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羌活 Notopterygium (Notoptergii Rhizoma) Qiang Huo

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羌活

 

(伞形科植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
羌活,别名羌青、护羌使者、胡王使者、羌滑、退风使者、黑药,拉丁文名Notopterygium incisum .伞形科羌活属植物,多年生草本,高60-120厘米,根茎粗壮,伸长呈竹节状。根颈部有枯萎叶鞘。茎直立,圆柱形,中空,有纵直细条纹,带紫色。
中药主治:性温,祛寒湿,用于外感风寒、头痛无汗、寒湿痹、上肢风湿疼痛。 生长于海拔2000-4000米的林缘及灌丛内;分布于中国的陕西、四川、甘肃、青海、西藏。
中文学名
羌活
拉丁学名
Notopterygium incisum
别    称
羌青、护羌使者、胡王使者、羌滑、退风使者、黑药
二名法
Notopterygium incisum
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
原始花被亚纲
伞形目
伞形科
亚    科
芹亚科
美味芹族
羌活属
羌活
分布区域
分布于中国的陕西、四川、甘肃、青海、西藏。

形态特征编辑

羌活
羌活 (3张)
多年生草本,高60-120厘米,根茎粗壮,伸长呈竹节状。根颈部有枯萎叶鞘。茎直立,圆柱形,中空,有纵直细条纹,带紫色。基生叶及茎下部叶有柄,柄长1-22厘米,下部有长2-7厘米的膜质叶鞘;叶为三出式三回羽状复叶,末回裂片长圆状卵形至披针形,长2-5厘米,宽0.5-2厘米,边缘缺刻状浅裂至羽状深裂;茎上部叶常简化,无柄,叶鞘膜质,长而抱茎。复伞形花序直径3-13厘米,侧生者常不育;总苞片3-6,线形,长4-7毫米,早落;伞辐7-18 (39),长2-10厘米;小伞形花序直径1-2厘米;小总苞片6-10,线形,长3-5毫米;花多数,花柄长0.5-1厘米;萼齿卵状三角形,长约0.5毫米;花瓣白色,卵形至长圆状卵形,长1-2.5毫米,顶端钝,内折;雄蕊的花丝内弯,花药黄色,椭圆形,长约1毫米;花柱2,很短,花柱基平压稍隆起。分生果长圆状,长5毫米,宽3毫米,背腹稍压扁,主棱扩展成宽约1毫米的翅,但发展不均匀;油管明显,每棱槽3,合生面6;胚乳腹面内凹成沟槽。花期7月,果期8-9月。[1] 

植物形态

  •  
    羌活全株
    羌活全株(1张)

产地生境编辑

产陕西、四川、甘肃、青海、西藏。生长于海拔2000-4000米的林缘及灌丛内。模式标本采自青海曲麻莱县。[1] 

生长习性编辑

羌活羌活
生长于海拔2000-4000米的林缘及灌丛内。[1] 

地理分布编辑

分布于陕西、四川、甘肃、青海、西藏。[1] 

栽培技术编辑

羌活喜凉爽湿润气候。耐旱耐荫。忌连作。对土壤要求不严,但以土层深厚,土质疏松肥沃的壤土或沙土为佳。

整地施肥

选地势高,排水好的田块,精耕细作。结合整地,施足基肥:每亩施土杂肥3000公斤,尿素20公斤,磷钾肥50公斤。然后作畦,等待播种。

播种

羌活用种子繁殖。播种期有春播和秋播。春播在清明前后。秋播在封冻之前。播前,先在整好的畦面上开成浅沟,再将种子均匀地撒入沟内,覆土、浇水、保墒,以利出苗。也可按行株距30×15厘米将羌活种子均匀地点播在整好的畦面上。每亩播种量3公斤。羌活也可用地下根茎繁殖。选生长健壮,无病虫害的根条,截成5厘米的小段,每段带芽眼1—2个。稍晾,待伤口愈合后,按行株距30×20厘米定植在整好的畦面上。浇水保墒,以利成活。

田间管理

羌活齐苗后,应注意中耕除草,干旱天气浇水保墒,阴雨天气及时排水。立秋前后追肥一次:每亩追施尿素10公斤,磷酸二氢钾10公斤。冬季清理田园后撒施一层土杂肥。羌活现蕾后,除留种株植外,应摘除花蕾,以防养份消耗。

病虫害防治

羌活病害较少,如若发现按常规方法防治。害虫主要是黄凤蝶幼虫咬食叶片,防治时,用菊脂类农药杀灭。地下害虫用辛硫磷杀灭。

收获加工

羌活一般于播后2—3年的秋季,地上茎叶枯萎后采收。将刨出的羌活地下根茎,去掉芦头,去净泥土,晒干或烘干即可入药出售。亩产量300公斤。
人工种植方法:喜凉爽湿润气候,耐寒,稍耐荫。适宜在土层深厚、疏松、排水良好、富含腐殖质的砂壤土栽培,不宜在低湿地区栽种。用种子或根茎繁殖。秋季采收成熟种子,晒干,于春季解冻后进行直播,按行距33cm,穴距23-27cm开穴,深5-7cm,每穴播种子10多粒,盖堆肥或腐殖质土约1-2cm,浇水。每1hm2用种子15kg左右。于秋季或春季收时进行,选具有芽的根茎,切成小段,繁段有1-2芽。条栽,按行距33cm开沟,沟深15-17cm,宽15cm,把根茎横放沟内,每隔8-10cm放1段,盖土杂肥或细土14-16cm,浇水。 种子直播的苗高8-10cm时匀苗、补苗,每穴留苗2-3株。生长期中每年中耕除草3次,结合追肥。冬季培土越冬,施腐熟厩肥、堆肥、土杂肥、过磷酸钙等。用根茎繁殖的,除无匀苗工作外,其余管理与直播相同。
病虫害防治: 蚜虫,春、夏季发生,可用1:1:10烟草石灰水防治。

药用价值编辑

药材简介:
羌活-原植物羌活-原植物
羌活一药,既能发汗解表,又可祛风湿而止痛,但在作为发汗解表药时, 应将它的祛风止痛功效密切结合起来,即在临床上用于风寒表症时,必须兼有头痛或骨节疼痛等症,才考虑使用。至于用治风湿痹痛,不论有无表症,都可应用。根据临床实践体会,该品退热的功效很好,可配合清热药如蒲公英板蓝根等品治风热表症,而且一般在热退之后无再度发热现象。
但该品气味浓烈,用量过多,易致呕吐,故在使用时必须注意患者的胃内情况,掌握适当剂量。
药用信息
【药名】羌活
【别名】羌青、护羌使者、胡王使者、羌滑、退风使者、黑药
【汉语拼音】qiānɡ huó
【英文名】Incised Notopterygium,Incised Notopterygium Rhizome Forbes Notopterygium Rizome,Rhizome or root of Incised Notopterygium,Rhizome or root of Forbes Notopterygium
【性味】味辛;苦;性温。
①《药性论》:味苦辛,无毒。
②《医学启源》:《主治秘要》云:性温,味辛。
③《汤液本草》:气微温,味苦甘,平。
【归经】入膀胱、肾经。
①《珍珠囊》:足太阳膀胱经。手太阳小肠。
宽叶羌活
宽叶羌活 (5张)
②《汤液本草》:足太阳、厥阴经。
③《本草蒙筌》:手、足太阳,足少阴、厥阴经。
【功效】散表寒;祛风湿;利关节;止痛。主外感风寒;头痛无汗;风水浮肿;疮疡肿毒。用于阳痿遗精,遗尿尿频,腰膝冷痛,肾虚作喘,五更泄泻;外用治白癜风,斑秃。解表散寒,祛风胜湿,止痛。
【考证】出自《神农本草经》、《中华草本》、《中国药典》。
【科属分类】伞形科
【功效分类】解表药;祛风湿药。
【主治】外感风寒;头痛无汗;油印寒湿痹;风水浮肿;疮疡肿毒。
【用法用量】内服:煎汤,3-10克;或入丸、散。
【生态环境】生于海拔2000-4200m的林缘、灌丛下、沟谷草丛中。生于海拔1700-4500m的林缘及灌丛内。【采收和储藏】栽培3-4年秋季倒苗后至早春萌芽前割除地上部分,挖取根茎,抖净泥沙,砍去芦头,除须根,切成10-13cm长的短节,晒干或烘干。
【用药禁忌】
  1. 该品辛香温燥之性较烈,故阴亏血虚者慎用。阴虚头痛者慎用。
  2. 血虚痹痛忌服。
  3. 本草经疏》:血虚头痛及遍身疼痛骨痛因而带寒热者,此属内证,误用反致作剧。
性状:羌活药材因药用部分和形态不同而有蚕羌、竹节羌、大头羌、条羌等数种。
【蚕羌】又名:螺丝羌。为干燥的根茎部,形态似蚕。呈圆柱状或略
羌活羌活
弯曲,长约4~10厘米,直径约1~2厘米。顶端有茎叶残基。表面棕褐色,有多数紧密而隆起的环节。节上密生疣状突起的须根痕。质轻松易折断,断面不齐,有明显的菊花纹和多数裂隙,皮部棕红色;木质部淡黄色,中央有黄白色髓,均有朱砂点(油管)。具特殊香气,味微苦而麻。
【竹节羌】根茎的环节较稀,如竹节状,似蚕羌而略大。
【大头羌】根茎的环节特别膨大,呈不规则团块状,大小不等,顶端具多数残留茎基,余皆与蚕羌相同。
【条羌】为干燥的根及支根。呈圆柱形或分枝,长3~17厘米,直径约0.7~1.7厘米,顶端偶可见有根茎,表面棕褐色,有纵纹及疣状突起的须根痕,上端较粗大,有稀疏隆起的环节,质疏松而脆、易折断,断面不平坦,皮部浅棕色,木部黄白色,有菊花纹,朱砂点不明显,中央无髓。气味较淡薄。
以上均以条粗壮、有隆起曲折环纹、断面质紧密、朱砂点多、香气浓郁者为佳。一般认为蚕羌的品质最优,竹节羌次之,大头羌最次。
主产于四川(称川羌活)、甘肃、青海(称西羌活)。此外,陕西、云南、新疆、西藏等地亦产。
炮制加工:原药材,除去杂质,抢水洗净,润透,切厚片,晒干或低温干燥,炮制后贮干燥容器内,密闭,置阴凉干燥处,防蛀。

