用,特别是对脸部的痤疮、褐色斑有比较好的疗效。
痤疮,俗称粉刺,是常见于青年人的一种炎症性皮肤病。男女青年进入青春发育期后,体内性激素水平增高,促使皮脂腺增生肥大,皮脂腺分泌增多,导致皮脂淤积,堵塞了毛囊口,增多的皮脂不能及时排出就形成了痤疮。痤疮的产生,虽然主要是由于青春期内分泌改变,雄性激素比雌性激素分泌量相对的增多而引起。但是,高脂肪、高糖饮食、长期便秘等是诱发痤疮的重要原因。中医认为,过食油腻辛辣食物,脾胃积热生湿,外邪侵犯皮肤则生痤疮。由于桑叶有清热解毒的功效,有人试用桑叶煎剂治疗痤疮二百五十八例,其收效达到百分之八十九以上。
具体办法是,每日取鲜桑叶五十克,煎水分三次服用,一般十五天见效。还有人用鲜桑叶适量,捣烂,敷痤疮处每日三十分钟,也取得了满意的效果。
解毒作用
桑叶具有抗菌消炎、清热解毒之功效。桑叶中含有的DNJ矿物质,能润肠通便、改善便秘,有效地缓解体内毒素堆积现象。
临床应用
1.桑叶能疏散风热,解表清热,养阴生津;桑椹能滋阴养血,补虚润燥;桑根白皮能泻肺平喘,利水消肿;桑枝能通经活络,除痹止痛;而桑树烧成的灰叫桑柴灰,也能用于治疗目赤肿痛、青盲、身面水肿,坐卧不得、白癜风、头风白屑、大麻风等病证。(于智敏:《糖尿病百药效用奇观——谈桑叶》)
2.《本草备要》:“代茶止消渴。”现代研究表明,桑叶中含有的蜕皮甾酮具有
桑叶
桑叶 (3张)
 降低血糖的作用。其实,我不大喜欢这个成份的药理作用。因为桑叶的降糖作用非常有限。我选择桑叶作为食物训练的材料,是喜欢桑叶的明目作用。(聂文涛:《食物训练与糖尿病康复》)
3.多用于治疗外感风热引起的较轻的发热、咳嗽、眼赤(如感冒),常与菊花、连翘等配伍,如桑菊饮,为辛凉轻剂。
4.用于治疗肺热和风热咳嗽,尤其适用于燥咳、干咳,常配枇杷叶、麦冬、沙参等。
5.配黑芝麻用于治疗肝、肾阴虚的头眩、眼花、头痛,可明目醒脑。再加配丹皮、丹参,用于治疗偏头痛。多为制丸服食。
禁忌
桑椹为桑树的果穗,可入药。桑椹含维生素、胡萝卜素、挥发油、胰蛋白酶抑制物等,
桑叶桑叶
后者为主要有毒成分。食用不当可致中毒。
毒性:桑椹所含的挥发油对消化道有刺激作用;胰蛋白酶抑制物可抑制肠道内的多种消化酶,特别是对胰蛋白酶活性抑制作用较强,使其不能破坏C型产气荚膜杆菌B毒素,可致出血性肠炎。
  中毒表现:进食桑椹后出现恶心,呕吐,无力、剧烈腹痛和腹泻,可出现血性便、血压下降、休克等。严重者致死。
  紧急处理:立即手法或药物催吐,催吐后可给患者口服活性炭50g。出现剧烈腹痛、腹泻,特别是有血性便者要及时到医院诊治。
  中毒预防:少食生桑椹或盐渍后食用。
主治病症:
1
治太阴风温,但咳,身不甚热,微渴者
2治风眼下泪
3洗天行赤眼,风热肿痛,目涩眩赤
4治肝阴不足,眼目昏花,咳久不愈,肌肤甲错,麻痹不仁
5治吐血
6治霍乱已吐利后,烦渴不止
7治小儿渴
8治大肠脱肛
9治穿掌毒肿
10治痈口不敛
11治火烧及汤泡疮
12治咽喉红肿,牙痛
13治头目眩晕
14治摇头风
15治手足麻木 不知痛痒
16治乳硬作痛
食疗作用
味苦、甘,性微寒。归肺、肝经。清凉散降。
1.疏风清热。用于风热感冒,以发热、咳嗽为主要症状。桑叶甘凉轻清,善清肺热及在表之风热。
2.清肺止咳。用于风热犯肺的肺热咳嗽,亦可配以润肺药治疗燥邪伤肺的咳嗽。
3.清肝明目。治疗风热引起的目赤涩痛。
该品轻清疏散,外能疏散风热,内能清肺、平肝、明目,常用治风热感冒、燥热伤肺、肝阳上亢及风热或肝火目赤感冒、燥热伤肺、肝阳上亢及风热或肝火目赤肿痛、肝阴不足之眼目昏花。此外,又能凉血止血。
桑叶做法指导:桑叶善于散风热而泄肺热,对外感风热、头痛、咳嗽等,常与菊花、银花、薄荷、前胡、桔梗等配合应用。桑叶不仅可用于风热引起的目赤羞明,且可清肝火,对肝火上炎的目赤肿痛,可与菊花、决明子、车前子等配合应用。至于肝阴不足,眼目昏花,桑叶还可配滋养肝肾的女贞子、枸杞子、黑芝麻等同用。
桑叶轻清发散,能散风热,但作用较弱。临床主要用于清泄肺肝,如风热袭肺、咳嗽多痰,或燥热伤肺、干咳无痰;以及风热上攻或肝火上炎、目赤肿痛等症,为常用的药品。配牛蒡子前胡,则散风清肺;配石膏、麦冬,则清燥润肺;配菊花、决明子,则清肝明目。
使用提示:内服:煎汤,6至10克;或入丸、散。外用:适量,煎水洗或捣敷。

食用价值编辑

现代桑叶从食疗到食用探究历程
桑叶的食用——桑芽菜是采摘桑树枝干上的芽头为辅料或者主料进行制作的一种菜的名字,是2013年流行的一种菜式。
于1981年卫生部公布的85版药食同源第二批(91)第45号文件中的桑叶可用于保健食品清单而开始引起大家的关注,第一次让大家知道桑叶是可以食用的。
在2002年3月6日,完善的一则桑叶正式成为卫生部公布药食同源物品可用于保健食品物品名单,再次引起人们对桑叶可作为食用的知识了解,再加上03年非典期间,桑叶可作为一种药材持续受到大家的关注,
又以03年于搜狐健康网论坛的一则热帖《现在流行吃桑叶》,而开始使人们将桑叶作为辅料做成桑叶菜饼,桑叶面点等食材,时隔6年,新华网报道在2009年5月中国确诊内地首例甲型H1N1流感病例时,桑叶又一次成为人们谈论的对象。
在2013年甲型H7N9流感的爆发,国家中医药局将对中医药诊疗方案微调,参考中就有桑叶[3]  ,到2013年湖州晚报的一则报道——《桑叶上餐桌 价格比肉贵》,得知湖州辑里村人沈建栋已经开发出了桑叶菜,可以用于火锅连锁,养生美食馆,高级会所,星级酒店,农家乐等场所,于是桑叶正式成为各界社会人士的焦点,桑芽菜孕育而生。[4]  现在桑叶又成为健康菜[1] 
2014年桑芽菜已经成为大部分地区的一个常见的菜式,以其营养价值丰富,又以绿色纯天然为特点而风靡中国大陆市场。

栽培技术编辑

桑叶为桑科植物桑的干燥老叶。栽培或野生。全国大部分地区多有生产,尤以长江中下游及四川盆地桑区为多。原植物喜温暖湿润气候,稍耐荫,耐旱,不耐涝,耐贫瘠,对土壤适应性强。味苦、甘,性寒。归肺、肝经。功效疏散风热、清肺润燥、清肝明目。临床上习惯认为经霜者质佳,称“霜桑叶”或“冬桑叶”,饮片名称桑叶、蜜炙桑叶。
