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白頭翁 Pulsatilla (Pulsatillae Chinensis Radix) Bai Tou Weng

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白头翁

 编辑
白头翁(拉丁学名:Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge)Regel),毛茛科,银莲花属多年生草本植物,长有根状茎,叶片呈卵形,花萼蓝紫色。别名有奈何草、粉乳草、白头草、老姑草等等。
分布在中国的吉林、辽宁、河北、山东、河南、山西、陕西、黑龙江等省的山岗、荒坡及田野间。有清热解毒、凉血止痢、燥湿杀虫的功效,具有很高的药用价值。白头翁在园林中可作自然栽植,用于布置花坛、道路两旁,或点缀于林间空地。是理想的地被植物品种。
(概述图片参考资料来源:[1]  )
中文学名
白头翁
拉丁学名
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel
别    称
菊菊苗、老翁花、老冠花、猫爪子花
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
原始花被亚纲
毛茛目
毛茛科
银莲花族
白头翁属
白头翁

形态特征编辑

植株高15-35厘米。根状茎粗0.8-1.5厘米。基生叶4-5,通常在开花时刚刚生出,有
长柄;叶片宽卵形,长4.5-14厘米,宽6.5-16厘米,三全裂,中全裂片有柄或近无柄,宽卵形,三深裂,中深裂片楔状倒卵形,少有狭楔形或倒梯形,全缘或有齿,侧深裂片不等二浅裂,侧全裂片无柄或近无柄,不等三深裂,表面变无毛,背面有长柔毛;叶柄长7-15厘米,有密长柔毛。
花葶1(-2),有柔毛;苞片3,基部合生成长3-10毫米的筒,三深裂,深裂片线形,不分裂或上部三浅裂,背面密被长柔毛;花梗长2.5-5.5厘米,结果时长达23厘米;花直立;萼片蓝紫色,长圆状卵形,长2.8-4.4厘米,宽0.9-2厘米,背面有密柔毛;雄蕊长约为萼片之半。聚合果直径9-12厘米;瘦果纺锤形,扁,长3.5-4毫米,有长柔毛,宿存花柱长3.5-6.5厘米,有向上斜展的长柔毛。4月至5月开花。[2] 

产地生境编辑

在中国分布于四川(宝兴,海拔3200米)、湖北北部、江苏、安徽、河南、甘肃南部、陕西、山西、山东、河北(海拔200-1900米)、内蒙古、辽宁、吉林、黑龙江。生平原和低山山坡草丛中、林边或干早多石的坡地。在朝鲜和苏联远东地区也有分布。[2] 

生长习性编辑

喜凉爽干燥气候。耐寒,耐旱,不耐高温。以土层深厚、排水良好的砂质壤土生长最好,冲积土和粘壤土次之,而排水不良的低洼地不宜栽种。

繁殖方法编辑

种子

生产上主要采用种子育苗移栽。种子的采收东北一般在6月上旬,当有60%的种子黄化成熟时即可采收。种子采收过早,成熟度达不到,出芽不壮;采收过晚,种子就会由自身的羽毛带着随风飞散。采收回来的种子放在箩筐里在阳光下晾晒,上面覆盖纱窗网,以免种子随风飞走。晒到98%以上的干度时,放在铁网筛上反复揉搓,直到种子和羽毛都搓碎掉到铁网下为止。白头翁种子很小,一般1kg种子有50万粒,播种适时、适当,出芽率可达80%以上。
早春播种多在3-4月进行,条播,行距3.0-4.5厘米,播后覆土,以盖住种子为度。至第2年早春,越冬幼苗未萌芽前,按行、株距30厘米×9厘米进行移栽。[3] 

分株

在老株尚未萌发时连根挖起,分株栽植。[3] 

栽培技术编辑

选地整地

应选择地势稍高、光照充足、排水良好、土质疏松肥沃的沙壤土或壤土栽培;盐碱易涝、重黏土地不宜种植。选地后根据土壤肥力施肥,以施充分腐熟的农家肥为主,少施化肥。每亩(667㎡,下同)施农家肥3000-4000kg,翻地深30-35厘米。将土块耙细后做床,床高15-20厘米、宽1.0-1.2m,床面用耙子搂细,做成微凸床面等待播种。[3] 

育苗

选用当年采收的新种子,禁用旧种子。有喷灌条件的可直接播种,没有喷灌条件的可催芽后播种。种子催芽方法:种子用温水浸泡4-6小时,期间换水一次,捞出后沥干水分,放在25-30的温度下催芽;催芽期间要适当翻动种子,以免发热;4-6天后,当有70%以上的种子冒出芽尖时即可播种;若不能及时播种的,要把发芽的种子放在2-5℃的条件下保存。播种时按每亩2.5kg种子的量,把种子均匀地播到床面上,然后用筛子筛细土把种子盖上,一般覆土0.2厘米左右,然后浇透水,用稻草、松树针叶等物覆盖床面,以利于保湿、出苗。[3] 

管理

播种后条件适宜,经催芽的种子一般播后4-5天即可出苗,未经催芽处理的种子出苗时间要长些。出苗后逐步撤除稻草等覆盖物,以半遮半盖为度。当长出真叶后用病霉灵兑叶面肥喷施防猝倒病,每隔5-7天喷1次,一般喷2次即可。另外可根据长势追施2次尿素,每次追施10kg后立即浇水或雨前顶雨追施,以防烧苗。除草要早、要彻底,以免杂草与幼苗争夺养分;也可在出苗前喷施农达除草,不过要掌握好喷药时机。[3] 

移栽

白头翁春、秋季都可以进行移栽,可以用当年的1年生苗,也可以用2年生苗进行移栽。因白头翁喜干燥凉爽
白头翁-原植物白头翁-原植物
气候,移栽田最好选择地势高燥地或坡地。可做床移栽,也可以垄栽,做床栽培的株、行距一般在10厘米×25-30厘米,垄栽的株距在8厘米左右。移栽后如遇干旱,需要栽后浇透水,白头翁极抗旱,所以缓苗后在无大旱的情况下基本不需浇水。白头翁耐贫瘠,苗期可适当施氮肥;抽苔时要摘除花蕾,以利根部发育;以后每年在返青前每亩可追施复合钾肥10kg,以利于加快根系生长。[3] 