药材鉴定

性状鉴别
(1)羌活 为圆柱形略弯曲的根茎,长4-13cm,直径0.6-2.5cm。顶端具茎痕。表面棕褐色至黑褐色,外皮脱落处呈黄色。节间缩短,呈紧密隆起的环状,形似蚕(习称蚕羌);或节
羌活羌活
是延长,形如竹节状(习称竹节羌)。节上有多数点状或瘤状突起的根良及色破碎鳞片。体轻,质脆,易折断。断面不平整,有多数裂隙,皮部黄棕色至暗棕色,油润,有棕色油点,木部黄白色,射线明显,髓部黄色至黄棕色。气香,味微苦而辛。
(2)宽叶羌活 根茎类圆柱形,顶端具茎及叶鞘残基,根类圆锥形,有纵皱纹及皮孔;表面棕褐色,近根茎处有较密的环纹,长8-15cm,直径1-3cm(习称条羌)。有的根茎粗大,不规则结节状,顶部具数个茎基,根较细(习称大头羌)。质松脆,易折断。断面较平坦,皮部浅棕色,木部黄白色。气味较淡。以根茎粗壮、有横节如蚕形,表面棕色,断面质紧密,朱砂点多,香气浓郁者为佳。
显微鉴别】根茎横切面,
(1)蚕羌木栓层为10余列细胞。皮层菲胞。皮层菲薄、韧皮部多裂隙。形成层成环。木质部导管较多。韧皮部、髓和射线中均有多数分泌道,圆形或不规则长圆形,直径至200μm,内含黄棕以油状物。
(2)宽叶羌活 与羌活类同,但导管少,导管束中有成片的木纤维群。髓部宽大。分泌道直径至180μm
粉末特征】棕黄色。
① 分泌道纵断面分泌细胞多狭长,壁薄或稍厚,内有淡黄色分
羌活羌活
泌物及淀粉粒溶化后的痕迹;并有金黄色状分泌物。
② 薄壁细胞纵长条形,常含淡黄色分泌物或油滴。
③ 网纹、具缘纹也导管直径13-15μm。
④ 木栓细胞内充满黄棕以或棕色物。
理化鉴别】取粉末0.5g,加入乙醚适量,冷浸1h,滤过,滤液浓缩至1ml,加7%盐酸羟胺甲醇液2-3滴、20%氢氧化钾乙醇液3滴,在水浴上微热,冷热,冷却后,加稀盐酸调节pH至3-4,再加1%三氯化铁乙醇溶液1-2滴,于醚层界面处显紫红色。

功能主治

散风寒湿,止痛。治感冒风寒,头痛无汗,风寒湿痹,项强筋急,
羌活的图片
羌活的图片 (20张)
 骨节酸疼,风水浮肿,痈疽疮毒。
用于阳痿遗精,遗尿尿频,腰膝冷痛,肾虚作喘,五更泄泻;外用治白癜风,斑秃。解表散寒,祛风胜湿,止痛。
1.用于外感风寒,恶寒发热,头痛身痛等证。本品有较强的发散风寒和止痛效果。常与防风、白芷、细辛等同用,如九味羌活汤。
2.用于风寒湿邪侵袭所致的肢节疼痛、肩背酸痛,尤以上半身疼痛更为适用。本品能祛风胜温,散寒止痛。常与防风、同用,如蠲痹汤。
①《药性论》:"治贼风、失音不语,多痒血癞,手足不遂,口面歪邪,遍身顽痹。"
②《日华子本草》:"治一切风并气,筋骨拳挛,四肢羸劣,头旋眼目赤疼及伏梁水气,五劳七伤,虚损冷气,骨节酸疼,通利五脏。"
③《珍珠囊》:"太阳经头痛,去诸骨节疼痛,亦能温胆。"
④《品汇精要》:"主遍身百节疼痛,肌表八风贼邪,除新旧风湿,排腐肉疽疮."
⑤《本草备要》:"泻肝气,搜肝风,治风湿相搏,本经(太阳)头痛,督脉为病,脊强而厥,刚痉柔痉,中风不语,头旋目赤。"
⑥《会约医镜》:"治邪闭憎寒,壮热无汗。"
作用:[2] 
1.治疗风湿相搏 身体疼烦 掣痛不可屈伸 或身微肿不仁:羌活(去芦) 附子(炮 去皮脐) 白术甘草(炙)等份.每服20克 水一盏半、生姜五片 煎至七分 去滓 温服不拘时候[3].(《济生方》羌附汤)
2.治太阳经头痛:防风1克,羌活1.5克,红豆二个。为末,鼻内搐之。(《玉机微义》)
3.治肩背痛不可回顾,脊痛项强,腰似折,项似拔者:羌活、独活各一钱,藁本:防风、甘草(炙)、川芎各2.5克,蔓荆子1.5克。都作一服,水二盏,煎至一盏,去渣,大温服,空心食前。(《内外伤辨》羌活胜湿汤)
药理作用:
羌活-中药材羌活-中药材
【解热、抗炎作用】
1)对酵母致热性大鼠体温的影响:大鼠皮下注射l5%酵母混悬液10ml/kg致热后2.5h,然后分别以羌活挥发油1.328ml/kg灌胃和0.133ml/kg灌胃给药,给药后不同时间测大鼠体温。结果与对照比较两种不同途径和不同剂量的挥发油均能使大鼠体温明显降低,具有显著的解热作用。
2)对小鼠二甲苯耳水肿的影响:小鼠分别灌胃羌活挥发油1.328、0.664、0.332、0.22 1ml/kg,给药后右耳滴二甲苯0.03ml/只,计算左右耳片重量差(mg)。结果与对照组(12.5±6.01)比较,分别为:6.6±4.40、7.2±3.16、7.0±4.21、15.9±5.28。前3个剂量组与对照组比较P<0.05。表明能显著抑制二甲苯耳水肿。
3)对角叉菜胶足肿胀的影响:大鼠口服1.328、0.664ml/kg或腹腔注射0.133、0.066ml/kg对大鼠角叉菜(1%0.1ml)足肿胀有抑制作用。与对照组比较口服1.328ml/kg组在注射角叉菜胶后3或4小时P<0.05,口服0.664ml/kg组24小时时P<0.001,腹腔注射0.133ml/kg组24小时,P<0.05。
4)对大鼠右旋糖酐足肿胀的影响:大鼠口服羌活挥发油1.328、0.664、0.332ml/kg,给药后30分钟于大鼠后足跖腱膜下注射1.2%右旋糖酐0.1ml/只。结果与对照组比较,仅1.328ml/kg组,在3、5、6小时时的抑制作用有显著差异P<0.05。
镇痛作用】小鼠口服l.328ml/kg或腹腔注射0.133mi/kg羌活挥发油连续3天,对腹腔注射0.5%醋酸溶液0.2ml/kgl0分钟的扭体次数有明显的减少。与对照组比较有极显著作用,P值均为<0.001。对小鼠热刺激痛阈值亦能明显延长,表明有显著的镇痛作用。
对2,4硝基氯苯(DNCB)所致小鼠迟发超敏反应的影响:小鼠灌胃羌活挥发油1.328ml/kg或腹腔注射0.133ml/kg,连续10天,对DNCB所致迟发型超敏反应有一定的抑制作用,与对照组比较肿胀度分别为:2.3±1.96、1.2±0.76、1.1±0.85。
抗心律失常作用】羌活水溶部分给予雄性小鼠分别以1.5、3、6、10、12g/kg,对尾静脉注射乌头碱0.06mg/kg所致的心律失常有显著的对抗作用,与对照组比较3和6g/kg组的P值为<0.01,10g/kg组P<0.001;剂量加至12g/kg时,其作用反而有所下降P<0.05。大鼠口服10g/kg羌活水溶部分,对静脉注射0.04mg/kg的乌头碱诱发的心律失常出现时间的推迟有极显著作用,与对照组比较P<0.001,心律失常持续时间也有极显著的缩短,P<0.001。家兔口服羌活水溶部分5g/kg可显著缩短氯仿-肾上腺素引起的家心律失常的持续时间。羌活于粉灰化后给予小鼠,对乌头碱诱发的心律失常的出现时间和持续时间均无明显作用。宽叶羌活水提物给予小鼠口服l0g/kg,不能延长心律失常的潜伏期和缩短持续时间。口服20g/kg剂量时,只能缩短小鼠心律失常的持续时间P<0.01。羌活水提物20g/kg口服给予大鼠,可显著延长由氯化钙诱发的室颤发生时间,P<0.01。
对急性心肌缺血和心肌营养性血流量的影响:羌活挥发油口服给于大鼠,然后以尾静脉注射给予脑垂体后叶素0.75u/kg引起急性心肌缺血。结果:6%羌活挥发油0.6g/kg组和3%羌活挥发油0.3g/kg组均有对抗心肌缺血作用,与对照组比较P值分别为<0.01和<0.05。用心肌对86Rb的摄取率,观察羌活挥发油对心肌营养性血流量的影响。结果:2.5%羌活挥发油0.75g/kg剂量可显著增加心肌对86Rb的摄取率,与对照组比较增加率为21.1%,P<0.01

临床应用

1.用于感冒风寒,发热恶寒等症。
羌活羌活
羌活功能发散风寒,祛风止痛,用于感冒风寒,兼有头痛、身痛为主,常配防风、白芷等药同用。
2.用于风湿痹痛,头痛等。
羌活祛风湿的作用也甚为显著,为祛风胜湿常用之品,但一般认为该品以风湿痹痛在身半以上者为宜,如周身痹痛,可配防风、独活等同用。对于头痛病症,多配合川芎细辛等应用。
与独活的鉴别:在唐及唐以前,羌活独活被认为是一种药,用法上不分,在唐代人们开始认识到了羌活独活的区别,从此羌活独活分开来使用。
相同点:均性辛苦,入膀胱肾经,能祛风湿、止痛、解表,以治风寒湿痹,风寒夹湿表证。
不同点:羌活性温,独活微温羌活较燥烈,发散力强,常用于风寒湿痹,痛在上身者,善入太阳膀胱经,以除头项肩背止痛见长,治头痛属太阳:独活性较缓和,发散之力较羌活弱,因其善入肾经,行善下行,多用于风寒湿痹在下身者,治头痛属少阴。若风寒湿痹一身尽痛者,两者常相须为用。
药毒理学:羌活挥发油灌胃对小鼠的LD50为2.83g/kg及6.64±0.8726ml/kg。小鼠以不同剂量的羌活挥发油灌胃,观察7天,其LD50为6.64±0.8726ml/kg。羌活水溶部分以最大浓度和最大允许体积灌胃给予小鼠12g/kg,观察72小时,小鼠活动正常,无死亡。羌活挥发油乳剂以0.75g/kg灌胃给予小鼠,观察24小时,活动正常,无任何异常反应。小鼠灌胃给药的LD50为2.83g/kg。
应用鉴别:
1.羌活与独活,二者皆能逐风胜湿,透关利节,但又各有所长。羌活性味雄烈,发汗解热作用较强;羌活偏上行,独活偏下行,常同用。
2.羌活与防风,二者皆为祛风药,但羌活散风之力比防风强。
羌活 - 用药禁忌:
1.本品辛香温燥之性较烈,故阴亏血虚者慎用。
2.血虚痹痛忌服。
3.《本草经疏》:血虚头痛及遍身疼痛骨痛因而带寒热者,此属内证,误用反致作剧。