桑叶是蚕的“粮食”。早在三千多年前从商代出土的甲骨文上,就有了“桑”与“蚕”的字样,可见“桑”历史悠久,是与中国文化的发展紧密地联系在一起的。
提高桑叶产量,是发展蚕桑丝绸事业的基础,而经营好桑园又是桑叶丰产的根本。我国的农学家们在桑树良种的选育、桑树用肥、桑树病虫害的防治和桑园管理等方面,不断地深入研究并取得了丰硕的成果,现经收集整理和新育成的桑品种已有千余个。如浙江和江苏有湖桑和火桑两个桑品种群。多数属中生和晚生品种。火桑有红皮火桑和白皮火桑,其新梢嫩叶呈紫红色,均属早生品种。
优良桑苗是桑园丰产的基础。繁育桑苗可分有性繁殖和无性繁殖两种。有性繁殖是用种子繁殖;无性繁殖有嫁接、扦插和压条等。用种子培育成的桑苗叫实生苗,成长后的桑树称实生桑或野桑。浙江称草桑,在广东称荆桑。桑树是异花授粉植物,很易自然杂交。因此,实生桑的生活力较强,可塑性也较大,根系发达,耐旱耐瘠,木质坚韧,木材优良,对环境条件的适应能力比无性繁殖的苗木强。但实生桑往往性状不一,绝大多数叶形小,叶肉薄,花椹多,侧枝多。实生桑的桑苗大多作为嫁接用的砧木,少量用于直接定植,培育成乔木桑。
桑树通过嫁接方法,繁育出来的苗木称嫁接桑。桑树嫁接是把植株的枝或芽,移接到另一植株的枝、干或根上,使它们愈合为一株共同生长发育的新个体。用于嫁接的枝条或芽称为接穗或接芽,被接植株的枝、干或根称为砧木。生产上以优良桑树品种的枝条或芽作接穗,一般实生桑作砧木。嫁接桑的优点是,既能保持嫁接良种桑的优良性状,又能借助实生桑发达的根系,增强植株的生命力。所以,嫁接法在繁育良种桑苗、更换品种、老树复壮更新等方面被广泛应用。
此外,还有用不同遗传基础的桑树品种杂交产生的杂交桑。由于遗传性状互补,具有较强的杂种优势,抗旱抗病,发芽早,成熟快,叶片较大,在珠江流域有利于增加养蚕批次,提高蚕茧产量。桑苗按照本性自然生长,只采叶不加人工修剪的是乔木桑,它的叶形小,产量低,叶质差,不能适应蚕桑生产的需要。但因乔木桑的根系发达,适应性强,所以分布面广。又因其木质具有轻便、坚韧、耐用的优点,北方地区的农村常用来制作农具和生活用具。
桑苗栽植后,根据其品种特性、环境条件和生产要求,通过伐条、疏芽、整枝、摘芯等剪伐技术,培养成不同树型,称为养成阶段。根据桑树干的高低,一般把树形分成高干桑(150厘米以上),中干桑(70~150厘米),低干桑(70cm以下),地桑(又称无干桑、根刈桑)。栽桑的目的是采叶养蚕,而桑叶又是桑树的营养器官,在采叶的同时,要注意养树,以达到下期或来年得到更多桑叶的目的。采叶的基本方法有摘叶法、采芽法和剪条法三种:摘叶法在小蚕或夏、秋蚕期应用;采芽法在春蚕大蚕期应用;剪条法是连条带叶剪取条桑,直接饲蚕。秋末冬初,通过剪梢(剪去枝条梢部),能减少桑树冻害,提高发芽率和春叶产量。
桑叶在喂饲前应进行适当整理、切桑,以便于给桑。不良叶的选除,片叶的叠理,用桑的称量等工作称为调桑。蚁蚕到了三龄蚕的早期,因为蚕体小,为便于给桑均匀和容易取食,一般将桑叶切成正方形的方块叶,三龄中后期改成粗切,四龄用片叶,五龄用片叶和新梢叶,或者条桑。
基原:该品为桑科 Moraceae 植物桑 Morus alba L. 的干燥叶。
别名:家桑、荆桑、桑椹树、黄桑、霜叶霜、桑叶蜜、桑叶、冬桑叶,铁扇子,家桑叶,枯桑叶,荆桑叶,桑椹树叶,桑树叶,黄桑叶,霜桑叶,冬桑叶,白桑叶,鸡桑叶,子桑叶,山桑叶,金桑叶,晚桑叶,老桑叶,双叶,双桑叶,童桑叶,神仙叶。
性味:味苦、甘、性寒。
1.《日华子本草》:暖,无毒。
2.《纲目》:味苦甘,寒,有小毒。
3.《医林纂要》:甘酸辛,寒。
归肺、肝经。
4.《本草经解》:入足太阳膀胱经、手少阴心经、足太阴脾经。
5.《本草再新》:入肝、肺二经。
桑叶
桑叶 (6张)
6.《本经》:除寒热,出汗。
7.《唐本草》:水煎取浓汁,除脚气、水肿,利大小肠。
8.《山东中药》:治喉痛,牙龈肿痛,头面浮肿。
9.《本草拾遗》:主霍乱腹痛吐下,冬月用干者浓煮服之。细锉,大釜中煎取如赤糖,去老风及宿血,降糖。
10.《日华子本草》:利五脏,通关节,下气,煎服;除风痛出汗,并补损瘀血,并蒸后罯;蛇虫蜈蚣咬,盐挼敷上。
主要成分
桑叶-原植物桑叶-原植物
1.黄酮类
桑叶中黄酮类化合物占桑叶干重的1%~3%,是植物界中茎叶含量较高的一类植物。韩国和日本学者从桑叶中分离出9种类黄酮,主要是芸香苷芦丁)、槲皮素异槲皮苷、槲皮素-3-三葡糖苷等化合物。
生物碱是桑叶的主要活性成份,日本学者Asano等(1994)从桑叶中分离出多种多羟基生物碱,包括DNJ(1-脱氧野尻霉素)、N-甲基-1-DNJ(N-Me-DNJ)、2-氧-α-D半乳吡喃糖苷-1-DNJ、fagomine、1,4-二脱氧-1,4-亚胺基-D-阿拉伯糖醇、1,4-二脱氧-1,4-亚胺基-(2-氧-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷)-D-阿拉伯糖醇和1α,2β,3α,4β-四羟基-去甲茛菪烷(去甲茛菪碱)等7种生物碱。其中DNJ(1-脱氧野尻霉素)在植物界中,唯桑叶独有。
桑叶中植物甾醇含量比一般植物高3~4倍。主要是β-谷甾
桑叶桑叶
醇(β-sitosterol)、豆甾醇(Stigmasterol)、菜油甾醇(Camposterol)、β-谷甾醇β-D-葡萄糖苷(β-sitolsterol β-D-glucoside)、蛇麻脂醇(羽扇豆醇,Lupeol)、内消旋肌醇(Myoinositol)、昆虫变态激素牛膝甾酮(Inokosterone)、
蜕皮甾酮(Ecdysterone)等。
4γ-氨基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid)
桑叶中丰富的γ-氨基丁酸(平均含量为226 mg/100g)引人注目,γ-氨基丁酸由谷氨酸转化而来,而桑叶中γ-谷氨酸含量最高(2323 mg/100g)。
5.桑叶多糖
桑叶中富含桑叶多糖,具有显著的降血糖和抑制血脂升高的作用。

植物文化编辑

《本草蒙筌》:采经霜者煮汤,洗眼去风泪殊胜。盐捣敷蛇虫蜈蚣咬毒,蒸捣罯扑损瘀血带凝。煎代茶,消水肿脚浮,下气令关节利;研作散,汤调。止霍乱吐泻,出汗除风痹疼。炙和桑衣煎浓,治痢诸伤止血。