收藏

一般移栽后2-3年收获,秋季在地上部分枯萎后,割去地上残茎,用机械或人工把主根刨出,除去泥土晒干即成成品,一般每亩产鲜白头翁1500-2000kg以上。[3] 

病虫防治编辑

根腐病

在雨季和低洼积永地块内易发生根腐病。防治方法:①移栽前将种根用50%退菌特100倍液授泡3-5分钟后再栽植;②生长期的雨季应注意排水.以防止地内积水。③发病期用50%的托布津800倍液进行浇灌。[4] 

蚜虫

在植株生长发育过程中遭受蚜虫危害,主要吸食嫩芽和嫩叶,尤以天气干旱时为严重。防治方法:在蚜虫发生期用50%杀螟松1000-2000倍液或40%的乐果乳油1500-2000倍液喷杀,每周1次,直至无蚜虫危害为止。[4] 

主要价值编辑

观赏

白头翁白头翁
白头翁有30多个品种,花钟形,具有白、紫、蓝三种颜色,白头翁全株被毛,十分奇特,从花朵开放到蒴果成熟的一个半月中,先赏花后观果。夏秋季节,叶丛碧绿,经严霜后休眠,作为一种野生宿根植物,可一年栽种多年观赏,克服了一二年生草本花卉成本高,品种易退化的缺点,园林中可配植于林问隙地及灌木丛间,或以自然地方式栽植在花境中,因其花期早,植株矮小,是理想的地被植物品种,果期羽毛状花柱宿存,形如头状,极为别致。也可以用于花坛或盆栽欣赏。此外,由于白头翁对酸雨十分敏感,酸雨降临时,白头翁很快死亡,白头翁的这一特性,不仅使它常被用作检测环境污染程度的指示植物,而且也增加了它作为观赏花卉的价值。[5] 

药用

药理作用
白头翁-画图
白头翁-画图 (2张)
1、抗阴道毛滴虫:闫艳等利用不同浓度白头翁水提液进行体外抗滴虫实验,研究发现白头翁可直接作用于虫体表膜,具有较强的抗滴虫作用。[6] 
2、抗氧化、抗炎:Yao D等发现白头翁具有阻止肝组织中过氧化物的释放,增长MnSOD的活性,阻止乙型肝炎病毒的感染。龙盛京等利用鲁米诺发光体系,研究发现白头翁水提液具有较强的抗活性氧化作用,能有效清除过氧化氢,防止其所引起的脂质过氧化而造成细胞或组织损伤。张文远等研究发现白头翁醇提物对葡聚糖硫酸诱导的大鼠结肠炎具有明显的抑制作用。[6] 
3、杀虫、抑菌:兰继毓等研究发现白头翁煎剂对杀灭溶组织内阿米巴的效果较好。曹景花等用K-B纸片扩散法测得白头翁水提液对金黄色葡萄球菌、绿脓杆菌、炭疽杆菌、伤寒杆菌、甲型链球菌、乙型链球菌具有明显的抑制作用。[6] 
功能主治
治疗痔疮等出血症状。治热毒血痢,温疟寒热,鼻衄,血痔。[2] 
附方
  ①治热痢下重:白头翁二两,黄连、黄柏、秦皮各三两。上四味,以水七升,煮取二升,去滓。温服一升,不愈更服。(《金匮要赂》白头翁汤)
  ②治休息痢,日夜不止,腹内冷痛:白头翁一两,黄丹二两(并白头翁入铁瓶内烧令通赤),干姜一两(炮裂,锉),莨菪子半升(以水淘去浮者,煮令芽出,曝干,炒令黄黑色),白矾二两(烧令汁尽)。上件药,捣罗为末,以醋煮面糊和丸,如梧桐子大。每服食前,以粥饮下十丸。(《圣惠方》白头翁丸)
  ③治冷劳泄痢及妇人产后带下:白头翁(去芦头)半两,艾叶二两(微炒).上二味为末,用米醋一升,入药一半,先熬成煎,入余药末,和丸梧桐子丸每服三十丸,空心食前,米饮下。(《圣济总录》白头翁丸)
  ④治产后下利虚极:白头翁、甘草、阿胶各二两,秦皮、黄连、柏皮各三两.上六味以水七升,煮取二升半,内胶令消尽。分温三服。(《金匮要略》白头翁加甘草阿胶汤)
  ⑤治小儿热毒下痢如鱼脑:白头翁半两,黄连二两半(去须,微炒),酸石榴皮一两(微炙,锉)。上件药,捣租罗为散,每服一钱,以水一小盏,煎至五分,去滓。不计时侯,量儿大小,加减服之。(《圣惠方》白头翁散)
⑥治温疟发作,昏迷如死:白头翁一两,柴胡、半夏、黄芩、槟榔各二钱,甘草七分。水煎服。(《本草汇言》)
  ⑦治外痔肿痛:白头翁草以根捣涂之。(《卫生易简方》)
  ⑧治瘰疬延生,身发寒热:白头翁二两,当归尾、牡丹皮、半夏各一两。炒为末,每服三钱,白汤调下。(《本草汇言》)
  ⑨疗少小阴颓:生白头翁根,不问多少,捣之,随病处以敷之,一宿当作疮,二十日愈。(《小品方》)
临床应用
1、治疗原虫性痢疾:成人每日用白头翁根茎15-30克,水煎分3次服,7天为一疗程。病情较重者另用30-50克,煎成100毫升药液作保留灌肠,每日1次。据23例观察,给药后大便次数及红白粘液明显减少;大便镜检阿米巴原虫转阴时间平均为1.4天;直肠镜检查证明,溃疡愈合迅速,全部病例平均7天治愈。另文报道用白头翁煎剂治疗效十例,全部治愈;治疗时间最长者9天,最短者1天,平均2天。此外,亦可用白头翁组织浸出液,每日肌肉注射1次,初剂2毫升,其后每次增加0.5毫升,递增至3.5毫升为止;症状消失后继续注射5-10次,以后减为每周1-2次,全程为3个月。重症及慢性病例兼用白头翁组织浸出液5-8毫升,加生理盐水60毫升作直肠灌注,每日1次。治疗23例,19例治愈,4例好转;症状消失的平均时间为4.4天,大便转阴为6.1天。
2、治疗细菌性痢疾:用单味白头翁治疗菌痢,系统的观察似较少。曾报道用改良的白头翁汤(白头翁6钱,黄柏3-6钱,秦皮2-3钱,木香、陈皮、甘草各1钱,加水400毫升,煎成200毫升为一剂),治疗123例急性菌痢,或慢性菌痢的急性发作型,都日服1剂,上,下午分服,连服5-10天或7-15天为一疗程。治疗结果:治愈率为78%,与对照组(用磺胺脒治疗)的治愈率76%相近。如按肠道病变的不同观察疗效,则卡他型的疗效较高,治愈率为95%,糜烂型的治愈率为75%,溃疡型的治愈率为56.7%。糜烂溃疡型的疗程均为7-15天,且同时加用10%绿茶煎剂行保留灌肠。治疗有效的病例,平均退热时间为2.01天,腹痛、里急后重及腹部压痛消失时间为6.9天,大便次敷恢复正常时间为10.02天,大便性状恢复正常时间为10.1天,大便常规检查恢复正常时间为9.4天,大便培养阴转时间为4.05天。
3、治疗瘰疬:取白头翁5两,洗净剪成寸段,用白酒2斤浸泡,装坛内密封,隔水煎煮数沸,取出后放地上阴凉处2-3天,然后开坛,捞出白头翁,将酒装瓶密封备用。早晚食后1小时各服1次,每次饮1-2盅。一般1-2个月为一疗程。适用于瘰疬溃后,脓水清稀,久不收口的患者。经治10余例均有效。
4、治疗疖痈:白头翁2两,水煎服,连服数天。仍结合常规局部治疗。白头翁服后无不良反应,少数病人服后有缓泻作用,对实热便秘患者,极为合适。