药方选录

1.治疗客寒犯脑 脑痛连齿 手足厥冷口鼻气冷之证:羌活一钱附子干姜各五分
羌活羌活
炙甘草八分.水煎服.(《医学心悟》羌活附子汤)
2.治疗风湿相搏 身体疼烦 掣痛不可屈伸 或身微肿不仁:羌活(去芦) 附子(炮 去皮脐)白术甘草(炙)等份.每服20克 水一盏半、生姜五片 煎至七分 去滓 温服不拘时候.(《济生方》羌附汤)
3.治感冒发热,扁桃体炎:羌活20-25克,板蓝根、蒲公英各50克。水煎,每日一剂,分二次服。(上海中医学院附属龙华医院)
4.治太阳伤寒无汗:羌活、独活、荆芥、防风、广皮、甘草。煎服。(《医级》羌活汤)
5.解牙临寒:羌活、防风、苍术、细辛、川芎、白芷、生地、黄芩、甘草。水煎服,若急汗热服,以羹粥投之,若缓汗温服,而不用汤投之。(张元素九味羌活汤)
6.治太阳经头痛:防风二分,羌活三分,红豆二个。为末,鼻内搐之。(《玉机微义》)
7.治肩背痛不可回顾,脊痛项强,腰似折,项似拔者:羌活、独活各一钱,藁本:防风、甘草(炙)、川芎各五分,蔓荆子三分。都作一服,水二盏,煎至一盏,去渣,大温服,空心食前。(《内外伤辨》羌活胜湿汤)
8.治小儿伤风 羌活一钱,人参一钱,防风一钱,川芎一钱。上锉一剂,生姜三片,薄荷七叶,水一盏,煎至七分,不拘时候。(《婴童百问》羌活汤)
9.治产后伤寒 羌活、香附、紫苏(紫苏叶)各一钱五分,当归一钱,白芍、柴胡、陈皮各一钱二分。加葱白三茎,水煎,不拘时服。(《丹台玉案》羌苏饮)nbsp;
10.治眉骨痛不可忍 炙甘草(夏月生用),羌活,防风各三钱,酒黄芩一钱(冬月不用此一味,如能食、热痛倍加之)。上口父咀,每服五钱,水二盏,煎至一盏,去渣,食后服之。(《兰室秘藏》选奇汤)
11.治头风眩晕,闷起欲倒 川芎、羌活、蔓荆子、防风、白芷、细辛、藁本、
羌活羌活
石膏各等分。水煎服。(《医学启蒙》川芎羌活散)
12.治手太阳气郁不行,肩背痛不可回顾;足太阳经不通,脊痛项强,腰似折,项似拔者 羌活、独活各一钱,藁本、防风、甘草(炙)、川芎各五分,蔓荆子三分。上口父咀,都作一服,水二盏,煎至一盏,会渣。大温服,空心食前。(《内外伤辨惑论》羌活胜湿汤)
13. 治风湿相搏,身体烦疼,项臂痛重,举动艰难,及手足冷痹,腰腿沉重,筋脉无力 当归(去土,酒浸一宿),羌活(去芦头)、姜黄、白芍药、黄芪(蜜炙)、防风(去芦头)各一两半,甘草半两(炙)。上件口父咀,每服半两,水二盏,生姜五片,同煎至一盏,去滓。温服,不拘时候。(《杨氏家藏方》蠲痹汤)
14.治湿气流于四肢,肢节肿痛 羌活、升麻各一钱,独活七分、苍术、防风(去芦)、威灵仙(去芦)、白术、当归、白茯苓(去皮)、泽泻各半钱。上口父咀,作一服。水二盏,煎至一盏,去滓。温服,食前一服,食后一服。(《卫生宝鉴》大羌活汤)
15.治风寒湿邪客留肌体,手足缓弱,麻痹不仁,或气血失顺,痹滞不仁 片子姜黄(片姜黄)(洗去灰土)、羌活、白术、防己各一两,甘草(微炙)半两。上口父咀,每服四钱,水一盏半,加生姜十片,煎至八分,去滓。病在上,食后服;病在下,食前服。(《局方)五痹汤)

药用备注

(1)西北地区尚有以同科牛尾独活属(Heraeleum)多种植物的根作羌活用。
羌活羌活
(2)羌活功能发散风寒。羌活祛风湿的作用也甚为显着,为祛风胜湿常用之品,但一般认为本品以风湿痹痛在身半以上者为宜。
(3)作为发汗解表药时,应将它的祛风止痛功效切结合起来,但本品气味浓烈,用量过多,易致呕吐,故在使用时必须注意患者的胃那情况,掌握适当剂量。
植物介绍】羌活为伞形科植物羌活或宽叶羌活的根茎及根。主产于四川、甘肃及云南等地。多于初春及秋季采挖,除去茎叶须根,干燥,切厚片。羌活根茎为圆柱形或不规则块状,长4至13厘米,直径0.6至2.5厘米。表面棕褐色至黑褐色,外皮脱落处呈黄色。了间短缩,呈紧密隆起的环状,形似蚕,习称“蚕羌”;或节间延长形如竹状,习称“竹节羌”。节有多数点状或瘤状突起的根痕及棕色破碎鳞片,体轻,质脆,断面不平整,皮部黄棕色,油润,木部黄白色,具放射状纹理,髓部黄色,气香,味微苦而辛。宽叶羌活,根茎类圆柱形,根圆锥一股脑儿,表面棕褐色,近根茎处有较密的环纹,长8至15厘米,直径1至3厘米,习称“条羌”;有的根茎粗大,呈不规则结节状,根较细,习称“大头羌”。质松脆,易折断,断面平坦,皮部浅棕色,木部黄白色,气味较淡。以根茎粗壮,有横节如蚕形,表面棕色,断面质紧密,香气浓郁者为佳。
羌活羌活
【适合人群】阴虚血亏,气虚多汗者慎服。
【食疗作用】羌活味辛、苦,性温,归膀胱、肝、肾经,气雄升散具有散寒解表,祛风胜湿,除痹止痛的功效,主治外感风寒、风湿,恶寒发热无汗,头痛项强,目昏鼻塞,肢体酸痛,风寒湿痹,水肿脚气,疮疡肿毒,破伤风。
【做法指导】凡外感风寒,症见恶寒,发热头痛者,可与防风、荆芥、独活等配伍;凡风邪偏胜者,可与桂枝、麻黄、乌蛇等配伍。
药材概述:羌活为常用中药。药用历史悠久,始见于《神农本草经》,列 于独活项下。直至唐代的《药性本草》始将独活与羌活分列,《本 草纲目》 " 独活、羌活一类二种,西羌此为羌活,羌活 需用紫色有蚕头鞭节者 " 按上述记载,羌活主产子甘肃、青海、四川等地,与现今的分布基本一致。羌活味苦、辛、性温。具有散表寒去风湿,利关节之功效。治外感风寒、头痛无汗、风寒湿痹、项强筋急、骨节酸痛、风水浮 肿、痛肿疮毒等。现代分析表明,羌活主要含有菠烯,拧橡烯,话品烯醇和乙酸龙胆脑醋等成分。
羌活是青海大宗药材,分布广,量大,质优,倍受国内外客商 欢迎。此次药源普查基本摸清了青海所产羌活的品种,储量,分布 状况生长规律,栽培技术等。为青海羌活今后开发利用提供了科学依据。