《本草备要》:甘寒,手足阳明之药。大肠、胃。凉血刀斧伤者,为末,干贴之妙。燥湿,去风明目。采经霜者煎汤洗眼,去风泪;洗手足,去风痹。桑叶、黑芝麻等分,蜜丸、名扶桑丸,除湿去风,乌须明目。末服止盗汗,严州有僧,每就枕,汗出遍身,比旦,衣被皆透,二十年不能疗。监寺教采带露桑叶,焙干为末,空心米饮下二钱,数日而愈。代茶止消渴。
《本经逢原》:桑叶清肺胃,去风明目。取经霜者煎汤,洗风眼下泪。同黑芝麻蜜丸久服,须发不白,不老延年。《本经》言除寒热出汗,即《大明》蒸熟捣盦风痛出汗之谓。煎饮利五脏,通关节下气。煎酒服,治一切风。桑根烧灰淋汁,与石灰点面上风,灭痣,去恶肉
《本草崇原》:《夷坚志》云:严州山寺有一游僧,形体羸瘦,饮食甚少,每夜就枕,遍身汗出,迨旦衣皆湿透,如此二十年无药能疗,期待尽耳。监寺僧曰:吾有药绝验,为汝治之,三日宿疾顿愈,其方单用桑叶一味,乘露采摘,焙干碾末,每用二钱,空腹温米饮调服。或值桑落时,干者亦堪用,
桑叶桑叶
但力不如新采者,桑叶是止盗汗之药,非发汗药。《本经》盖谓桑叶主治能除寒热,并除出汗也。恐人误读作发汗解。故表而明之。
《本草求真》:清肺泻胃,凉血燥湿,去风明目,《圣济录》治吐血不止,晚桑叶焙研,凉茶服三钱,只一服止,后用补肝肺药。《千金方》治头发不长,用桑叶、麻叶煮泔水沐之,七次可长数尺。《集简》治风眼下泪,用腊月不落桑叶煎汤,日日温洗,或入芒硝。扶桑丸除风湿,乌须明目,用黑芝麻同桑叶等分为丸。震亨曰:经霜桑叶研末,米饮服,止盗汗。[5] 
《得配本草》:甘,寒。入手足阳明经。清西方之燥,泻东方之实。去风热,利关节,疏肝,止汗。得生地、麦冬,治劳热。配生地、阿胶,治嗽血。肝燥者禁用。
《本草经解》:桑叶气寒,秉天冬寒之水
合并图册
合并图册 (4张)
 气,入足太阳寒水膀胱经;味苦甘有小毒,得地中南火土之味,而有燥湿之性,入手少阴心经、足太阴脾经。气味降多于升,阴也。
太阳者,行身之表,而为一身之藩者也,太阳本寒标热,所以太阳病,则发寒热。桑叶入太阳,苦能清,甘能和,故降寒热。汁者,心之液,得膀胱气化而出者也,桑叶入膀胱而有燥湿之性,所以出汗也。”
《本草新编》:桑叶之功,更佳于桑皮,最善补骨中之髓、添肾中之精,止身中之汗,填脑明目,活血生津,种子安胎,调和血脉,通利关节,止霍乱吐泻,除风湿寒痹,消水肿脚浮,老男人可以扶衰却老,老妇人可以还少生儿。…桑叶采叶如茶,种大者第一,再大者次之,再小者又次之。与其小,无宁大也。过大,则止可煎汤以入药,有堪为丸散矣。洗目,宜取老桑叶,自落者无用矣。
《本草分经》:苦甘而凉。滋燥凉血,止血去风,清泄少阳之气热。
《新编中药志》:味苦、甘、性寒。有散风清热、清肺润燥、凉血明目功能。用于风热感冒、肺热咳嗽、头痛、头昏、目赤、眩晕、血热吐血。

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/37610/16019386.htm

Mulberry (Sangke Sang genus) Edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Mulberry, (Mulberry Leaf), scientific name: Folium Mori. Chinese name, is Sankoh plant mulberry dried leaves, silkworm daily food, and famous mulberry, Jing mulberry, mulberry trees, yellow mulberry leaves, etc., my mulberry widely grown throughout North and South, rich leaf yield. The main food silkworms. Or broadly ovate leaves were complete, about 15 cm, width 10 cm, 4 cm long petiole, the leaf base heart-shaped, top slightly pointed, serrated edge, veins dense white pubescence. Yeh thick yellow-green. Leaves thin, dark green. Crisp and easy to grip it difficult to handle. Gas light, slightly bitter taste. Postharvest medicinal creams were generally considered good quality. By 2014, it was the mulberry leaf bud made the dishes, leaving the mulberry has therapeutic value, because of its rich nutritional value of mulberry leaves bud is like the public, is called modern mulberry sprouts. Nanxun Youyi Village series, mulberry silk bud State Cultural Park is the most outstanding, taking into account the wear beads Bay water irrigation, its trace elements mulberry leaf buds than mulberry shoots much higher. [1] 
Mulberry fruit when young children green, mature was dark purple, fuchsia, sweet and sour taste.