药材鉴别编辑

性状鉴别

白头翁,根长圆柱形或圆锥形,
白头翁白头翁
稍弯曲,有时扭曲而稍扁,长5-20厘米,直径0.5-2.0厘米。外皮黄棕色或棕褐色,多已脱落,残留者亦易剥落,皮破处有网状裂纹或裂隙,近根头处常有朽状凹洞,根头膨大,有白色绒毛,有的可见鞘状叶柄残基。质硬而脆,断面较平坦,木部与皮部易分离。皮部黄白色或淡黄棕色,木部淡黄色。[7] 

显微鉴别

根横切面:表皮、皮层、内皮层通常已脱落。韧皮部宽广,外侧细胞棕色,壁木栓化;韧皮纤维单个散在或数个成束,直径15-35μm,壁较厚,有的根无纤维。形成层环明显。木质部射线较宽;导管呈圆多角形,单个散在或数个成群,直径25-85μm;木纤维直径至42μm,壁稍厚,非木化。较粗的根,中央常为薄壁细胞。[7] 

理化鉴别

取样品粗粉末4g,加乙醇20ml,加热回流提取1h,过滤,滤液置水浴上浓缩至约6ml,放冷,加丙酮适量,则析出沉淀,过滤,速取沉淀少量(约5mg),置试管中,加醋酐1ml溶解,沿管壁加硫酸1ml,两液接界处显红色或紫红色环(皂苷反应)。白头翁有此反应,而委陵菜、翻白草无此反应。[7] 

化学成份编辑

白头翁根含白头翁皂甙(pulchinenoside)A、B、C、D,3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖-(1→2)-α-L-吡喃阿拉伯糖-3β,23-二羟基-△20(29)-羽扇豆烯-28-酸〔3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-3β,23-dihydroxylup△-20(29)-en-28-oicacid〕,白头翁皂甙(pulchinenoside)A3、B4,皂甙(saponin)1、2,白桦脂酸-3-O-α-L阿拉伯吡喃糖甙(betulinicacid-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside),白桦脂酸(betulinic acid),3-氧代白桦脂酸(3-oxobetulinic acid),胡萝卜甙(daucosterol),白头翁素(anemonin),原白头翁素(protoanemonin)。

植物文化编辑

文化含义

生日花:白头翁(woodanemone)
生日:四月七日。
花语:才智(wit)
纯白而给人清纯感受的白头翁,就是被供奉给四世纪时波斯的基督教徒作家-亚夫拉哈特的花朵。所以,白头翁的花语就是与亚夫拉哈特的才智相匹配的-才智。
凡是受到这种花祝福而生的人,具有出类拔萃的才智;而且不只富有知性,还兼具有洞察人心的纤细感受力。如果走艺术的路线,或许会比较容易成功?这样的你,只有价值观和你相通。
花语:日渐单薄的爱、背信之恋。