种类分布编辑

1. 青海羌活分布品种及生物学特性
(l) 羌活,年生草本,高 1 米余。根及根茎呈长圆柱形或不规则的块状,有
羌活羌活
香气。茎直立,表面淡紫色,有纵沟纹,中空。叶互生,茎 下部叶为 2-3 回单数羽状复叶,叶柄长10-20 厘米,基部抱茎 h 两侧成勒 ' 状。小叶 3-4 对,卵状披针形,小叶片 2 回羽状分裂,最后裂片具不等的钝锯齿,叶片较薄,表面为深绿色,背面淡绿 色,无毛 ; 复伞形花序顶生或腋生,总伞梗 10-15,长短不等,表 面粗糙,无总苞,小伞形花序约有花 20-30 朵,等片 5 枚,裂片三 角形 ;花瓣5,白色倒卵形,先端尖,向内折卷 ; 雄 ; 这 5,花丝细,弯曲,花药椭圆形,2 室 ; 花柱 2,短而反折,子房卵圆形,下位 2 室。双悬果卵圆形平滑无毛,背棱及中棱有翅,侧棱无翅,棱槽问通常有油管 3-4 个,合生面有油管 5-6 个。果实成熟时 裂开成两分果悬挂在两果柱的顶端。花期 8-9 个月,果期 9-10 月。
资源分布:生于海拔2000-4200m的林缘、灌丛下、沟谷草丛中。分布于陕西、甘肃、青海、四川、西藏等地。[3] 
(2)宽叶羌活:又称鄂羌活多年生草木,高 80-100 厘米,根状茎直立。茎 基呈紫红色,表面有纵沟纹,无毛,中空,茎下部叶犬,2 或近 3 回羽状复叶,叶柄 7-19 厘米,基部成鞠状,抱茎 ; 小叶最后裂片 卵状披针形,长 2-4 厘米,宽 1-2 厘米,先端渐尖,边缘呈不规则的羽状深裂 ; 茎上部叶逐渐简化而成紫色叶辅,两面无毛,仅 下面叶脉上稍有毛。复伞形花序密生多数花,小伞梗等长或稍短,花等 5,狭三角形 ; 花瓣 5,黄色,卵状披针形,长 2 毫米,宽 0.6 毫米,先端渐尖,向内折卷 ; 雄 ; 这 5 与花瓣互生,花药椭圆 形,花丝柔软,内弯 ; 子房下位 2 室,花柱 2,甚短。双悬果,具6 翅,背棱和中校有翅,侧棱无翅,接合面向内回。花果期 7-8 月。
羌活喜凉爽阴湿气候,耐寒 .在山区九月下句地表结冻时仍可 见到叶绿 ; 苗期怕强光,喜肥,以酸性、中性土壤为宜。羌活既可 以种子繁殖也可用根茎繁殖。每年五月下句至六月上句返青后,地上部分生长迅速,一个月可长高 70-100 厘米,年生长期随海拔升 高而减少。最长 110 天左右,最短 90 天左右,由于年生长期短,羌 活根及根茎生长缓慢,从种子发芽至长成商品羌活需 3-5 年或更 长时间。
资源分布:生于海拔1700-4500m的林缘及灌丛内。分布于内蒙古、山西、陕西、宁夏、甘肃、青海、湖北、四川等地。
2. 地理分布与生态环境
羌活喜凉爽阴湿,多生长于高海拔地带。青海的地形气候特征,形成了甘南高原和祁连山地两大羌活自然分布区。
羌活
羌活 (5张)
(l) 甘南高原羌活分布区 :
甘南高原位于青海西南部,海拔大多在 3000 米以上,气候温凉 湿润冬寒夏凉,年平均气温 2-rc,降水 550 一 750 毫米。言 10。C 积温在 1200。C-2000。C。土质为山地棕壤和亚高山灌丛草甸土。本区羌活主要分布在迭部、临潭、卓尼、碌曲、夏河等地海拔 1600 -3000 米的高山灌木林阔叶林及草丛中。宽叶羌活分布在玛曲 : 夏 河、碌曲等地 1700-3500 米的草丛及灌木丛中,li 自潭、卓尼及迭部 也有少量分布。
(2) 祁连山地羌活分布区 :
祁连山地位于青藏高原的北部边缘,东段气候比较湿润。海拔 2500 米以上的北坟是羌活的主要生长区。年降水 400-800 毫米,年 平均气温低于 2。C,运 10。C 积温在 2000。C 以下,干燥度小于 1。植物有长针茅、驴驴高、冷荡、苔草冰草、杜鹊,鬼箭锦鸡儿以 及青海云杉油松山杨、桦树等高大植物。土壤为山地灰钙土,山地森林灰褐土等。该区羌活主要在天祝县的朱岔、毛藏、西大滩、哈溪及肃南县 的康乐、马蹄等地的高山林下、灌木或草丛中,其次在古浪县大靖、 昌林和肃南县的皇城、祁丰、大河等地区也有分布。
资源储量:羌活历来为青海犬宗药材商品之一,由于过去一直依赖采挖野 生资源,使羌活资源量严重下降。根据此次普查和历年收购状况分 析估测,青海野生羌活生长面积为 800 万亩,总贮藏量为 5664 吨。其中廿南高原分布区 ( 包括临夏的大子山及峡县、漳县 ) 分布面积 300 万百,贮量 2100 吨 ; 祁连山地分布面积 350 万亩,贮量 2500 吨 ; 其余中部黄土高原、陇南高海拔山地分布面积 150 万亩,贮量 1000 余吨。

现代研究编辑

羌活
羌活羌活
根茎含香豆精类化合物:异欧前胡内酯(isoimperatorin0.38%),8-甲氧基异欧前胡内酯(cnidilin0.,5-羟基香柑素(notopterol1.2%),香柑内酯(bergapten0.009%),8-(3,3-二甲基烯丙基)-5去甲基香柑内酯(demethylfuroinnarin)即5-羟基-8-(3,3-二甲基烯基)-补骨脂内酯[5-hydroxy-8(3,3-dimethylally)-psoralen,0.012%],5-去甲基香柑醇(bergaptol0.088%),紫花前胡甙元(nodakenetin0.04%),紫花前胡甙(nodakenin痕量),香柑醇-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖(bergaptol-O-β-D-glucopyranoside0.075%),6-O-反-阿魏酰紫花前胡甙(6-O-trans-feruloylnodak enin0.022%)[1],二氢山芹醇(colrmbianetin)、二氢山芹醇甙(columbiananine)、欧前胡内酯(imperatorin)、印度榅桲素(marmesin)[2];酚性化合物:对-羟基苯乙基茴香酸酯(p-hydroxyphenethyl anisate0.005%)、阿魏酸(ferulic acid0.89%);甾醇类化合物:β-谷甾醇葡萄糖甙(β-sitosterol glucoside)[1],β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol)[2];挥发油(约2.7%),其成分有α-侧柏烯(α-thujene)、α及β-蒎烯(α、β-pinene)、β罗勒烯(β-ocimene),γ-松油烯(γ-terpinene),柠檬烯(limonene),4-松油烯醇(4-terpinenol),乙酸龙脑酯(bornylacetate),α-(王古)(王巴)烯(αcopaene),反式-β-金合欢烯(β-farnesene),欧芹脑(apiol),愈创奥醇(guaiol)及苯甲酸苄酯(benzylbenzoate)等[3];脂肪酸类:十四碳酸甲酯(methyltetradecanoate),12-甲基十四碳酸甲酯(12-methyltetradecanoic acid methyl ester),十六碳酸甲酯(methylhex-adecanoate),4,8,12-三甲基十三碳酸甲酯(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoic acid methyl ester),14-甲基十六碳酸甲酯(14-methyl-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester),油酸甲酯(methyl-9-octadecenoate),硬脂酸甲酯(methyloctadecanoate),二十碳酸甲酯(methyleicosanoate),11-二十碳烯酸甲酯(methyl-11-eicosenoate)等14种;氨基酸类:天冬氨酸(aspartic acid),谷氨酸(glutamic acid),粗氨醇(arginine),亮氨酸(leucine),异亮氨酸(isoleucine),缬氨酸(valine),苏氨酸(threonine),苯丙氨酸(phenylalanine)及蛋氨酸(methyionine)等19种;糖类,鼠李糖(rhamnose),果糖(fructose),葡萄糖(glucose)及蔗糖(sucrose)。羌活还含苯乙基阿魏酸酯(phenethylferulate)。
宽叶羌活
地下部分含香豆精类化合物:香柑素(berg-amottin,bergaptin),异欧前
宽叶羌活宽叶羌活
胡内酯(0.62%,8-甲氧基异欧前胡内酯(0.024%),5-闳基香棋素(0.083%),香柑内酯(0.008%),8-(3,,3-二甲基烯丙基-5-去甲氧基香柑内酯(0.03%),香柑醇(0.026%),紫花前胡甙元(0.053)%,紫花前胡甙(1.2)%,6-O-反-阿魏酰紫花前胡甙(0.73)%,二氢山芹醇;酚性化合物;对-羟基苯甲基茴香酸(0.07%),阿魏酸(0.83%)。还含β-谷甾醇葡萄糖甙及挥发油,挥发油主要成分为α-蒎烯(36。30%),β-蒎烯(21.04%),柠檬烯(14.42%),此外,还有已醛(hexanal),庚醛(heptanal),辛醛(octanal),香桧烯(sabinene),樟烯(camphene),月桂烯(myrcene),α-水芹烯(α-phellandrene),3-蒈烯(3-carene),2-蒈烯(2-carene),对-聚伞花素(p-cymene),α、γ-松油烯,4-松油烯醇,乙酸龙脑酯及β-芹子烯(β-selinene)等20种。
药理作用
1.解热、镇痛作用 羌活挥发油灌胃或腹腔注射,能使致热性大鼠体温明显降低, 具有显著的解热作用;连续3天给予小鼠羌活挥发油,再行腹腔注射0。5%的醋酸溶液, 可见羌活挥发油能使小鼠扭体次数明显减少,有显著的镇痛作用.实验表明: 2%羌活注射液10ml/kg腹腔注射后40分钟, 小鼠痛阈显著提高.
2.对心血管系统的作用 羌活水溶部分对心律失常有明显的对抗作用,能明显缩短心律失常持续时间, 延缓乌头碱诱发小鼠心律失常出现的时间.该作用有随剂量增大而增强的趋势,但当剂量增加到12g/kg时其作用反而有所下降.有报告认为, 羌活抗心律失常的机制可能与抑制Na+内流及促进K+外流有关.但羌活和宽叶羌活均不能预防氯仿诱发的小鼠室颤和哇巴因诱发的豚鼠心律失常.
羌活挥发油能够对抗脑垂体后叶素引起的大鼠急性心肌缺血,这可能是通过冠状动脉扩张, 增加冠状动脉血流量的结果.羌活挥发油有明显的增加小鼠心肌营养性血流量的作用,从而改善心肌缺血.
3.抗休克作用 用浓度为 50%的羌活煎剂 0.5ml, 连续给小鼠灌胃12次,抗休克作用明显, 但大剂量(浓度100%,剂量1ml)一次给药无效, 即一次用大剂量并不能提高动物的抗休克作用.
4.其他作用 羌活注射液稀释度为每毫升含羌活油0.008ml 和每毫升含羌活油0。004ml 时,对痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、伤寒杆菌绿脓杆菌金黄色葡萄球菌等, 均有明显抑制作用.
动物实验:羌活挥发油有抗炎和抗过敏作用.经灌胃给药后,对二甲苯耳水肿、角叉菜胶及右旋糖酐足肿胀有抑制作用.对 DNCB(2, 4-二硝基氯苯)所引起的迟发型过敏反应有一定的抑制作用,且能使肾上腺内维生素C含量有降低趋势.其抗炎作用可能与垂体-肾上腺皮质系统有关.
泡酒方法:
【配 方】羌活(去芦头)半两,独活(去芦头)半两,川芎半两,大麻子仁(炒研)一合,黑豆(去尘土不捣)一合.
【制 法】上五味,内四味,粗捣筛,以黍米酒四升浸,夏月三日,秋冬七日.日满更煎十余沸,炒黑豆烟起,乘热倾于酒中,窨经小时净,绞去滓.
【主 治】偏风才得,冒闷不知人,手足亸戈,便速服此,神效.
羌活可泡酒羌活可泡酒
【用 法】每服二合至三合,日二夜一.
【配 方】羌活一两半,防风(去芦头)一两,黑豆每服一合.
【制 法】上诸药,前二味捣粗罗为末,以好酒五升,渍一宿.
【主 治】治妊娠中风痉,口噤,四肢强直,反张.
【用 法】每服,用黑豆一合炒令烟出,投入药,酒一大盏,候沸住,去滓,拗开口,分两度灌之.
说明:《医部全录》制法为"上三味口父咀,入酒内浸一宿,每服用黑豆(炒令熟)一合,投入药酒一大盏,候沸即住,去渣,分二服,灌之".余同上.