Chinese scientific name Latin name mulberry Morus alba aka green dill, home mulberry, Jing mulberry, mulberry tree, yellow leaf, mulberry jujube two laws Moraceae plant mulberry Morus alba L. seed plant world Flora door Amon Angiospermae dicotyledonous Head rose plant genus Morus 科桑科 widely distributed throughout the north and south of planting, the Yangtze River region is more generic English name Mulberry Leaf herbs Folium Mori
Contents 1 Morphology Growth Habit 2 3 4 economic value food value 5 6 plant cultivation technology culture
Morphological characteristics editor
Deciduous shrubs or small trees, high 3-15m. Bark greyish yellow or brown, shallow diastema, young branches hairy.
Mulberry - the original plant fruit
Mulberry - the original plant fruit
Leaves alternate, ovate to broadly ovate, long 6 ~ 15cm, width 4 ~ 12cm. Apex acute or obtuse, base rounded or nearly heart-shaped, margin coarsely toothed, glabrous above, shiny, sparse hair on the following green, veins, axillary hairy between veins; petiole length 1 ~ 2.5cm. Dioecious, Guduo inflorescence axillary; male inflorescence early fall; female inflorescence length 1 ~ 2cm, style inconspicuous or absent, stigmas 2.
Intact leaves oval, broadly ovate, heart-shaped, about 15 cm, width 10 cm, 4 cm long petiole, the leaf base heart-shaped, top slightly pointed, serrated edge, veins dense white pubescence. Yeh thick yellow-green. Leaves thin, dark green. Brittle and fragile, grip it difficult to handle. Gas light, slightly bitter taste. Postharvest medicinal creams were generally considered good quality. FRUIT (mulberry) purplish black when ripe, red or white. Flowering from April to May, fruiting from June to July.
More wrinkled, broken. With complete with handle, blade above the yellow-green or light yellow-brown, and some have small warts; lower surface lighter color, veins protruding, small veins reticulate, sparsely hairy on veins, veins base with tufted. Crisp. Gas micro, tasteless, bitter, astringent.
Growth habit editor
Hi light, climate, soil adaptability are strong. Cold, can withstand temperature of -40 ℃,
Drought, water wet, can also be grown in warm and humid environment. Hi deep loose fertile soil, the ability of mild saline (0.2%). Wind, dust resistant, anti-toxic gases. Root development, fast growth, sprouting ability, resistance to cutting, long life, generally up to hundreds of years, the individual up to several years.
The new varieties have been bred mulberry than a thousand months. Such as Zhejiang and Jiangsu, the lake of fire Sang Sang and two mulberry varieties group. Lake Sang generally long thick branches, leaf large, hardening late adaptable. There Redskins fire fire Sang Sang Sang and white fire, which shoots purple leaves. Leshan in Sichuan southern Sichuan Jiading mulberry, long branches, leaves dilute leaf quality is good; mulberry branches in northeastern Sichuan crown fine straight, skin color schungite. Shandong has Morus multicaulis Perr, stubby branches, dense section, hardened early, cold.
Economic Value edit
Sankoh plant mulberry mulberry dried leaves. First frost after harvest to remove impurities, dried derived, is a divergent wind-heat drug, either orally, but also topical. Its cold, sweet, bitter, evacuation of wind-heat, clearing the lungs and moistening, Liver eyesight, treat Fengreganmao, Hyperactivity dry cough, dizziness, headache, red eyes dim disease. [2] 
Modern Western medicine the mulberry and mulberry biological agents for improving diabetes and other incurable diseases and drug use, that its efficacy is very extensive. Qingfei moistening, cough, to heat, phlegm, night sweats; Bugan, Liver eyesight, the treatment of dizziness, insomnia, eliminate eye fatigue; swelling, clear blood 'treatment of diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, in addition to beriberi, Lee large intestine; anti-stress, cooling blood, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood pressure, prevent heart attack, stroke, headache cured, long hair; hypoglycemic, anti-sugar disease.
Anticoagulant effect
Mulberry leaf extract can significantly prolong clotting time in mice and significantly prolonged rabbit plasma activated partial thromboplastin (APTI) time, prothrombin (PT) and thrombin time (TT) time. Since the active part of the clotting process to start its duties and endogenous two links, active within APTI reflect intrinsic coagulation pathway, PT reflects the extrinsic coagulation pathway, while the TT reflects both common pathway that is thrombin activity explained mulberry thrombin - fibrinogen reaction has a direct inhibitory effect.
Hypotensive effect
Mulberry in rutin, quercetin, quercetin can increase contractility and output and reign in vitro frog heart and reduce heart rate. Rutin make toad lower limbs and rabbit ear vasoconstriction, quercetin expandable coronary blood vessels, improve cardiac cycle. γ- aminobutyric acid, rutin, quercetin have lower blood pressure. γ- amino butyric acid is a neurotransmitter that can promote the metabolism of brain tissue and restore brain cell function, at the same time, can improve brain blood flow, enhance the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme Ⅰ, promote blood pressure.
Lowering blood glucose and lipid, cholesterol, anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic effect
Mulberry has a role in inhibiting the formation of fatty liver, lower serum fat and suppress the formation of atherosclerosis. Active ingredients include DNJ, phytosterols, flavonoids and other.
Mulberry leaves contain strengthen capillaries, reduce blood viscosity of flavonoids, in addition mulberry leaf tea contains components within the antibody within LDL- lipoprotein oxidation, so mulberry lose weight, improve hyperlipidemia, while there are prevention of myocardial Role infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. Kayo Doi Japanese experts confirmed serum lipids in hyperlipidemic mulberry leaf extract increases and atherosclerosis inhibition. Mulberry leaf tea can Hyperlipidemia Rats of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), HDL-C / TC was significantly higher (p <0.05), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, triglycerides ( TG) decreased significantly (p <0.05), lipid peroxidation (LPO) was significantly lower (p <0.001), description of mulberry leaf tea can reduce blood lipids, soften blood vessels, remove the body of peroxide, thus hyperlipidemia serum elevated lipids and atherosclerosis inhibition (Huang on behalf of Green et al., 1995).
Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory effect
Mulberry juice for most gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria and some yeast with good growth inhibition effect (Fan Lisheng, 2001). And inhibitory concentration required low, pH value in the range of width (4 to 9), strong thermal stability. Sang in rutin significantly inhibited in rats with traumatic edema, and to prevent conjunctivitis, auricle inflammation, pulmonary edema development. Mulberry has a strong anti-inflammatory effect, and expelling wind, heat effect is consistent (Chenfu Jun et al., 1995)
Anti-viral, anti-tumor effect
Mulberry leaves can prevent cancer cells to enhance the body immunity, the main functional components are DNJ, flavonoids, Sang Su, γ- aminobutyric acid and vitamins, can inhibit gene mutation and chromosomal mutations. DNJ significant antiretroviral activity (Tierney, 1995). Its IG30 is 1.2 ~ 2.5 μg / mL, and increased with the dose of DNJ, restraining force enhancement (Ouyang Zhen, 2003). DNJ tumor metastasis inhibitory rate was 80.5%, the inhibition mechanism may be DNI by inhibiting glycosidase activity generated in immature tumor cell surface carbohydrate chains, it weakens the ability of tumor metastasis.