民间传说

传说一:神秘老人与白头翁
从前,在大湖边上有座牛头山。山下有个村庄,村里有个小伙子叫阿宝。阿宝性情开朗,心地善良,又乐于助人,大伙儿都很喜欢他。
可是有一天,阿宝突然闹肚子疼,那痛非比一般,痛得阿宝头上直冒冷汗,连手脚都发凉了。当时恰巧左邻右舍的人上山的上山,下地的下地,都干活儿去了,没人帮助。阿宝疼得实在忍受不住了,只好捂着肚子自己挣扎着去找邻村的郎中看一看。他强忍疼痛刚走出村口,就实在支持不住了,一头便倒在路边的草地上。
不知过了多久,阿宝突然醒来,看见一位白发苍苍的老爷爷拄着拐棍站在他身边。老爷爷问阿宝怎么会躺在路边上,阿宝无力地回答说:“肚子疼得利害,实在走不动了。”老爷爷说:“那就找点药吃吧。”阿宝说:“让我上哪儿去找呢?”老爷爷用拐棍指着阿宝身边的草地,草地上有一棵顶头上长着绒绒白毛的绿草,说:“这草的根就是药,你挖一些回去熬汤,连喝几次就会好的。”阿宝心想:这草倒是常常见,山坡野地到处都是,果真能治病吗?老爷爷不等阿宝开口,仿佛早就看穿了阿宝心里的疑问。他捋着胡须说:“我已是满头白发的老人了,还会用瞎话骗你吗?”说完就缓缓转身离去了。
阿宝决心试一试,他忍住痛挖了一些那种顶头上长白毛的绿草,回到家把草根熬水喝了,这一宿肚子就不怎么疼了。一连喝了三天,病就全好了。邻舍们来看望阿宝,也就知道阿宝的病是吃了一种草根治好的。
阿宝病好了,又上山砍柴。这一天,阿宝在去砍柴的山路上又碰上了上次的那位白发苍苍的老爷爷,老爷爷拄着拐棍挺有精神地站在那儿,远远看去,白胡子飘飘的,活像一位山里的神仙。阿宝急忙走上前去说:“谢谢你,老爷爷,你让我吃的药真好,我喝了几回,病就好利索了。”白发老爷爷笑呵呵他说:“小伙子,我正想告诉你,那是我家祖传的秘方。我见你心地善良又肯帮助村里的人,我是想借你的嘴帮我传给世人呢。”阿宝点头答应了。白发老爷爷又突然不见了。
从那以后,村里的人不管是谁,要是犯了肚子疼痛的毛病,阿宝都会不分白天黑夜地扛上一把锹,到野地里去挖那种顶头上长白绒毛的绿草,回来就用草根煎水送给病人喝。喝过之后,肚疼毛病就都治好了。
有人好奇地向阿宝打听,这是什么药,阿宝什么时候学会用草药治病的,阿宝是厚道人,他就一五一十地把他如何肚疼,如何遇见白发老爷爷等等,都告诉了大伙儿。人们又追问老爷爷上哪儿去了,问得阿宝直后悔:是呀,怎么就没问问白发老爷爷的住处呢?
第二天,阿宝就跑到第二次碰上老爷爷的地方,想再谢谢老爷爷,再说以后有什么事也好再当面请教。[8]  可是,阿宝等了一天又一天,一连等了半个月,也没见白发老爷爷再出现。
阿宝很失望,他坐在与老爷爷第二次相遇的山路旁边,眼望着草地上许多顶头长自毛的绿草直出神,突然,他看见一道亮光,从一棵顶头长白毛的绿草处发出来,亮光中,那棵绿草迎风轻轻摇摆。阿宝突然发现:哎呀,这株草多么像一位白发白须的老爷爷!阿宝心里明白了,白发老爷爷恐怕是南极仙翁显圣,下凡来传授秘方,为人治病解除痛苦的吧?阿宝又想,不能让后人忘了那位传秘方的老爷爷,既然这种草还不知道名字,不如就叫它:“白头翁”吧。从此以后,人世间就有了“白头翁”这味草药了。
直至今天,人们都在用“白头翁”作一味中草药。而且还在园林中作自然式的配置或布置花坛等,用以美化环境呢。
传说二:是杜甫将此草起名为“白头翁”
传说唐代诗人杜甫困守京华之际,生活异常艰辛,往往是:“残杯不与冷炙,到处潜悲辛”。一日早晨,杜甫喝下一碗两天前的剩粥,不久便呕吐不止,腹部剧痛难耐。但他蜗居茅屋,身无分文,根本无钱求医问药。这时,一位白发老翁刚好路过他家门前,见此情景,十分同情杜甫,询问完病情后说道:“你稍待片刻,待老夫采药来为你治疗。”过不多久,白发老翁采摘了一把长着白色柔毛的野草,将其煎汤让杜甫服下。杜甫服完之后,病痛慢慢消除了,数日后痊愈。因“自怜白头无人问,怜人乃为白头翁”,杜甫就将此草起名为“白头翁”,以表达对那位白发老翁的感激之情。[9] 

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
  • 1.  白头翁  .中国植物图像库[引用日期2015-01-23]
  • 2.  白头翁  .中国植物志[引用日期2015-01-23]
  • 3.  杨洪秀,尹志海.白头翁栽培管理[J].特种经济动植物,2012(4):41
  • 4.  左桂芬,王寿希.白头翁的栽培[J].特种经济动植物,2002(6):25
  • 5.  高宝宁,姜信科,魏立敏.药用观赏野生植物[J].中国林副特产,2011(3):72-73.
  • 6.  关树光,於文博,徐东铭,赵宏峰,韩冬,解生旭,司云珊.白头翁药理作用的研究近况[A].吉林中医药,2006(3):60
  • 7.  王少琴.白头翁及其习用品的鉴别[J].时珍国医国药,2001(5):428
  • 8.  白头翁  .中国植物物种信息数据库[引用日期2013-07-1]
  • 9.  白头翁药名的由来  .新浪网[引用日期2015-01-23]
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/41872/9219774.htm

Pulsatilla editor
Pulsatilla (Latin name: Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel), Ranunculaceae, Anemone is a perennial herb, has long rhizomes, leaf oval, blue-purple calyx. Alias ​​has nonetheless grass, pink milkweed, bald grass, Auntie grass and so on.
Located in the hills between China's Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Heilongjiang and other provinces, slopes and fields. Detoxification, cooling Zhili, dampness insecticidal effect, has high medicinal value. Pulsatilla in the garden can be used for naturally planted for flower arrangement, roads, or dotted glade. It is the ideal place to be varieties of plants.
(Home Photos reference Source: [1])
Chinese scientific name Latin name Pulsatilla Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel aka Ju Ju Miao, man flowers, old crown flower, cat paws flower border Flora door Angiosperms Gang Dicotyledon subclass original metachlamydeae outline Ranunculales Ranunculaceae families Family Anemone Pulsatilla species Pulsatilla Belong
Contents 1 Origin 2 Morphological characteristics Growth habit Habitat 3 4 seed propagation methods ▪ ▪ ▪ Ramets 5 cultivation techniques to site preparation ▪ ▪ transplanting seedlings ▪ management ▪ pest control ▪ Collect 6 7 primary value rot Aphids ▪ ▪ ▪ Watch Medicinal herbs 8 character identification Identification ▪ ▪ ▪ microscopic identification of the chemical composition of physical and chemical identification 9 10 plants ▪ cultural ▪ cultural meaning folklore
Morphological characteristics editor
Plant height 15-35 cm. 0.8-1.5 cm thick rhizomes. Basal leaves 4-5, usually bloom just in time to give birth, there
Skillet; blade broadly ovate, 4.5-14 cm long, 6.5-16 cm wide, three-wide crack, in whole lobes stalked or subsessile, broadly ovate, three-parted, deep lobes obovate wedge, rare narrowly wedge-shaped or trapezoidal, entire or toothed, dark side lobes unequal two-lobed, lateral lobes whole sessile or subsessile, ranging from three-parted, the surface becomes hairless, the back of villous; petiole 7-15 cm, densely villous.
Scape 1 (-2), there are pubescent; bracts 3, base connate grow 3-10 mm tube, the three-parted, deep lobes linear, not split or upper three-lobed, abaxially densely villous; peduncle 2.5-5.5 cm long, the results of up to 23 cm; flowers erect; sepals blue-purple, oblong-ovate, 2.8-4.4 cm long, 0.9-2 cm wide, the back densely pubescent; stamens sepals of a length of about half. Aggregate fruit diameter of 9-12 cm; achenes fusiform, flat, long 3.5-4 mm, villous, persistent style 3.5-6.5 cm long, upward slanting show villous. Flowering April to May. [2] 
Origin habitat editor
Located in Sichuan Province in China (Baoxing, altitude 3200 meters), the northern Hubei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, southern Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong, Hebei (between 200 and 1900 meters above sea level), Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang. Green plains and low mountain slopes of grass, forest edge or arid rocky slopes. North Korea and the Soviet Far East also distributed. [2] 
Growth habit editor
Hi cool dry climate. Cold, drought, not heat. With deep soil, well drained sandy loam grow best, alluvial soil and clay loam, followed by low-lying and poor drainage of land should not be planted.
Reproduction Method Editor
Seed