文献论述编辑

羌活羌活
1.《唐本草》:疗风宜用独活,兼水宜用羌活。
2.《医学启源》:羌活,治肢节疼痛,手足太阳本经风药也。加川芎治足太阳、少阴头痛、透关利节,又治风湿。《主治秘诀》云:其用有五:手足太阳引经,一也;风湿相兼,二也;去肢节痛,三也;除痈疽败血,四也;治风湿头痛,五也。
3.《本草纲目》:羌后、独活,皆能逐风胜湿,透关利节,但气有刚劣不同尔。
4.《雷公炮制药性解》:羌活气清属阳,善行气分,舒而不敛,升而能沉,雄而善散,可发表邪,故入手太阳小肠。足太阳膀胱以理游风,其功用与独活虽若不同,实互相表里。
5.《本草汇言》:羌活功能条达肢体,通畅血脉,攻彻邪气,发散风寒风湿。故疡证以之能排脓托毒,发溃生肌;目证以之治羞明隐涩,肿痛难开;风证以之治痿、痉。癫痫 ,麻痹厥逆。盖其体轻而不重,气清而不浊,味辛而能散,性行而不止,故上行于头,下行于足,遍达肢体,以清气分之邪也。
6.《本经逢原》:羌活乃却乱反正之主帅,风能胜湿,故羌活能治水湿,与芎穷同用,治太阳、厥阴头痛,发汗散表,透关利节,非时感冒之仙药也。昔人治劳力感寒,于补中益气汤中用之,深得补中寓泻之意。
7.《本草正义》:羌、独二活,古皆不分,《本经》且谓独活一名羌活,所以《本经》、《别录》,止有独活而无羌活。李氏《纲目》尚沿其旧。然二者形色既异,气味亦有浓淡之殊,虽皆以气胜,以疏导血气为用。通利机关,宣行脉络,其功若一。而羌活上气尤胜,则能直上顶巅,横行支臂,以尽其搜风通痹之职,而独活止能通行胸腹腰膝耳。颐之师门,恒以羌活专主上部之风寒湿邪,显与独活之专主身半以下者截然分用,其功尤捷,而外疡之一切风湿寒邪,着于肌肉筋骨者亦分别身半以上,身半以下,而以羌、独各为主治。若在腰脊背膂之部,或肢节牵挛,手足上下交痛,则竟合而用之,宣通络脉,更能神应,固不仅内科着痹,应手辄效,而外科之风寒湿邪,亦莫不投剂立验。又按羌活本含辛温之质,其治疗宜于风寒风湿,而独不宜于湿热,以湿邪化热,即为温病,似无再用辛温之理,然此惟内科证治为然,若外疡之属于湿热者,苟肿势延蔓,引及骨节筋肉伸缩不利,非以羌、独之善走宣通为治,则效力必缓,故虽热病,亦不避用,但仅以为向导而任佐使之职,则分量甚轻,其主任之君药,固犹是理湿清热之正剂,此亦发表不远热之大旨,非抱薪救火者所得以为借口也。
8.《药性论》:治贼风、失音不语,多痒血癞,手足不遂,口面歪邪,遍身顽痹。
9.《日华子本草》:治一切风并气,筋骨拳挛,四肢赢劣,
10.《珍珠囊》:太阳经头痛,去诸骨节疼痛,亦能温胆。
11.《品汇精要》:主遍身百节疼痛,肌表八风贼邪,除新旧风湿,排腐肉疽疮。
12.《本草备要》:泻肝气,搜胖风,治风湿相搏,本经(太阳)头痛,督脉为病,脊强而厥,刚痉柔痉,中风不语,头旋目亦。
13.《会约医镜》:治邪闭憎寒,壮热无汗。

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

羌活属

参考资料
  • 1.  羌活  .中国植物志.2013-12-14[引用日期2013-12-14]
  • 2.  羌活  .中药药用价值网[引用日期2012-10-12]
  • 3.  羌活  .中医药网[引用日期2012-09-13]
http://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%BE%8C%E6%B4%BB/1789741

Notopterygium (Umbelliferae) Edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Notopterygium, alias Qiang green, protect Qiang messenger, messengers Wang Hu, Qiang slippery, wind back the messenger, aerofloat, Latin name Notopterygium incisum. Umbelliferae, Notopterygium species, perennial herb, 60-120 cm, the rhizome stout, elongation was bamboo-like. Fusarium root neck sheath. Stems erect, cylindrical, hollow, with longitudinal straight pinstripe, purplish.
TCM Indications: warm, relieving wet for exogenous cold, headache, no sweat, musculoskeletal, upper extremity pain rheumatism. Growth in the altitude of 2000-4000 meters of the forest edge and scrub; distributed in China's Shaanxi, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet.
Chinese scientific name Notopterygium Latin name Notopterygium incisum aka Green Qiang, Qiang protect messenger, messengers Wang Hu, Qiang slippery, wind back the messenger, aerofloat two law Notopterygium incisum world Flora door Angiosperms Gang Dicotyledon subclass original metachlamydeae Asia outline apiales Section umbrella Keya Ke Qin Qin delicious family subfamily Belong Notopterygium Notopterygium species distribution area located in China's Shaanxi, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet.
Contents 1 Morphology 2 origin growth habit Habitat 3 4 5 cultivation techniques ▪ geographical distribution ▪ sowing soil preparation fertilization field management ▪ pest control ▪ ▪ ▪ harvest processing medicinal herbs identified 6 Indications ▪ ▪ ▪ clinical application of medicinal prescription Selected ▪ Remarks 7 species distribution 8 9 literature on modern research
Morphological characteristics editor
Notopterygium
Notopterygium (3)
Perennial herb, 60-120 cm, the rhizome stout, elongation was bamboo-like. Fusarium root neck sheath. Stems erect, cylindrical, hollow, with longitudinal straight pinstripe, purplish. Basal leaves and lower stem leaves stalked, 1-22 cm long handle, the lower 2-7 cm long membranous sheath; leaves three three-bipinnate, ultimate segments oblong-ovate to Phi needle-shaped, 2-5 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, margin lobed-shaped notch to pinnatipartite; stem portion leaves often simplified, sessile, membranous sheath, long and clasping. Complex umbels 3-13 cm in diameter, lateral who often infertility; bracts 3-6, linear, 4-7 mm long, caducous; rays 7-18 (39), 2-10 cm long; small umbels 1-2 cm in diameter; small bracts 6-10, linear, 3-5 mm long; flowers numerous, pedicel 0.5-1 cm long; calyx teeth ovate-triangular, ca. 0.5 mm; petals white , ovate to oblong-ovate, 1-2.5 mm, apex obtuse, inner fold; stamen filaments inside curved, anthers yellow, oval-shaped, about 1 mm; styles 2, short, slightly elevated level pressure stylopodium ʱ?? Meristem fruit oblong, 5 mm long, 3 mm wide, dorsal and ventral slightly compressed, the main ridge extended to a width of 1 mm wing, but uneven development; tubing obviously, every furrow 3, Hopson surface 6; endosperm ventral recessed into the trench. Flowering in July, fruiting from August to September. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Notopterygium whole plant
Notopterygium whole plant (1)
Origin habitat editor
Production Shaanxi, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet. Growth in the altitude of 2000-4000 meters of the forest edge and shrubs. The type specimen was collected from the Qinghai Qumalai. [1] 
Growth habit editor
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
Growth in the altitude of 2000-4000 meters of the forest edge and shrubs. [1] 
Geographical Distribution Edit
Located in Shaanxi, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet. [1] 
Cultivation Technical Editor
Notopterygium hi cool, moist climate. Drought shade. Avoid continuous cropping. Strict requirements on the soil, but the soil deep, loose soil fertile sandy loam or better.
Site preparation fertilization

Selected high terrain, good drainage plots, intensive cultivation. With site preparation, Shizujifei: 3000 kg farmyard manure applied per acre, urea 20 kg, 50 kg of phosphorus and potassium. Then ridging, waiting for planting.
Sowing

Notopterygium breeding seed. There are spring and autumn sowing. Spring before Tomb Sweeping Festival. Before autumn freeze. Before sowing, the first on the whole a good Qimian open into shallow trench and then thrown into the seed evenly trench, backfill, water, soil moisture, to facilitate the emergence. Also can row spacing 30 × 15 厘米 seed evenly over the entire on-demand Notopterygium good Qimian. Per acre seeding rate of 3 kg. Notopterygium also available underground rhizomes multiply. Choose robust growth, pest-free root strip, cut into small pieces of 5 cm, each with 1-2 buds. A little dry, until wound healing, according to row spacing 30 × 20 厘米 colonization on the whole a good Qimian. Watering soil moisture, to facilitate survival.
Field management

After Notopterygium Qimiao, it should pay attention to weeding, watering soil moisture dry weather, rainy weather timely drainage. Before and after the beginning of autumn fertilizer once: acre topdressing urea 10 kg, 10 kg of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Clean up after winter idyllic farmyard manure applicator layer. After squaring Notopterygium, except planting seed strains, the buds should be removed to prevent nutrient depletion.
Pest Control

Notopterygium less disease, we should find a conventional control methods. Pests mainly yellow butterfly larvae bite blade, when prevention and treatment, with chrysanthemum lipids pesticide to kill. Used to kill soil pests phoxim.
Harvest processing