Korean scholar Kim (2000) found that mulberry leaves two isolated and purified flavonoid quercetin -3-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin -3-7- dioxide -β-D- glucopyranoside to human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) showed significant growth inhibitory effect. Sang Su mulberry leaves have anti-cancer activity, mulberry vitamins inhibit original variation effects.
Anti-aging, anti-fatigue effect
Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Zhejiang University through four years of experiments (
Mulberry
Mulberry (2)
 Et al., 2004), confirming Mulberry ginseng tonic and has a similar anti-aging effects. Ginseng belongs to heat up, and mulberry belong to clean up, loudly limit, young and old can be used, and the seasons.
In addition, mulberry leaves contain quercetin, phenolic compounds, vitamin C and other ingredients can inhibit or eliminate free radicals to prevent oxidative damage. Mulberry with similar ginseng tonic and anti-aging, stable nervous system effect, can relieve the physiological changes caused by emotional, increase superoxide dismutase activity to prevent produce the body of harmful substances already produced and to reduce or eliminate stagnation in the body of lipofuscin (Huang et al., 2000). Mulberry can improve tolerance to heat stimulation in mice and prevent adrenal stimulation stress distribution function is low, and when adrenal insufficiency, mulberry make it back to normal. Mulberry can prolong swimming and rolling stick, with enhanced body endurance and can extend the life of fruit flies. Can effectively remove superoxide anion biological oxidation, with anti-aging effect (Di Tang Law et al, 2000).
The role of anti-filariasis
Single flavor mulberry injection of anti-filariasis role, mulberry leaves can be used in the treatment of filarial elephantiasis and chyluria (Yao even early 1996; Wangpei Yi, 1999), and its mechanism may be contained in mulberry leaf rutin, quercetin, isoquercetin, coumarin, chlorogenic acid and other ingredients anti-inflammatory, reduces swelling, the combined result of the softening of tissues and antibacterial effects.
Antispasmodic, anti-ulcer effect
Mulberry leaves quercetin can reduce intestinal, bronchial smooth muscle tension, its antispasmodic effect is stronger than rutin, rutin can reduce gastric motility in rats, and to relieve muscle spasm of the small intestine caused by barium chloride, subcutaneous rutin 5 ~ 10 mg / kg in rats can significantly reduce the number of lesions caused due to pyloric ligation gastric ulcer (徐爱良 et al., 2005).
Medicinal Compatibility
(1) for the common cold, headache, cough. This product Ganhan light, light clear evacuation, longer than the casual cool wind-heat, but also Qingfeizhike, so often used Fengreganmao or febrile disease early, warm Fanfei evil, fever, headache, cough embolism, often with chrysanthemum, forsythia, almond equated with, such as mulberry apricot soup.
(2) For Hyperactivity dry cough. This product is bitter cold Qingxie Hyperactivity, Ganhan Yi Yin, cool lungs dry, it can be used hot lung injury, dry cough with little phlegm, can be equipped with light almond, Radix, fritillary equated with, such as mulberry apricot soup; weight can be equipped Gypsum, Radix, donkey-hide gelatin equated with such Qingzao save lung soup.
(3) for the liver yang dizziness, red eyes dim. This product is bitter cold, and into the liver, the liver has a flat lower Yang effect, it can be used to treat hyperactivity, headache, dizziness, often with chrysanthemum, abalone, white peony root equated with; this product skills evacuation wind-heat, and You can clear diarrhea anger,
Yin, cooling eyesight, so with chrysanthemum, Prunella, plantain seed Liver eyesight and other disposable, available wind and heat treating the liver, caused anger upside eyes, astringent pain, tears and other empirical; with nourishing essence the blood of black sesame seeds, namely Sangma pill, but also for liver and lack of Deficiency eyes dim.
(4) for the vomiting of blood heat Wang Xing, Nvxue embolism. This product Ganhan, there cooling effect of bleeding. Can be used alone, or compatibility with other hemostatic use.
Jianfu 5 ~ 10g; or into pellets tender mulberry leaves (stalks storms do to the end) a pound, the giant wins sub (ie black sesame, scouring the net) forty-two, Baimi pound. (Dosage according to "The medical Annals" fill in) will grind crushed sesame gravy boil, refining and honey to drip beads, into the mulberry leaves at the end of gelatin Sangma cream. By early salt soup, wine at night.
Topical Jianshui wash. The goods honey can enhance the role of lungs and cough, cough Dryness so much with honey mulberry leaves.
The role of beauty
Sankoh plant mulberry mulberry leaves by frost, Chinese medicine believes that mulberry leaves of bitter, sweet, cold, with scattered wind in addition to heat, Liver eyesight. The study demonstrated that there is a good skin care mulberry role, especially on the face of acne, brown spots have a better effect.
Acne, commonly known as acne, is common in young people an inflammatory skin disease. Young men and women after puberty, sex hormone levels increased, prompting sebaceous hypertrophy, increased secretion of the sebaceous glands, causing sebum deposition, clogging the hair follicles, increased sebum can not be discharged on the formation of acne. Produce acne, although mainly due to endocrine changes of puberty, androgens increase the relative ratio of estrogen secretion caused. However, high-fat, high-sugar diet, long-term constipation is a major cause of acne induced. Chinese medicine believes that over-eating greasy spicy food, stomach accumulated heat raw wet, evils acne affects the skin is raw. Since Mulberry detoxification effect, it was to try to treat acne mulberry leaf decoction two hundred fifty-eight cases, its effect is to achieve eighty-nine% or more.
Specific approach is to take a daily fresh mulberry leaves fifty grams, Jianshui taking three times, usually fifteen days effective. There are people with the right amount of fresh mulberry leaves, mash, apply acne at thirty minutes a day, also achieved satisfactory results.
Detoxification
Mulberry has anti-bacterial anti-inflammatory, detoxification effect. Mulberry DNJ contains minerals, can be laxative, improve constipation, effectively easing the accumulation of toxins phenomenon.
Clinical application
1. Mulberry can evacuate air heat, relieving heat, YangYinShengJin; mulberry can Yin and blood, tonic and moistening; white mulberry root can Xiefei asthma, benefits of water swelling; mulberry energy through the meridians, except paralysis pain; and mulberry called mulberry wood-fired ash gray, can also be used to treat red eyes and throat, Qingmang, body surface edema, can not sit, vitiligo, head wind white dust, leprosy and other syndromes. (In Zhimin: "Diabetes one hundred efficacy with spectacle - On Mulberry")
2. "Herbal medicine prepared to": "cup of tea only diabetes." Modern research shows that ecdysterone contained in mulberry leaves have
Mulberry
Mulberry (3)
 Blood glucose lowering effect. In fact, I do not like this ingredient pharmacological effects. Because hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaves very limited. I chose mulberry as food training materials, like mulberry eyesight role. (Nie Wentao: "Food Training and Diabetes Rehabilitation")
3. used for the treatment of mild fever caused by exogenous wind-heat, cough, red eyes (such as colds), often associated with chrysanthemums, forsythia, such as compatibility, such as Sang Ju drink for Xinliang light agent.