Production mainly seed seedling transplanting. Northeast seeds harvested in early June generally, when 60% of the seeds can be harvested when ripe yellow. Seed harvested too early, reach maturity, sprouting not strong; harvested too late, the seeds will by its own feathers flying with the wind. Harvest seeds in Luokuang Li back in the sun to dry, and covered with mesh screens, so the seeds fly away with the wind. When the sun to more than 98% of dryness, on the iron mesh repeatedly rub, rub until the seeds and feathers are Suidiao to lower iron net so far. Pasqueflower seed is very small, general 1kg 500,000 seeds, timely planting, appropriate, budding rate of more than 80%.
Early spring sowing more in March-April were, drilling, spaced 3.0-4.5 cm, after sowing the casing to cover the seed for the degree. To 2 years in early spring, before winter seedlings did not sprout, rows, spacing 30 cm × 9 厘米 transplanting. [3]
Ramets

Not when old plants germinated roots dug up, tiller planting. [3]
Cultivation Technical Editor
Site preparation

You should choose the terrain is slightly higher, adequate light, well-drained, loose soil fertile sandy loam or loam cultivation; saline waterlogged, heavy clay ground should not be planted. Fertilizer according to soil fertility after the election, in order to impose the full maturity of manure-based, less fertilizer. Mu (667 square meters, the same below) manure 3000-4000kg, plowing 30-35 cm deep. The clods rake doing fine bed, bed height 15-20 cm wide 1.0-1.2m, hug fine bed with a rake, made convex bed waiting for planting. [3]
Nursery

The use of new seeds harvested year, disabled old seeds. There sprinkler condition can be directly sown, no sprinkler irrigation conditions after germination sowing can. Seed germination method: seed with warm water and soak for 4-6 hours, changing the water once during, remove and drain water, at a temperature of 25-30 on the germination; flip to the appropriate seed germination period, in order to avoid heat; 4-6 days When more than 70% of the seeds can be planted out when the bud tip; if not timely sowing, seeds should germinate in 2-5 ℃ under the conditions of preservation. 2.5kg per acre at planting by seed, sow the seeds evenly to the bed surface, then sieve fine soil to cover the seeds, generally about 0.2 cm casing, then irrigated with straw, pine needles and other things covering the bed, in order to facilitate moisture, emergence. [3]
Management

After sowing conditions are right, the seed germination of 4-5 days after sowing to emergence general, without the emergence of seed germination process time to be longer. The gradual removal of straw mulch after emergence to half cover half cover for the degree. When used against foliar disease mildew spirit grow leaf after spraying anti-damping-off disease, 1 spray every 5-7 days, generally spray 2 times. Also according to growing twice topdressing urea, each top dressing immediately before rain watering or rain 10kg after dressing, to prevent burning seedlings. Weeding earlier, to completely avoid weeds and seedling competition for nutrients; also available in pre-emergence spraying of Roundup herbicide, but to master the timing of spraying. [3]
Transplanting

Pulsatilla spring and autumn can be transplanted, can be used when the 1-year seedlings, 2-year seedlings can also be transplanted. Because Pulsatilla hi dry and cool
Pulsatilla - the original plant
Pulsatilla - the original plant
Climate, the best choice for field transplanting Gaozao or sloping terrain. Do transplanting bed can also be ridge planting, make bed cultivated plants, spaced typically 10 cm × 25-30 cm, planted ridge spacing at about 8 cm. In case of drought after transplanting, need transplanting irrigated Pulsatilla extremely drought, so Huanmiao drought situation in the absence of basic need watering. Pulsatilla poor resistance, seedling nitrogen may be appropriate; to the removal of flower buds when bolting to facilitate root development; later before reviving topdressing compound fertilizer 10kg per acre per year, in order to facilitate accelerate root growth. [3]
Collect

After the general transplanting 2--3 harvest, fall to the ground after part withered, cut off residual stems on the ground, using mechanical or manual dig the taproot, remove dirt dried Serve the finished product, generally every few mu more than Pulsatilla 1500-2000kg ʱ?? [3]
Pest control Edit
Root rot

Rot-prone low-lying area in the rainy season and the permanent plots. Control methods: ① roots before transplanting the seed with 50% tuzet 100 times grant soak 3-5 minutes before planting; ② growing season should pay attention to drainage during the rainy season. In order to prevent ground water. ③ onset period with 50% thiophanate 800 times for watering. [4]
Aphid

Suffered in plant growth and development during the aphids, mainly smoking buds and leaves, especially during dry weather is severe. Control methods: the aphids period 1000-2000 by 50% fenitrothion times or 40% dimethoate EC Pensha 1500-2000 times, once a week, until no aphids so far. [4]
The main value edit
Watch