Notopterygium ships after sowing 2--3-year fall, after harvest ground stems and leaves wither. The dig's Notopterygium underground rhizomes, remove the reed head, to the net dirt, dried or drying can be used as medicine for sale. Per mu yield of 300 kg.
Artificial cultivation methods: hi cool, moist climate, cold, a little shade. Suitable for deep soil, loose, well-drained, humus-rich sandy loam cultivation, should not be planted in areas of low humidity. Propagation by seed or rhizomes. Fall harvest ripe seeds, dried, broadcast live on after the spring thaw, row spacing 33cm, open hole hole spacing 23-27cm deep 5-7cm, more than 10 per bunch planting seed grain, compost or humus soil cover about 1-2cm, watering. 1hm2 about 15kg per seed. When in the fall or spring harvest conducted rhizome election have buds, cut into small pieces, fan section 1-2 buds. Strip planting, row spacing 33cm ditching, Goushen 15-17cm, width 15cm, the rhizome horizontally trench, every 8-10cm put a section, cover farmyard manure or fine soil 14-16cm, watering. Seeding when the height 8-10cm uniform seedlings, fill the gaps, 2-3 plants per hole Liumiao. Growing in weeding three times a year, combined with fertilizer. Winter winter earth, manure composting facilities, compost, farmyard manure, superphosphate and so on. By rhizome propagation, in addition to non-uniform seedlings work, and live the same as the rest of management.
Pest Control: Aphids, spring and summer occurred Available 1: 1:10 tobacco lime prevention.
Medicinal value edit
About herbs:
Notopterygium - original plant
Notopterygium - original plant
Notopterygium a drug, both sweating solution form, but also rheumatism and pain, but as sweating relieving drugs, it should be of chills and pain efficacy closely together, namely in the clinical symptoms of the cold, you must both headaches or joint pain embolism, before considering use. As for the treatment of rheumatism, whether or table disease, can be applied. According to clinical practice experience, antipyretic efficacy of the product is very good, can be used with antipyretic such as dandelion, Radix et Honchi wind-heat syndrome, and generally after the heat back again no fever phenomenon.
However, the strong smell of goods, excessive consumption, prone to cause vomiting, so care must be taken when using the patient's stomach, to acquire the appropriate dose.
Medicinal information:
[Drug name] Notopterygium
[Alias] Qiang Qing, protect Qiang messenger, messengers Wang Hu, Qiang slippery, wind back the messenger, black drug.
Pinyin qiānɡ huó
[English name] Incised Notopterygium, Incised Notopterygium Rhizome Forbes Notopterygium Rizome, Rhizome or root of Incised Notopterygium, Rhizome or root of Forbes Notopterygium
】 【Taste spicy; pain; warm.
① "resistance": Bitterpungent, non-toxic.
② "Medical Kai source": "Indications Miyao," says: warm, spicy.
③ "Herbal Decoction": gas tepid, bitter sweet, flat.
[Meridian] into the bladder, kidney.
① "pearl sac": bladder full sun. Hand the sun small intestine.
Latifolia Notopterygium
Latifolia Notopterygium (5)
② "Herbal Decoction": full sun, Jueyin.
③ "Ben Cao Meng Quan": hands, full sun, Foot Shao, Jue Yin.
[Effect] casual table cold; rheumatism; Lee joint; pain. Main exogenous cold; headache, no sweat; feng shui edema; sore swollen poison. For impotence, enuresis, frequent urination, lassitude Leng Tong, kidney for asthma, Diarrhoea; topical treatment of vitiligo, alopecia areata. Relieving cold, expelling wind wins wet pain.
[Research] from the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", "Chinese herbs", "Chinese Pharmacopoeia."
[Genus classification] Umbelliferae.
[Effect classification] relieving drugs; rheumatism medicine.
[Attending] exogenous cold; headache, no sweat; mimeographed musculoskeletal; feng shui edema; sore swollen poison.
Dosage Oral: Jiantang, 3-10 g; or into pills, powder.
[Ecological] Born 2000-4200m of elevation forest edge, under shrubs, bushes valley. Born in 1700-4500m above sea level and thickets of the forest edge. [Harvesting and storage] cultivation 3--4 Fall down postemergence to cut off the aerial parts of early spring before bud, digging roots, shaking the net sediment, reed head cut off, except fibrous roots, cut into 10-13cm long short section, dried or drying.
[Medication contraindications]
The product of the more spicy warm dry strong, so yin deficiency with caution. Yin headache caution.
Bitongkang Jifu deficiency.
"Ben Cao Jing Shu": anemia, headache and pain all over the body and thus pain with chills and fever who, within this genus card, misuse renvoi as drama.
Characters: Notopterygium medicinal herbs because portions and form different silkworm Qiang Qiang bamboo, the bulk of Qiang Qiang and several kinds of bars.
[Silkworm Qiang] AKA: screw Qiang. A dry rhizome section, shape like silkworms. Cylindrical or slightly
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
Curved, about 4 to 10 cm in diameter and about 1 to 2 cm. Top of a leaf residues. Surface brown, a majority of close and uplift link. Dense warts on the section of fibrous scar. Quality easily easily broken, section missing, there is a clear majority chrysanthemum lines and fissures, skin reddish brown; xylem yellow, central yellow-white pith, both cinnabar point (tubing). With a special aroma, taste bitter and hemp.
[Qiang] bamboo rhizomes link more dilute, such as bamboo-like, like silkworm Qiang and slightly larger.
[Qiang] the bulk of the roots of particular aspects of enlargement, was unequal irregular mass, size, top with numerous residual stem base, more than all the silkworm Qiang same.
Qiang] [Article dry root and rootlets. Cylindrical or branched, long 3 to 17 cm in diameter and about 0.7 to 1.7 cm, the top can be seen even have roots, surface brown, with longitudinal lines and warts of fibrous scar, upper coarse, sparse ridges links , osteoporosis and brittle, easily broken, the cross section is not flat, light brown sheath, wood Huang white, daisy pattern, cinnabar point is not obvious, central unmyelinated. Smell relatively weak.
Above are stout, a raised ring twists and turns, tight quality section, cinnabar points, aroma better. Generally considered the best-quality silkworm Qiang, Qiang bamboo followed, the bulk of the Qiang most times.
Mainly produced in Sichuan (called Chuan Notopterygium), Gansu, Qinghai (known as West Notopterygium). In addition, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Tibet and other places are also produced.
Processing Processing: raw herbs to remove impurities, grab water washed, run through, cut into thick slices, dried or low temperature drying, drying after processing within the storage container, sealed, cool and dry place, moth.
Medicine identification

Identification character]
(1) Notopterygium slightly curved cylindrical roots, long 4-13cm, diameter 0.6-2.5cm. Top with the stem scar. Surface brown to dark brown, yellow skin off place. Between shortening, it was closely annular bulge, the shape of silkworm (silkworm Qiang Xi said); or Section
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
It is extended, shaped like bamboo-shaped (often called bamboo Qiang). A majority of point-like or root tubercles credits and crushed flake color on section. Light body, crisp, easy to break. Section is not flat, a majority of fissures, sheath yellow-brown to dark brown, oily, brown oil point, Kibe yellow-white, rays obvious pith yellow to yellow-brown. Gas smell, taste bitter and acrid.
(2) wide Boiss roots cylindrical, top with the stem and leaf sheaths residues, roots conical, with longitudinal wrinkles and lenticels; surface tan, near roots at a relatively dense ring, long 8-15cm, diameter 1-3cm (commonly known as Article Qiang). Some roots thick, irregular nodular, with several top stem, root smaller (often called bulk Qiang). Quality crisp, easily broken. Section is relatively flat, light brown sheath, yellow-white wood department. Smell lighter. Rhizome thick, there is a cross-section such as the silkworm-shaped, brown surface, tight quality section, cinnabar points, aroma better.
[Microscopic Identification rhizome cross-section,
(1) silkworm Qiang cork layer is more than 10 rows of cells. Philippines cortical cells. Cortex thin, multi fissure phloem. Cambium into the ring. Xylem more. Phloem, pith and rays are most secretion Road, circular or irregular oblong, diameter to 200μm, containing yellow-brown in oil.
(2) wide Boiss and Notopterygium similar, but less catheter, catheter bundle patches of wood fiber base. Pith lenient. Secretion channel diameter to 180μm
[Feature] brown powder.
① profile secreting cells secrete road more narrow, thin wall or thicker, there are yellowish points
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
Secretions and melted traces of starch grains; and a golden yellow secretions.
② longitudinally elongated parenchyma cells, often with yellowish secretions or droplets.
③ reticulate, bordered pits vessel diameter also 13-15μm.
Filled with yellow-brown or brown material inside ④ cork cells.
[Physical and chemical identification] to take the powder 0.5g, added ether amount, cold soak 1h, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated to 1ml, plus 7% hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution 2-3 drops of methanol, 20% ethanol solution 3 drops of potassium hydroxide in water bath After the fever, cold, cooling, dilute hydrochloric acid to adjust the pH to 3-4, plus 1% ethanol solution of ferric chloride 1-2 drops in the ether layer at the interface was purple.
Indications