The heat and wind for the treatment Hyperactivity cough, especially for dry cough, dry cough, often with leaves, Radix, Radix, etc.
5. with black sesame seeds for the treatment of liver and kidney of dizziness, vertigo, headaches, eyesight refreshing. Coupled with Dan, Salvia, for the treatment of migraine. Mostly taking the pill.
Taboo
Mulberry is mulberry ear, it can be used as medicine. Mulberry contains vitamins, carotenoids, essential oil, trypsin inhibitor, etc.
Mulberry
Mulberry
The latter is the main toxic ingredients. Eat improperly can cause poisoning.
Toxicity: Mulberry contains volatile oil has a stimulating effect on the digestive tract; trypsin inhibitors inhibit a variety of digestive enzymes in the gut, especially trypsin inhibitory activity is strong, it can not destroy Clostridium perfringens type C B toxin, can cause hemorrhagic colitis.
Poisoning: nausea, vomiting after eating mulberry, weakness, severe abdominal pain and diarrhea, can occur bloody stools, blood pressure, shock. In severe cases, death.
Emergency treatment: techniques or drugs to induce vomiting immediately after the symptoms can give the patient oral activated charcoal 50g. Severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, especially bloody stools to the hospital for treatment.
Poisoning Prevention: Eat raw mulberry or salted after eating.
Indications disease:
1
Governance lunar air temperature, but cough, less body heat, micro-thirsty
2 rule wind tears now
3 Red Eye wash day, wind-heat throat, head Shibuya dizzy red
4 cure liver and inadequate, eyes dim, cough long unhealed, skin a mistake, paralysis heartless
5 rule vomiting
6 After treatment of cholera have been Tuli, thirst more than
7 Treatment of Infantile thirsty
8 cure colon rectal prolapse
9 Governance wearing palm swollen poison
10 rule carbuncle mouth not grabbing
11 Burning and soup bubble cure sores
12 rule throat swelling, toothache
13 rule dizziness
14 rule shook his head wind
15 I do not know cure itching numbness
16 hard ache cure breast
Therapeutic effect
Bitter, sweet, slightly cold. In the lungs, the liver. Casual cool down.
1. Dispersing heat. For Fengreganmao, fever, cough is the main symptom. Mulberry Ganliang clear light, good Qingfei heat and hot in the wind table.
2. Qingfeizhike. For wind-heat Fanfei Hyperactivity cough, also with drug therapy dryness lungs cough lung injury.
3. Liver eyesight. Mu Chi astringent pain caused by wind and heat treatment.

The product is light clear evacuation, evacuation of wind heat external energy, internal energy lung, Liver, eyesight, commonly used rule Fengreganmao, hot lung injury, hyperactivity and wind-heat or cold anger, red eyes, hot lung injury, liver-yang Kang and wind on heat or anger, red eyes and throat, eyes dim liver deficiencies. In addition, but also cooling bleeding.
Mulberry practice guidance: mulberry good Hyperactivity scattered wind heat vent, external sense of wind-heat, headache, cough, often with chrysanthemum, honeysuckle, mint, Peucedanum, Campanulaceae with the application. Mulberry not only for red eyes and photophobia caused by wind and heat, and can clear anger, anger on the inflammation of the red eyes and throat, with chrysanthemum, cassia seed, psyllium, etc. with the application. As for the liver and inadequate, eyes dim, mulberry nourishing liver and kidney can be equipped Ligustrum lucidum, medlar, black sesame equated with.
Mulberry Light clear divergence, can scattered wind-heat, but the effect is weak. The main clinical use Qingxie lung liver, wind heat attack the lungs, cough, lung injury or hot, dry cough without phlegm; and wind-heat upside or anger on the inflammation, red eyes and throat, etc., for the commonly used drugs. With Arctium, Peucedanum, scattered wind clearing the lungs; with gypsum, Radix, then Qingzao lungs; with chrysanthemum, cassia, the Liver eyesight.
TIPS: Oral: Jiantang, 6-10 g; or into pills, powder. Topical: amount deposited washed fried or mashed.
Food value edit
From diet to eat mulberry leaves modern history inquiry
Mulberry food - Mulberry mulberry branches bud sprouts are picking on a dish's name will be made as adjunct or main ingredient, it is a popular dish in 2013.
In 1981 released by the Ministry of Health 85 edition Medicinal and Edible second batch (91) No. 45 document mulberry leaves can be used in health food list and began to attract everyone's attention, for the first time to let everyone know that mulberry leaves are edible a.
In the March 6, 2002, to improve the mulberry became a Ministry of Health announced Medicinal and Edible items can be used in health food items list, again causing people to eat mulberry leaves can be used as knowledge about, plus the 2003 SARS During mulberry leaves can be used as a medicine continued to be everyone's concern,
Youyi 2003 to Sohu Health Network forum a hot quote, "now popular to eat mulberry leaves," so that people will begin as accessories made of mulberry mulberry shavings, mulberry pasta and other ingredients, after a lapse of six years, When Xinhua reported in May 2009 Chinese mainland confirmed the first case of H1N1 flu, mulberry once again become the talk of the object.
In 2013 influenza A H7N9 influenza outbreak, the State Bureau of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chinese medicine treatment programs for fine-tuning, there are mulberry reference [3], to 2013 Huzhou Evening a report - "on the table mulberry prices Meat expensive ", that series in Huzhou Shen Jiandong village has developed a mulberry leaf vegetables, can be used in hot pot chain, health food shop, senior clubs, hotel, farmhouse and other places, so the mulberry became the focus of all walks of life of the community Sang Sprout bred. [4] Now Mulberry has become healthy vegetables [1]
2014 Mulberry Sprout has become a common dish in most areas, with its rich nutritional value, natural green again characterized and swept the Chinese mainland market.
Cultivation Technical Editor
Mulberry - the original plant cultivation base
Mulberry - the original plant cultivation bases (2)
Sankoh plant mulberry mulberry dry old leaves. Cultivated or wild. Most of the country more productive, especially in the Yangtze River and the Sichuan Basin mulberry area as much. Original plant hi warm and humid climate, little shade, drought, no water logging, poor resistance, soil adaptability. Bitter, sweet, cold. In the lungs, the liver. The effectiveness of the evacuation of wind-heat, clearing the lungs and moistening, Liver eyesight. Clinically used to think that the cream's good quality, "the frost mulberry leaves" or "mulberry leaves in winter," Pieces name mulberry leaf, mulberry Mizhi.
Mulberry silkworm of "food." Early in the last three thousand years ago unearthed from Shang Dynasty Oracle, there is a word "Sang" and "silkworm", showing "Sang" has a long history, is closely linked with the development of Chinese culture together.