Chinese bulbul
Chinese bulbul
Pulsatilla has more than 30 varieties of flowers bell-shaped, with white, purple and blue, the whole plant Pulsatilla hair, very strange, from flower opening to mature capsule and a half, the first after the flowers ornamental fruit. Summer and autumn, foliage green, after frost hibernation, as a wild perennial plants, which can grow for many years to watch one year, overcame a biennial herbaceous flowers high cost, easily degenerate breed shortcomings, garden with plants that can be asked in the forest between open space and bushes, or in natural way in planted in the flower border, because of its early flowering, small plant, is the ideal place to be varieties of plants, fruit feathery style persistent, shaped like a head-like, very chic. It can also be used for flower beds or potted plants to enjoy. Furthermore, since the acid rain Pulsatilla sensitive to acid rain falls, Pulsatilla soon die, this feature bulbul, not only that it is often used to detect the extent of environmental pollution indicator plants, but also increases its value as an ornamental flower. [5]
Medicinal

Pharmacological effects
Pulsatilla - Paint
Pulsatilla - Paint (2)
1, anti-Trichomonas vaginalis: Yan Yan Pulsatilla such as the use of different concentrations of water extracts in vitro antitrichomonal, the study found Pulsatilla can act directly on the parasite surface membrane, with a strong anti-Trichomonas effect. [6]
2, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory: Yao D et al found that Pulsatilla has released prevent liver tissue peroxide, an increase of MnSOD activity to prevent hepatitis B virus infection. Long Shengjing such as the use of luminol CL system, the study found Pulsatilla water extract has a strong anti-oxidative activity, can effectively remove the hydrogen peroxide to prevent lipid peroxidation caused it caused by cell or tissue damage. Zhang Wenyuan other study found that alcohol extract of Pulsatilla dextran sulfate induced colitis in rats significantly inhibited. [6]
3, insecticide, antibacterial: Lan Yu, following other studies have found Pulsatilla decoction killing Entamoeba histolytica better. Cao Jing flowers by KB disk diffusion method measured Pulsatilla water extract of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus, Streptococcus B significantly inhibited. [6]
Indications
Treatment of hemorrhoids and other bleeding symptoms. Cure dysentery Noxious Heat, temperature and malaria chills and fever, epistaxis, blood hemorrhoids. [2] 
With side
① governance under heavy heat dysentery: Pulsatilla twenty-two, berberine, Treats, Qin skin of thirty-two. On four flavor to seven liters of water, Zhuqu two liters, to sediment. One liter of warm clothes, more clothes unhealed. ("Golden to bribe" Pulsatilla soup)
② rest cure dysentery, day and night forever, abdominal Leng Tong: PCR twelve, Huangdan twenty-two (and Pulsatilla into the iron bottle burn so through red), ginger twelve (guns crack, filing), hyoscyamine child half a liter ( Amoy go floating by water, cook make bud out, exposed dry, fried to make yellow and black), alum twenty-two (burning juice to do so). The member medicine, ramming Luo for the end of Cuzhu batter and pills, such as the Indus sub-major. Before each take, porridge drink ten pills. ("Sheng Hui Fang" Pulsatilla pill)
③ cold cure diarrhea and dysentery labor and postpartum woman taken off: Pulsatilla (go Lo head) and a half two, leaves twenty-two (Wei Chao) for the end of the two flavor, with a liter of vinegar, medicine half, first boiled fried, into I Yaomo, pills and pill Firmianae thirty pills per serving, hollow before eating, rice drink. ("San Franciscans overall record," Pulsatilla pill)
④ treatment of postpartum benefit under virtual pole: PCR, licorice, gelatin twenty-two, Qin skin, berberine, Liu Wei Bo Pi on each thirty-two to seven liters of water, two liters Zhuqu half, the plastic consumer to do so. Sub-temperature three. ("Golden Chamber" Pulsatilla plus licorice gelatin soup)
⑤ treatment of diarrhea in children, such as hot toxic fish brain: Pulsatilla half two, berberine twenty-two half (to the subject, Wei Chao), sour pomegranate rind twelve (micro Sunburn, filing). The member medicine, rent Luo as a casual pound, each serving a money, a small cup of water, fry a fifth, to sediment. Hou is not time, the amount of child sizes, subtraction of service. ("Sheng Hui Fang" Pulsatilla scattered)
⑥ cure temperature and malaria attack, coma as death: PCR twelve, Bupleurum, Pinellia, Scutellaria, betel the second money, licorice seven. Decoction. ("Materia Medica words")
⑦ treatment of hemorrhoids throat: Pulsatilla grass root pound Tu. ("Health Chien Yi Fang")
⑧ cure scrofula Nobu, body hair, cold and heat: PCR twenty-two, Angelica tail, moutan, Pinellia twelve. Fried for the end, each serving three money, white soup the next tune. ("Materia Medica words")
⑨ treatment left shade decadent: Health Pulsatilla root, how many do not ask, ramming it, with the disease punishable apply, the night as sores, twenty days more. ("Party Pieces")
Clinical application
1, the treatment protozoal dysentery: adult daily Pulsatilla rhizome 15-30 grams, decoction 3 times service, seven days a course of treatment. Another serious condition with 30-50 grams, fry 100 ml of liquid for retention enema once a day. According to the 23 cases observed after administration significantly reduced stool frequency and red and white mucus; stool examination amoeba negative average of 1.4 days; proctoscopy proof, ulcers heal rapidly, in all cases an average of seven days to cure. Another paper reported Pulsatilla decoction effect ten cases, all cured; the longest duration of treatment nine days, the shortest one day, an average of two days. In addition, organizations can also be used Pulsatilla extract, daily intramuscular injection of 1, the beginning of agents 2 ml, followed by increments of 0.5 ml, 3.5 ml increments to date; the symptoms disappear after continued injection of 5-10 times, later reduced to once a week -2 times, the entire process for three months. Severe and chronic cases use either an extract of Pulsatilla 5-8 ml, 60 ml of normal saline as rectal infusion, once daily. Treatment of 23 cases, 19 cases were cured, improved in four cases; the average time of 4.4 days of symptoms, stool negative 6.1 days.
2, treatment of bacillary dysentery: Pulsatilla treatment with a single flavor dysentery, observation system seems less. We have reported using modified Pulsatilla soup (Pulsatilla 6 money, money Cork 3-6, 2-3 Qinpi money, woody, dried tangerine peel, licorice 1 money, add water 400 ml, 200 ml fry to a), 123 cases of treatment acute dysentery, or acute exacerbation of chronic dysentery, all served on a, on a, pm, and even served 5-10 days or 7-15 days for a course of treatment. Treatment Results: The cure rate was 78% compared with the control group (with Sulfaguanidine treatment) cure rate of 76 percent similar. Such as by intestinal lesions of different efficacy, the efficacy of his type of card the higher the cure rate was 95%, erosive cure rate was 75%, ulcer cure rate was 56.7%. Erosive ulcer medications are 7-15 days, and at the same time plus 10% green tea decoction enema row. Effective treatment of cases, the average time was 2.01 days of fever, abdominal pain, tenesmus and abdominal tenderness disappeared time is 6.9 days, stool times apply normal time of 10.02 days, stool normal time of 10.1 days, stool examination returned to normal time was 9.4 days, stool culture conversion time of 4.05 days.
3, treatment scrofula: Take two Pulsatilla 5, washed cut into inch segments, with white wine 2 pounds soaking altar inside mounted seal, drain boiling a few boiling, put the floor after removing the shade for 2-3 days, and then open the altar , remove Pulsatilla, the wine bottle sealed back. One hour after morning and evening eating each serving a second, every drink 1-2 cup. Usually 1-2 months for treatment. Applies after the collapse of scrofula, pus Qingxi, the patient eventually becoming shut. After treatment, more than 10 cases were effective.
4, treatment of boils carbuncle: PCR 2 two, decoction, and even served a few days. Still combined with conventional topical treatment. No adverse reactions after Pulsatilla clothing, after serving a small number of patients have a laxative effect on patients with constipation, excess heat, very appropriate.
Identification edit herbs
Character identification