Scattered wind dampness, pain. A cold cold, headache, no sweat, wind musculoskeletal, gluten urgent items,
Notopterygium pictures
Notopterygium pictures (20)
 Joint pain, swelling of feng shui, ulcer sore.
For impotence, enuresis, frequent urination, lassitude Leng Tong, kidney for asthma, Diarrhoea; topical treatment of vitiligo, alopecia areata. Relieving cold, expelling wind wins wet pain.
1. For exogenous cold, chills, fever, headache and body pain and other evidence. This product has a strong divergence cold and analgesic effects. Often associated with wind, Angelica, Asarum equated with such Jiuweiqianghuo soup.
2. For the wind cold dampness evil invasion caused limb pain, shoulder pain, especially in the upper body pain more applicable. This product can Qufeng wins warm, cold pain. Often with the wind, with the use, as Juanbi soup.
① "resistance": "Governance drafts, aphonia, without a word, more blood itchy skin disease, foot and fail to materialize, orofacial crooked evil, Bianshen stubborn weakness."
② "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": "cure all wind and gas, bones twin fist, lean limbs, inferior, sore red eyes and head spin volt beams water vapor, the five workers and injured seven, wasting air conditioning, joint pain, Tom Lee five internal organs ʱ??
③ "pearl sac": "the sun by headache, joint pain to all, also Wendan."
④ "Collection of Essentials": "Lord Bianshen one hundred pain, muscle statement VIII thief evil wind, in addition to old rheumatism, sore gangrene row carrion."
⑤ "herbal medicine prepared to": "diarrhea liver, found liver wind, rheumatism Competing, the classics (the sun), headache, Du for the disease, spinal strong and dedication, just soft spasm spasm, stroke, without a word, the first spin-red eyes ʱ??
⑥ "will be about the medical Mirror": "Governance closed Zenghan evil, strong heat, no sweat."
Effect: [2]
1. Competing body to treat rheumatism pain button pain can not bother flexion or slightly swollen body heartless: Notopterygium (go Lo) aconite (guns, peeled navel) Atractylodes licorice (Sunburn) equal parts. 20 grams per serving, a half of water, ginger and simmer till seven five to sediment, warm clothes informal time [3]. ("Ji Sheng Fang" Qiang Fu Tang)
2. Governance sun by headache: wind 1 g, 1.5 g Notopterygium, red beans two. For the end of intranasal twitch. ("Yu machine micro righteousness")
3. Shoulder pain can not review treatment, spinal pain items strong, waist-like fold, items like pulling by: Notopterygium, independent living, and one each in money, ligustilide: windproof, licorice (Sunburn), Chuanxiong 2.5 grams, 1.5 grams Viticis ʱ?? All for one, two water, fry one, to the residue, a large, warm clothes, hollow before eating. ("Within the trauma" Notopterygium wins wet soup)
ACTION:
Notopterygium - Chinese herbal medicine
Notopterygium - Chinese herbal medicine
[Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects]
1) yeast induced fever in rats affected by temperature: subcutaneous injection of l5% yeast suspension 10ml / kg after pyrogenic 2.5h, then respectively Notopterygium volatile oil 1.328ml / kg orally and 0.133ml / kg orally administration, measured at different times after administration of rat body temperature. Results Compared with control comparison of two different approaches and different doses of volatile oil were rats can significantly reduce body temperature, it has a significant antipyretic effect.
2) Effect of xylene ear edema in mice: Mice were fed Notopterygium volatile oil 1.328,0.664,0.332,0.22 1ml / kg, after administration of ear drops xylene 0.03ml / only to calculate the difference between the left and right ear piece weight ( mg). Results Compared with control group (12.5 ± 6.01) compared were: 6.6 ± 4.40,7.2 ± 3.16,7.0 ± 4.21,15.9 ± 5.28. Before the three dose groups compared with control group P <0.05. It showed significantly inhibited xylene ear edema.
3) on the carrageenan paw swelling: rat oral 1.328,0.664ml / kg or intraperitoneal injection 0.133,0.066ml / kg of rat carrageenan (1% 0.1ml) inhibited paw swelling. Compared with control group oral 1.328ml / kg group, P <0.05, oral 0.664ml / kg group 24 hours P <0.001, intraperitoneal injection at 3 or 4 hours after injection of carrageenan 0.133ml / kg group 24 hours, P < 0.05.
4) Effect of dextran paw edema in rats: rat oral Notopterygium volatile oil 1.328,0.664,0.332ml / kg, 30 minutes after administration in rats after plantar fascia under 1.2% dextran injection 0.1ml / only. Results Compared with control group, only 1.328ml / kg group, the inhibitory effect of 3,5,6 hour there was a significant difference when P <0.05.
[Analgesia] mice were orally l.328ml / kg or intraperitoneal injection 0.133mi / kg for 3 consecutive days Notopterygium volatile oil, for intraperitoneal injection of 0.5% acetic acid solution 0.2ml / kgl0 minute writhing significantly reduced. Compared with control group has a very significant role, P values ​​are <0.001. Thermal stimulation pain threshold in mice can also significantly longer, indicating a significant analgesic effect.
2,4-nitro-chlorobenzene (DNCB) induced mouse DTH effect: mice fed Notopterygium volatile oil 1.328ml / kg or intraperitoneal injection 0.133ml / kg, 10 consecutive days of DNCB-induced delayed hypersensitivity has a certain extent, more swelling and control group were: 2.3 ± 1.96,1.2 ± 0.76,1.1 ± 0.85.
[Antiarrhythmic effect] Notopterygium soluble fraction administered to male mice, respectively 1.5,3,6,10,12g / kg, arrhythmia of intravenous injection of aconitine 0.06mg / kg caused a significant antagonism, and control group 3 and 6g / kg group P value <0.01,10g / kg group, P <0.001; dose was added to 12g / kg, its role but declined P <0.05. Oral rat 10g / kg Notopterygium soluble fraction, for intravenous injection 0.04mg / kg aconitine induced arrhythmia occurs retarded time of a very significant role, with the control group, P <0.001, arrhythmia duration, there are very significant shortened, P <0.001. Rabbits oral soluble fraction Notopterygium 5g / kg can significantly shorten the chloroform - adrenaline-induced arrhythmia rabbits duration. Notopterygium administered to mice in powder-ash, time of occurrence and duration of the aconitine-induced cardiac arrhythmia had no significant effect. Latifolia Notopterygium water extract administered to mice orally l0g / kg, can not be extended arrhythmia latency and shorten duration. Oral 20g / kg dose, only shorten the duration of arrhythmia in mice P <0.01. Notopterygium water extract 20g / kg orally administered to rats, can significantly prolong generated by the calcium chloride-induced ventricular fibrillation time, P <0.01.
Influence of acute myocardial ischemia and myocardial nutritional blood flow: Notopterygium oral administration to rats volatile oil and then administered by intravenous injection pituitrin 0.75u / kg caused by acute myocardial ischemia. Results: 6% volatile oil Notopterygium 0.6g / kg group and 3% volatile oil Notopterygium 0.3g / kg group were against myocardial ischemia, and the control group, P value was <0.01 and <0.05. With myocardial 86Rb uptake rate observed Notopterygium Volatile Oil on myocardial nutritional blood flow. Results: 2.5% Notopterygium volatile oil 0.75g / kg dose can be significantly increased myocardial uptake of 86Rb rate, compared with control group growth rate of 21.1%, P <0.01
Clinical application

1. For the cold cold, fever, chills embolism.
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
Notopterygium functional divergence cold, chills and pain for cold cold, both headache, body pain mainly, often with wind, Angelica and other drug use.
2. For Fengshibitong, headache.
Notopterygium rheumatism is also very significant role for expelling wins wet commonly used goods, but is generally believed that the product is in the body Fengshibitong half or more appropriate, such as whole body arthralgia, can be equipped with wind, independent living equated with. For headache disorders, multiple with Chuanxiong, Asarum applications.
And independent living of identification: Tang and Tang before Notopterygium independent living is considered a drug, usage on regardless, in the Tang Dynasty people began to realize the difference between Notopterygium independent living, independent living separately since Notopterygium use.
The same point: all of the hard work, the kidney into the bladder, can rheumatism, pain, relieving, to cure wind musculoskeletal, cold dampness table card.
Different points: Notopterygium warm, relatively dry living alone tepid Notopterygium strong, divergent power, commonly used in wind musculoskeletal, pain in the upper body by, good sun into the bladder, to remove the first item known shoulder pain, headache belong Sun: Single moderate activity and diverging force relatively weak Notopterygium, because good into the kidney, charity down, and more for those in the lower wind musculoskeletal, headache belong Shao. If a wind musculoskeletal pain who do, the two often phase shall be used.
Drug toxicology: LD50 Notopterygium volatile oil orally to the mice was 2.83g / kg and 6.64 ± 0.8726ml / kg. Notopterygium mice with different doses of volatile oil gavage, observe seven days, the LD50 was 6.64 ± 0.8726ml / kg. Notopterygium soluble fraction with maximum concentration and maximum allowable volume administered to mice fed 12g / kg, observed 72 hours, the mice was normal, with no deaths. Notopterygium volatile oil emulsion to 0.75g / kg orally administered to mice was observed for 24 hours was normal, no abnormal reaction. Mouse gavage LD50 of 2.83g / kg.
Application identification:
1. Notopterygium and independent living, both have encountered by the wind wins wet, thoroughly shut Holi, but have their own strengths. Notopterygium taste of male intense, sweating antipyretic effect stronger; Notopterygium upward bias, independent living biased downward, often with the use.
2. Notopterygium and wind, both are all expelling drug, but Notopterygium scattered wind force stronger than the wind.
Notopterygium - drug contraindications:
1. This product spicy warm dry resistance than strong, so yin deficiency with caution.
2. Bitongkang Jifu deficiency.
3. "Ben Cao Jing Shu": anemia, headache and pain all over the body and thus pain with chills and fever who, within this genus card, misuse renvoi as drama.
Prescription selection

1. Treatment of Cerebral off cold made the pain even teeth and nose air-cooled cold limbs of the card: Notopterygium a money aconite, ginger each fifth
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
Zhigancao eight. Decoction. ("Medical Heart Awakening" Notopterygium aconite soup)
2. Competing tired body to treat rheumatism pain button pain can not flexion or slightly swollen body heartless: Notopterygium (go Lo) aconite (guns, peeled navel) Atractylodes licorice (Sunburn) equal parts. 20 grams per serving, a half of water, ginger and simmer till seven five informal time warm clothes to the dregs. ("Ji Sheng Fang" Qiang Fu Tang)
3. colds, fever, tonsillitis: Notopterygium 20-25 grams, Radix, dandelion 50 grams. Decoction, one day, the second service. (Shanghai Longhua Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine)
4. Treatment Sun typhoid no sweat: Notopterygium, independent living, Nepeta, wind, wide leather, licorice. Decoction. ("Medical grade" Notopterygium soup)
5. Teeth Pro Solutions cold: Notopterygium, wind, herb, Asarum, Chuanxiong, Angelica, habitat, skullcap, licorice. Shuijianbi, if anxious sweat hot clothes to throw porridge soup, warm clothes if slow sweat without soup throw. (Zhang element Jiuweiqianghuo soup)
6. Governance sun by headache: wind dichotomy, Notopterygium third, two red beans. For the end of intranasal twitch. ("Yu machine micro righteousness")
7. Shoulder pain can not review treatment, spinal pain items strong, waist-like fold, items like pulling by: Notopterygium, independent living, and one each in money, ligustilide: windproof, licorice (Sunburn), Chuanxiong fifth Viticis thirds ʱ?? All for one, two water, fry one, to the residue, a large, warm clothes, hollow before eating. ("Within the trauma" Notopterygium wins wet soup)
8. Treatment of Infantile cold Notopterygium a money, a money ginseng, wind a money, a money Chuanxiong. On filing a ginger three, seven leaves of mint, a water, and simmer till seven, informal time. ("Baby Hundred Questions" Notopterygium soup)
9. The treatment of postpartum typhoid Notopterygium, sweet, basil (basil leaves) each a fifth of the money, a money Angelica, white peony root, Bupleurum, Citrus half a penny each. Plus light blue three stems, decoction, when informal service. ("Dan Taiwan Yu case" Su Qiang drink) nbsp;
10. The rule brow not tolerate the pain Zhigancao (Xia Yuesheng use), Notopterygium, wind all three money, a money wine skullcap (winter months without this ingredient, such as to food, heat pain doubly's). Catchy parent Tsui, each serving five money, water, two, fry a lamp, to the residue, after eating of service. ("Blue Room cache" option odd soup)
11. The rule head wind, dizziness, nausea want to pour from the root, Notopterygium Viticis, wind, Angelica, Asarum, Ligusticum,
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
Gypsum each decile. Decoction. ("Medical enlightenment" Chuanxiong Notopterygium bulk)
12. The sun qi not cure hand, shoulder pain can not look back; full sun barrier, spinal pain items strong, waist-like fold, like pulling those items Notopterygium, independent living money, Ligusticum, wind, licorice (Sunburn), Chuanxiong fifth Viticis third. Catchy Father Aguilar, both as a water two, fry one, will slag. Big, warm clothes, food hollow ago. ("Within the trauma Doubts" Notopterygium wins wet soup)
13. Competing rheumatism, body pain tired, heavy items arm pain, act tough, and hand, foot and cold weakness, waist and legs heavy, tendons inability Angelica (to the soil, Jiujin night), Notopterygium (go Lo head), turmeric , white peony, Astragalus (Mizhi), wind (go Lo head) and one each in half two, two and a half licorice (Sunburn). The parent Tsui mouth pieces, each serving two and a half, two water, ginger, five, with a fry, to the dregs. Warm clothes, informal time. ("Young Tibetan home side" Juanbi soup)
14. The rule wet gas stream in the limbs, limb swelling Notopterygium, cohosh and one each in money, seven independent living, herb, wind (go Lo), Clematis (go Lo), Atractylodes, Angelica, Poria (peeled) , Alisma half the money. Catchy parent Tsui, make a. Water two, fry one, to the dregs. Warm clothes, food and clothes to the previous one after serving food. ("Health Treasures" Great Notopterygium soup)
15. governing wind cold dampness evil stay off the body, hands and feet, slow weak, paralysis heartless, or blood loss along, paralysis stagnation heartless film turmeric (Curcuma) (lime wash), Notopterygium, Atractylodes, Menispermaceae each twelve, licorice (micro Sunburn) half. Catchy parent Tsui, each serving four money, water one half, add ginger ten, simmer till eight, to the dregs. After illness, the food service; disease in the next, before the food service. ("FAA) Fifth Bi Tang)
Medicinal Remarks