Increase leaf yield, it is the basis for the development of sericulture silk business, and business is good mulberry mulberry leaf yield fundamental. Our agronomists in Breeding of mulberry, mulberry fertilizer, mulberry and mulberry pest control management, etc., continue in-depth study and achieved fruitful results, we have now been collected and new varieties have been bred Mulberry more than a thousand. Such as Zhejiang and Jiangsu, the lake of fire Sang Sang and two mulberry varieties group. Most genera and late varieties. There Redskins fire fire Sang Sang Sang and white fire, which shoots purple leaves, are Early varieties.
Mulberry is the basis of good yield of mulberry. Sexual reproduction and breeding of mulberry can be divided into two kinds of asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction is by seed propagation; asexual reproduction of grafting, cuttings and layering and the like. Seed grow into a seedling called mulberry, mulberry growing, said after the mulberry or wild mulberry seedling. Sang said the grass Zhejiang, Guangdong Jing Sang said. Mulberry is cross-pollinated plants, it is easy to natural hybridization. Therefore, mulberry seedling viability is strong, plasticity is also large, well-developed root system, drought-resistant barren, woody tenacity, good timber, ability to adapt to environmental conditions stronger than asexual reproduction of seedlings. Mulberry seedling traits but often vary, most leaf small, thin leaf, flower mulberry much more collateral. Most of mulberry mulberry seedling as the rootstock grafted with small amounts for direct planting, cultivating a mulberry tree.
Mulberry by grafting methods, breeding, said grafted mulberry seedlings out. Grafting is to plant mulberry branches or buds, move to the other plants of the branch, trunk or root, so that they heal as a strain of the common growth of new individuals. Shoots or buds for grafting the scion or bud called, received plants branch, trunk or root called rootstock. The production of fine mulberry shoots or buds scion varieties, generally mulberry seedling rootstock. Sang grafting advantage it is that both keep the grafted varieties of mulberry good traits, but also by means of mulberry seedling developed root system, enhance the plant's vitality. Therefore, the grafting method in breeding varieties of mulberry, replacement of species, trees rejuvenation update other aspects are widely used.
In addition, mulberry hybrid varieties produce different genetic basis of hybrid mulberry. Because genetic traits complementary, with strong heterosis, drought resistant, germinate early, mature faster, larger blades, in the Pearl River Basin help increase sericulture batch, increase cocoon yield. Sangmiao according to the nature of natural growth, only leaf collection without artificial pruning is mulberry trees, its small leaf, low yield, leaf quality is poor, can not meet the needs of sericulture production. But the mulberry tree root system, adaptable, so wide distribution. But also because the wood has a light, tough, durable advantage, the rural northern areas used to make tools and living utensils.
After planting mulberry, according to their breed characteristics, environmental conditions and production requirements, by cutting the strip, sparse buds, pruning, picking scissors and other cutting-core technology, develop into different tree, called the develop stage. According to the level of mulberry dry, generally divided into senior cadres of the mulberry tree (150 cm), dry mulberry (70 to 150 cm), low dry mulberry (70cm or less), to mulberry (also known as uninvolved mulberry, mulberry root mow) ʱ?? The purpose is to harvest mulberry leaves sericulture, and mulberry mulberry is vegetative organs, while leaf collection, pay attention to keep the tree in order to reach the next phase or the next year to get more mulberry purposes. The basic method of leaf collection leaf picking method has three mining methods and cut strip method buds: picking leaves France little silkworm or summer, autumn silkworm application; mining bud method of application in silkworms silkworm; cut strip method is even strip mulberry leaf clipping with direct feed silkworms. Qiumodongchu, by cutting the tip (tip cut branches), can reduce the mulberry damage, improve the germination rate and spring leaf yield.
Mulberry leaves should be properly fed before finishing Qiesang order to give mulberry. In addition to the adverse selection leaves, leaves of overlapping management, weighing and other work with mulberry mulberry called tone. Ant silkworm to early third instar silkworm, silkworm body because small, in order to facilitate a uniform and easy to mulberry feeding, generally mulberry leaves cut into square blocks, into the late third instar rough cut, four age with leaves, fifth instar leaves and shoots with leaves or mulberry.
ʱ??
Base of the original: the goods for Sankoh Moraceae plant mulberry Morus alba L. dry leaves.
Alias: home mulberry, Jing mulberry, mulberry trees, yellow mulberry, Leaves cream, honey mulberry leaf, mulberry leaf, mulberry leaves in winter, iron dinette, family leaves, dry leaves, Jing mulberry leaves, mulberry leaves, mulberry leaves, yellow leaves, frost mulberry leaves, mulberry leaves in winter, white mulberry leaf, mulberry chicken, son mulberry, mountain mulberry leaves, gold leaf, late leaf, old leaf, double leaf, double leaf, mulberry child , Ye gods.
Taste: bitter, sweet, cold.
1. "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": warm, non-toxic.
2. "outline": bitter sweet, cold, a small drug.
3. "Doctor Lin compile to": Gan octyl, cold.
In the lungs, the liver.
4. "Ben Cao Jing solution": the bladder full sun, hand Shao Yin Heart Sutra, full moon spleen.
5. "Materia Medica and then new": liver, lung two classics.
Mulberry
Mulberry (6)
6. "The Classic": In addition to cold and heat, sweating.
7. "Tang Materia Medica": decoction take gravy, in addition to beriberi, edema, Lee large intestine.
8. "Shandong medicine": cure sore throat, swollen gums, swollen head and face.
9. "Herbal Supplements": Main cholera spit abdominal pain, dry winter months were concentrated cook of service. Fine file, such as a large kettle Jianqu red sugar, to the old wind and persistent blood glucose.
10. "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": Lee five internal organs, joints, gas, decoction; in addition to wind pain sweating and Loss in stasis, and after steaming 罯; centipede bite Snake, Norway Rubbing salt.
The main ingredient
Mulberry - the original plant
Mulberry - the original plant
1. Flavonoids
Flavonoids in Mulberry Mulberry dry weight accounted for 1% to 3%, which is higher leaf content in the plant kingdom a class of plants. South Korean and Japanese scholars isolated from mulberry leaves 9 flavonoids, mainly compound rutin (rutin), quercetin, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-glucoside.
2. Alkaloids
Alkaloids is the main active ingredient of mulberry leaves, Japanese scholars Asano et al. (1994) isolated from mulberry leaves in a variety of polyhydroxy alkaloids, including DNJ (1- deoxynojirimycin), N- methyl -1-DNJ ( N-Me-DNJ), 2- oxo -α-D-galactopyranoside -1-DNJ, fagomine, 1,4- dideoxy-1,4-imino--D- arabinitol, 1,4 - dideoxy-1,4-imino - (2-oxo -β-D- glucopyranoside) -D- arabitol 1α, 2β, 3α, 4β- four hydroxy - norepinephrine tropane (to A ranunculus scopolamine) and other seven kinds of alkaloids. Wherein DNJ (1- deoxynojirimycin) in the plant kingdom, only mulberry unique.