Pulsatilla, root length cylindrical or conical,
Chinese bulbul
Chinese bulbul
Slightly curved, sometimes twisted and slightly flat, 5-20 cm long, 0.5-2.0 cm in diameter. Yellow-brown or tan skin, and more have been falling, and the residue Zheyi easy peeling, skin Broken reticular cracks or fissures, often near the root of the rot-like pit head, root head enlargement, with white hair, some visible sheath petiole-like residue. Hard and brittle, relatively flat section, Kibe and dermal easily separated. Sheath yellow-white or yellowish-brown, Kibe yellow. [7]
Microscopic identification

Root cross-section: epidermis, cortex, endodermis usually have off. Phloem broad, brown the outside of the cell wall cork; bast fibers scattered single or a few bundles, diameter 15-35μm, thick walls, and some roots no fiber. Cambium ring is obvious. Xylem ray wide; cylindrical conduit polygon, a single or a few scattered groups, diameter 25-85μm; wood fiber diameter to 42μm, wall thicker, non-wood. Thick roots, often central parenchyma cells. [7]
Physical and chemical identification

Take samples coarse powder 4g, plus ethanol 20ml, heat reflux extraction 1h, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated in a water bath to about 6ml, let cool, add the right amount of acetone, then precipitated, filtered, the precipitate speed small amount (about 5mg), a test tube , add acetic anhydride 1ml dissolve, along the wall sulfuric acid 1ml, two liquid junction boundary was red or purple ring (saponin reaction). Pulsatilla have this reaction, while Potentilla PDB no such reaction. [7]
Chemical composition editor
Pulsatilla root A, B, C, D, 3-O-α-L- rhamnose-containing pyran Pulsatilla saponin (pulchinenoside) - (1 → 2) -α-L- arabinose pyran -3β, 23- two hydroxy - △ 20 (29) - lupine en-28-acid [3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1 → 2) -α-L-arabinopyranosyl-3β, 23-dihydroxylup △ -20 (29) - en-28-oicacid], Pulsatilla saponin (pulchinenoside) A3, B4, saponin (saponin) 1,2, betulinic acid -3-O-α-L ARABINOPYRANOSE glycosides (betulinicacid-3-O-α-L -arabinopyranoside), betulinic acid (betulinic acid), 3- oxo betulinic acid (3-oxobetulinic acid), daucosterol (daucosterol), Anemonin (anemonin), protoanemonin (protoanemonin).
Plant Culture Editor
Cultural Meaning

Birthday Flower: Pulsatilla (woodanemone)
Birthday: April 7.
Florid: wit (wit)
White and gives the feeling of pure Pulsatilla, it is to be dedicated to the fourth century Persian Christian writers - Sayyaf Rahat flowers. So, Pulsatilla beautiful words and wit Sayyaf Rahat match - intelligence.
Those who spend blessed by this man born with outstanding intellect; and not only the rich intellectual, but also insight into the people and has a slender sensibility. If you take the route of art, perhaps it would be more likely to succeed? Like you, only values, and you connected.
Florid: love growing thin, breach of trust Love.
Folk legend

A legend: the mysterious old man with bulbul
In the past, the edge of a seat in the Great Lakes Niutoushan. There is a mountain village, the village has a young man named Bao. Bao cheerful, kind-hearted, and helpful, and everybody liked him.
But one day, Bao suddenly hurt my stomach hurts, it hurts a non-than, pain Bao head cold sweat, even the hands and feet are cold. At that time neighbors who happened uphill mountain, come down to earth in the fields, children have to go to work, and no one to help. Bao really could not bear the pain, clutching his stomach and had struggled to find their own doctor look at the neighboring village. He choked back pain just out of the village, it really support him, one will be down on the roadside grass.