(1) are still in the same family of Northwest Shelter Heracleum (Heraeleum) for a variety of plant roots Notopterygium use.
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
(2) Notopterygium function divergent cold. Notopterygium rheumatism is also very significant role for expelling wins wet commonly used goods, but is generally believed to Fengshibitong this product in the body half or more appropriate.
(3) relieving drugs when used as sweating, chills and pain efficacy should it cut together, but the product strong smell, excessive consumption, prone to cause vomiting, so care must be taken when using the patient's stomach that case, acquire the appropriate dose.
[Introduction] Notopterygium to plant roots and root Umbelliferae Notopterygium or latifolia Notopterygium. Mainly produced in Sichuan, Gansu and Yunnan. More than spring and autumn excavation, removal of fibrous stems, dried, cut into thick slices. Notopterygium rhizome cylindrical or irregular lumps, 4-13 cm long, 0.6 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Surface brown to dark brown, yellow skin off place. Between the shortening, it was closely annular bulge, the shape of the silkworm, commonly known as "silkworm Qiang"; or between extended section shaped like a bamboo-like, commonly known as "bamboo Qiang." Festival has the most points, or tumor-like protrusions root marks and broken brown scales, light body, crisp, cross section is not flat, sheath yellow-brown, oily, yellow-white wood section, with radial texture, pith yellow, fragrant air , taste bitter and acrid. Notopterygium latifolia, roots cylindrical, conical root peremptorily children, face tan, near roots at a relatively dense ring, 8-15 cm long, 1-3 cm in diameter, often called "Article Qiang"; some roots thick, irregular nodular, fine roots, often called "big Qiang." Quality crisp, easily broken, section smooth, light brown sheath, wood Huang white, smell lighter. Rhizome thick, there is a cross-section such as the silkworm-shaped, brown surface, section quality closely, aroma better.
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
[For people] deficiency of blood loss, Qi hyperhidrosis were careful service.
[Therapeutic effect] Notopterygium spicy, bitter, warm, bladder, liver, kidney, gas male l bulk of the table with a cold, expelling wind wins wet, chubi analgesic efficacy, attending exogenous cold, rheumatism, chills fever, no sweat, headache items strong, head faint stuffy nose, body aches, wind musculoskeletal, beriberi edema, sore swollen poison, tetanus.
[Practice] guidance where exogenous cold, Zheng Jian chills, fever, headache, could the wind, Nepeta, independent living and other compatibility; and where Feng Xie partial winner, with Gui, ephedra, black snakes and other compatibility.
Herbs Overview: Notopterygium is commonly used Chinese medicine. Medicinal long history, beginning in the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", listed in the independent living items. Until the Tang Dynasty "medicinal herbal" beginning to live alone with Notopterygium breakdown, "Compendium of Materia Medica", "independent living, Notopterygium a class of two kinds, Xiqiang This is Notopterygium, Notopterygium purple silkworm head whip required by section," according to the above records, Notopterygium main birth Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan and other places, is consistent with the current distribution. Notopterygium bitter, acrid, and warm. Table with scattered cold to rheumatism, Lee joint effect. Governance exogenous cold, headache, no sweat, wind musculoskeletal, gluten item urgent, joint pain, swelling of feng shui, pain and swollen sore like. Modern analysis shows that Notopterygium mainly containing spinach ene, twist rubber-ene, then alcohol and acetic acid product gentian brain vinegar ingredients.
Notopterygium Qinghai bulk herbs, widely distributed, large, high quality, much domestic and foreign merchants welcome. The survey made clear the source of drugs produced in Qinghai Notopterygium species, reserves growth pattern of distribution, cultivation technology. Qinghai Notopterygium exploitation in the future to provide a scientific basis.
Species distribution Editor
1. Qinghai Notopterygium distribution and biological characteristics of varieties
(L) Notopterygium, annual herb, more than one meter high. Roots and rhizomes elongated cylindrical or irregular lumps, there
Notopterygium
Notopterygium
Aroma. Stems erect, surface lavender, with longitudinal grooves, hollow. Leaves alternate, lower leaves stems back to a single count of 2-3 pinnate, 10-20 cm long petiole, base clasping h sides to Le 'shape. Leaflets 3-4 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, small leaves 2 pinnatifid, finally lobes with blunt teeth, ranging from blades thinner, surface is dark green, the back of the green, glabrous; complex umbel top or axillary, 10-15 overall umbrella stems, ranging from the length, surface roughness, no involucre, small umbels of flowers around 20-30 flowers, and other films 5, lobes triangular; petals 5, white, obovate, apex tip inwardly folded; male; five, filaments thin, curved, anthers oval, 2 rooms; styles 2, short and reflexed, ovary oval, the lower chamber 2. Double hanging fruit oval, smooth and hairless, and the back edge of the ribs winged, lateral ribs wingless, furrowed ask tubing usually 3-4, Hopson face a tubing 5-6. When the fruit is ripe split into two sub-fruit hanging fruit in the top two columns. Flowering 8-9 months, fruit from September to October.
Resource distribution: Born 2000-4200m altitude forest edge, down shrubs, bushes valley. Located in Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Tibet and other places. [3]
(2) wide Boiss: also known as E Notopterygium perennial vegetation, 80-100 cm tall, erect rhizomes. Stem was purple, surface with longitudinal grooves, hairless, hollow, stems and lower leaves dog, 2, or nearly three times pinnate, petiole 7-19 cm, base into a bow-shaped, clasping; lobes leaflets last egg lanceolate, 2-4 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, apex acuminate, margin irregular pinnatipartite; leaf stem portion made of purple leaf gradually simplified auxiliary, glabrous, veins only on the following slightly hairy. Most complex flower umbels dense, umbrella stems as long or shorter, flower, five, narrowly triangular; petals 5, yellow, ovate-lanceolate, 2 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, apex acuminate inward fold volume; male; five alternate with petals, anthers oval, soft filaments, recurved; ovary inferior chamber 2 Styles 2, very short. Double hanging fruit, with 6 wings, dorsal and Colonel winged, lateral ribs wingless, joints back inward. Fruit period from July to August.
Notopterygium hi cool damp weather, cold mountain surface in the next sentence can still be seen in September frozen green leaves;. Seedling afraid of light, like fat, acidic, neutral soil is appropriate. Notopterygium seed multiplication can also be used either rhizome propagation. After a year in May and June next sentence on the sentence turn green, aboveground rapid growth, a month can grow 70-100 cm tall, the annual growth decreases with increasing altitude. Up to 110 days, the shortest 90 days or so, since in the short growing season, Notopterygium roots and rhizomes grow slowly germinating from seed to grow into a commodity Notopterygium takes 3-5 years or more.
Resource distribution: Born in 1700-4500m above sea level and shrub forest edge. Distributed in Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Hubei, Sichuan and other places.
2. Geographical distribution and ecological environment
Notopterygium hi cool damp, more growth in high altitude areas. The terrain and climate characteristics of Qinghai, Gannan Plateau and the Qilian formed to two Notopterygium natural distribution area.
Notopterygium
Notopterygium (5)
(L) Gannan plateau Notopterygium distribution:
Located in the southwest of Qinghai Gannan plateau, at an elevation of 3,000 meters above most, cool and humid climate cold winter and cool in summer, the average temperature 2-rc, 550 a 750 mm rainfall. Introduction 10. C accumulated in 1200. C-2000. C. Soil is mountainous and sub-alpine shrub meadow brown soil. This area is mainly distributed in Diebu Notopterygium, Lintan, Zhuoni, Luqu, Xiahe and other places altitude 1600-3000 meters high mountain shrub broadleaf forest and grass. Latifolia Notopterygium distributed in Maqu: Xiahe, Luqu and other places 1700-3500 meter grass and bushes, li from Lake, Zhuoni and Diebu also have a small distribution.
(2) Qilian Notopterygium distribution area:
Located on the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in the Qilian Mountains, the eastern section of the climate is humid. Altitude of 2,500 meters above the north grave is a major growth area Notopterygium. Annual precipitation is 400-800 mm, the annual average temperature below 2. C, Y-10. C accumulated in 2000. C, the dryness of less than 1. Plants have long Stipa, donkey ass high, cold swing, Carex, wheatgrass, Du magpie, Euonymus Caragana children and Qinghai spruce, pine, aspen, birch and other tall plants. Sierozem soil is mountainous, gray brown mountain forest soil and the like. Mainly in the area Notopterygium Zhucha Tianzhu County, Tibetan wool, Xidatan, Kazakhstan Creek and Sunan County recreation, horseshoe and other places of alpine forest, shrubs or grass, and secondly in Gulang County Jing, Chang-Lin and the Imperial City, Qi Feng, rivers and other areas of Sunan County also distributed.
Reserves: Notopterygium Qinghai dogs were always one of medicinal products, due to the excavation of the past have relied on wild resources, so that the amount of resources Notopterygium serious decline. Estimate, Qinghai wild Notopterygium growing area of ​​800 hectares, with a total storage capacity of 5664 tons according to the census, and over the years acquired the status analysis.

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Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
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▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
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