3. phytosterols
Mulberry plant phytosterol content than 3 to 4 times higher. Mainly β- sitosterol
Mulberry
Mulberry
Alcohol (β-sitosterol), stigmasterol (Stigmasterol), campesterol (Camposterol), β- sitosterol β-D- glucoside (β-sitolsterol β-D-glucoside), hops tallow alcohol (lupeol, Lupeol ), myo-inositol (Myoinositol), insect metamorphosis hormones, Achyranthes steroid ketone (Inokosterone),
Ecdysterone (Ecdysterone) and the like.
4. γ- aminobutyric acid (γ-aminobutyric acid)
Mulberry leaves are rich in γ- aminobutyric acid (average content of 226 mg / 100g) striking, γ- aminobutyric acid from glutamic acid transformed from the highest content in mulberry leaves γ- glutamic acid (2323 mg / 100g).
5. Mulberry polysaccharide
Mulberry leaves are rich in mulberry leaves, with significant inhibition of lipid lowering blood glucose and elevated role.
Plant Culture Editor
"Ben Cao Meng Quan": mining the cream soup person, eye to the wind tears Most Excellent. Salt pound deposited Snake bite poison centipede, steamed pound loss stasis An flutter with condensate. Fried tea, eliminate swelling feet float, lower gas make joint interest; research for the San, soups. Only cholera, vomiting and diarrhea, sweating, pain in addition to the wind paralysis. Baked and fried concentrated mulberry clothes, various anti-malaria bleeding wound.
"Herbal medicine prepared to": Gan Han, hand, foot Yangming drug. Colon, stomach. Cooling ax wounded, for the end of the wonderful dry paste. Dampness, to the wind eyesight. Who collected the cream wash Jiantang, to the wind tears; wash hands full, to the wind paralysis. Mulberry, black sesame decile, pill, pill Fuso name, dehumidification to the wind, Ukraine shall eyesight. End service stop sweating, Yanzhou monk, on every pillow, sweating all over the body, more than once, clothing are transparent, two years can not cure. Temple prison to teach mining with dew leaves, drying to the end of the hollow rice drink two money, a few days and more. Cup of tea only diabetes.
"This by every original": mulberry clear lung and stomach, to the wind eyesight. Frost who learn Jiantang, wash wind tears now. Jiufu pill with black sesame, white beard and hair are not, not old sickness. "The Classic" statement except sweating chills and fever, that is, "Ming dynasty" An pound steamed wind pain sweating of that. Fried drink Lee five internal organs, pass under joint gas. Fried wine service, cure all the wind. Mulberry burning ash cream sauce, and lime point surface wind, destroy the mole, to the evil meat.
"Herbal Chong original": "Yi Jian Zhi" cloud: Yanzhou Temple had a visit monk, emaciated body, eating very little, per night on the pillow, Bianshen sweating, seize denier clothes are wet, so 20 years' medicine can cure, expect to make ears. Supervisor monks said: I have never drug test for Ru rule, three days more chronic disease Dayton, their party alone mulberry blindly, take dew harvesting, drying grind end, each with two money transfer service fasting warm rice drink. When the value of mulberry or fall, dry Zheyi worthy of use,
Mulberry
Mulberry
But as good as new mining by force, mulberry is stop sweating the drugs, non diaphoretic. "The Classic" cover that mulberry attending can remove heat and cold, and besides sweating. Fear misread as sweating solution. Therefore tables Ming.
"Materia Medica truth": Qingfei diarrhea stomach, cooling dampness, to wind eyesight, "San Franciscans recorded" cure vomiting than late baked mulberry research, herbal tea serving three money, only a stop, after complement Hepatopulmonary drugs. "Qian" cure hair is not long, mulberry, Mu esserteauiana cook swill, the seven can be several feet long. "Jane set" governing the wind tears the moment, with the twelfth lunar month does not fall Mulberry decoction, daily temperature wash, or the Glauber. Fuso pill in addition to rheumatism, Ukraine shall eyesight, with black sesame with mulberry divided into pills. Zhen Heng said: the cream mulberry leaves powder, rice Beverage, stop sweating. [5]
"I was equipped with Materia Medica": sweet, cold. The hand-foot-Yangming. Clear the West dry, diarrhea Eastern reality. To wind heat, Lee joints, liver, antiperspirant. Too habitat, Radix, heat treatment workers. Hotels habitat, gelatin, cure cough blood. Liver dry disabled.
Mulberry gas cold water, cold winter days of Bing: "Ben Cao Jing solution"
Merge Atlas
Merge Atlas (4)
 Gas, cold water into the bladder full sun; bitter Gan, a small drug, to get the taste of SOUTH fire clay, while dampness of nature, starting Shao Yin Heart Sutra, full moon spleen. Odor drop than rise, Yin also.
Sun who line the body of the table, and for one of the fan who is also marked hot sun this winter, so the sun's disease, is made of cold and heat. Mulberry leaves into the sun, you can clear bitter, sweet energy and, therefore lowering chills and fever. Juice who was the heart, get out of the bladder gasification were also mulberry leaves into the bladder while dampness, and so was sweating. ʱ??
"New Materia Medica": Power mulberry leaf, the better to mulberry, most good complement of bone marrow, Tim kidney essence, only the body of Khan, fill in brain eyesight, blood and fluid, seed miscarriage, blood reconcile , Tom Lee joints, only cholera, vomiting and diarrhea, in addition to rheumatism cold paralysis, eliminate swelling feet float, the old man can help bad but the old, old woman may also have fewer children. ... Mulberry leaf collection such as tea, the larger species first, followed by another big, then small ones and followed. Its small, no peace big too. Too large, the stop can Jiantang In medicine, there is worthy of pellets and carry on. Eye wash, should take the old mulberry, since the fall were useless carry on.
"Herbal divided by": Kugan and cool. Zi dry cooling, bleeding to the wind, hot air Qingxie Shaoyang.
"New Chinese Medicine Chi": bitter, sweet, cold. There are scattered wind heat, clearing the lungs and moistening, cooling blood eyesight function. For Fengreganmao, Hyperactivity cough, headache, dizziness, red eyes, dizziness, vomiting of blood heat.
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Mulberry - the original plant species ...
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Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. Mulberry turned healthy food. Zhejiang Daily. August 30, 2013 [cited date 2014-07-7]
2. Mulberry medicinal drug market demand of stable prices. China Hui rural network. 2014-12-26 [reference date 2015-02-5]
3. The multi-stakeholder joint prevention and control of bird flu prevention and control measures more closely. People's Daily Overseas Edition. April 12, 2013 [cited date 2014-07-7]
4. Mulberry expensive than meat on the table. China Huzhou. 2013-08-28 [reference date 2014-07-7]
5. Mulberry water shampoo hair loss treatment. People - Life Times. July 23, 2013 [cited date 2014-07-7]





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