I do not know how long, Bao suddenly woke up and saw a gray-haired grandfather cane stood beside him. Bao grandfather asked how would lie on the side of the road, Bao feebly replied:. "Stomach pain stakes, really walk," grandfather said:. "Then find some medicine to take it," said Bao : "Let me where to find it?" Bao grandfather pointing with walking stick around on the grass, there was a top head with white hair domesticated hen grass on the lawn, said: "This is a grass roots medicine, you dig some back soup, and even drink a few times will be good, "Bao thought: This is actually often common grass, hillside wild everywhere, really able to heal the sick? Bao grandfather ranging opening, as if the heart has long been seen through the Bao questions. He stroked his beard, said: "I have a white-haired old man, but also with lie lie to you?" Then it slowly turned and left.
Bao determined to try and hold back the pain he dug some kind of top head long white hair green grass, the grass-roots to boil water to drink at home, and this is not how persistent stomach pain. Consecutive drink for three days, the disease on the whole good. Neighbors who came to visit Paul, also know Bao disease is to eat a grassroots cured.
Bao disease is cured, and the mountain wood. On this day, Bao went firewood on the mountain and hit the last white-haired grandfather, grandfather cane spirit quite stood there, from afar, the white beard fluttering of, like a mountain god. Bao hastily stepped forward to say: "Thank you, grandfather, you let me eat the medicine nice, I drink a few times, like a disease agile." White-haired grandfather Xiaohe He said: "Young man, I was going to tell you, that was my ancestral home recipe. I see you kind-hearted and willing to help people in the village, I would like to take your mouth to help me to the world of it. "Bao nodded. White-haired grandfather suddenly disappeared.
Since then, the village people no matter who he is, and if guilty of stomach pain problems, Bao will be night and day Kangshang a shovel to dig the kind of wild to go top of Changbai fluff grass head, back on with roots Jianshui drink to the patient. After the drink, Duteng problems all healed.
Bao was curious to find out, which is what the drug, when did you learn Bao healing with herbs, Bao is a kind man, he would lay it to him how Duteng, how to meet the white-haired grandfather, etc. , I have told everybody. People would ask where to go on a grandfather, I asked Bao straight regret: Yes, how white-haired grandfather ask no habitations?
The next day, Bao hit grandfather went to second place, would like to thank grandfather, Ye say after what happened then face to face advice. [8] However, Bao waited day after day, for two weeks in a row and so on, and have not seen white-haired grandfather again.
Bao was disappointed, he sat next to the mountain and grandfather's second encounter, many eyes looking at the grass green head long hair straight from trance, suddenly, he saw a light, green head long white hair from a tree grass at issue, the light, the wind gently swaying green tree. Bao suddenly found: Oh, this strain of grass much like a white-haired white beard grandfather! Bao knew, the white-haired grandfather probably Nanjixianweng Vision, down to earth to teach the recipe, giving medical treatment to relieve pain, right? Bao thought, can not let future generations forget the grandfather who passed secret, since the grass does not know the name, as it is called: "Pulsatilla" it. Since then, the earth there is a "bulbul" It's the smell of herbs.
Even today, people are using "bulbul" as blindly herbs. But also as a natural style garden in the configuration or arrangement of flower beds, etc., to beautify the environment yet.
Legends II: Du Fu this grass named "Pulsatilla"
Legend of Tang Dynasty poet Du Fu Jinghua barricaded occasion, abnormal hardships of life, often is: "residual cup cold Sunburn is not everywhere latent Sadness." Day morning, Du drink porridge bowl left two days ago, soon vomiting, abdominal pain intolerable. But he dwelling hut, penniless, no money to seek medical treatment. In this case, a white-haired old man just passing in front of his house, Seeing, very sympathetic Du Fu, ask After illness, he said:. "You wait a moment until the old lady herbs to treat you." A moment later, White made man picking up a long white pubescence weeds, which Jiantang let Du dose. After Du Fu served, the pain slowly eliminated, a few days to heal. Because "no one asked bald self-pity, pity for the people is for the bulbul," Du Fu on this grass named "bulbul" to express gratitude to the white-haired man who love. [9] 
Atlas Atlas more
Entry pictures
Entry pictures (7)
Pulsatilla flower
Pulsatilla flowers (6)
Wild wife's father (bulbul)
Wild wife's father (Pulsatilla) (6)
Kidney leaf Pulsatilla
Kidney leaf Pulsatilla (7)
Chinese bulbul
Pulsatilla (7)
Pulsatilla - Paint
Pulsatilla - Paint (2)
1/2
Anemone
▪ trichocarpa Greece Anemone Anemone ▪ ▪ ▪ poppy anemone pulsatilla
▪ latifolia flower exhibition Mao Yinlian ▪ ▪ dichotomous Anemone Anemone tulip grass ▪ tubers
▪ Anemone Anemone Hupehensis ▪ ▪ ▪ long oak Linyin Lian Mao Yinlian flower flower
▪ ▪ five Ye Yinlian spend more anti calyx is Anemone Anemone ▪ ▪ Rock Anemone
▪ ▪ cleavage grass Yumei Anemone flower Anemone ▪ ▪ complex umbrella Anemone
Grass fires ▪ ▪ ▪ wild cotton flower spoon Ye Yinlian
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Pulsatilla
▪ Mongolia ▪ Bretschneidera Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Korea ▪ ▪ ▪ Xing'an Pulsatilla Pulsatilla
▪ pistil pulsatilla purple Pulatilla ▪ ▪ ▪ kidney leaf flower Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Pulsatilla ▪ Egeria
Reference material
1. Pulsatilla. China Plant Image Library [reference date 2015-01-23]
2. Pulsatilla. Flora of China [reference date 2015-01-23]
3. Yang Hongxiu, Yinzhi Hai bulbul cultivation and management [J] Special Economic Animal, 2012 (4): 41
4. Left Guifen, Wangshou Xi bulbul cultivation [J] Special Economic Animal, 2002 (6): 25
5. KBA Ning, Kang Shin Branch, Wei Limin medicinal ornamental wild plants [J] Chinese SPECIALITY, 2011 (3): 72-73.
6. Off tree light, in cultural, Xu Dongming, Zhao Hongfeng, Han Dong, Xu Health Solutions, Research Division Recent pharmacological effects of cloud Shan bulbul [A]. Journal of Medicine, 2006 (3): 60
. 7. Identification Wangshao Qin bulbul and learning supplies [J] MATERIA MEDICA, 2001 (5): 428
8. Pulsatilla. China Species Information Database [reference date 2013-07-1]
9. Pulsatilla origin of drug names. Sina [reference date 2015-01-23]










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