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解表药 Relieving herbs

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解表药

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及药品内容,网上任何关于药品使用的建议都不能替代医嘱。
凡能疏肌解表、促使发汗,用以发散表邪、解除表证的药物,称为解表药,或发表药。根据解表药的药性和主治差异,一般将其分为发散风寒药和发散风热药两类,又称辛温解表药与辛凉解表药。发散风寒药多属辛温,故又名辛温解表药,适用于风寒表证,代表药物有麻黄、桂枝、荆芥、防风等;发散风热药多属辛凉,故又名辛凉解表药,适用于风热表证,代表药物有柴胡葛根牛蒡子、薄荷、菊花等。
药品名称
解表药
是否处方药
处方药
主要适用症
外感表证

表证编辑

所谓表证,就是指病在浅表。多见于外感初期,肺部受邪,症状有恶寒、发热头痛、无汗或有汗、鼻塞、咳嗽、苔薄白、脉浮等。相当于现代医学的上呼吸道感染及传染病初期的症状。表证是由外邪侵犯肌表所引起,可分表热证和表寒证两型。后者又有表实与表虚之别。发热、无汗、恶寒、脉浮紧等寒象较明显的为表实证、以麻黄汤主之;发热、自汗、恶风、脉浮缓等寒象较轻的为表虚证,以桂枝汤主之。表热证是指发热为主;既不恶寒,又不恶风,口渴、咽痛、舌质红、脉浮数等热象较明显的表证,以桑菊饮、银翘散主之。

主治功效编辑

共有功效

解表药多属辛散之品,皆具有发汗解表的功效,主要治疗外感表证。症见怕冷、发热、头痛、身痛、鼻塞、无汗、脉浮等。其中∶
(1)发散风寒药性味辛温,以发散风寒为主,适用于恶寒重,发热,无汗,头身疼痛,鼻塞流涕,苔薄白,脉浮紧的风寒表证。常用药物有麻黄、桂枝、荆芥、防风、细辛、紫苏、羌活、白芷、生姜等。
(2)发散风热药性味辛凉,以发散风热为主,适用于发热重,微恶寒,头痛,咽喉肿痛,口渴,舌尖红,苔薄黄,脉浮数的风热表证。常用药物有薄荷、牛蒡子、桑叶、菊花、葛根、柴胡、升麻、蝉蜕等。

兼有功效

本类药物以其祛风之功,还兼收止痒,通鼻窍之效,又常用于风邪郁闭肌表之皮肤瘙痒,风邪郁阻肺窍之鼻塞不通。部分解表药物还有宣表透疹、止咳平喘、止痛、利水消肿等功效,也可用于风寒湿证。

药性分类编辑

根据药性及适应证的不同,解表药可分为辛温解表药和辛凉解表药两类。
①辛温解表药。辛以散风,温可祛寒,故有发散风寒的作用。又称发散风寒药。主要用于恶寒发热、无汗头痛、肢体酸痛、鼻塞涕清、喉痒咳嗽、苔薄白、脉浮紧或浮缓的风寒表证。常用药有麻黄、桂枝、细辛、紫苏叶、荆芥、防风、羌活、藁本、白芷、辛夷、苍耳子、鹅不食草、生姜、葱白、香薷、胡荽、柽柳等。
②辛凉解表药。辛以散风,凉可祛热,故有发散风热的作用。又称发散风热药。主要用于发热恶寒、头痛目赤、咽痛口渴、舌尖红、苔薄白、脉浮数的风热表证,及温病初起、邪在卫分者。常用药有薄荷、牛蒡子、蝉蜕、菊花、桑叶、蔓荆子、淡豆豉、葛根、升麻、柴胡、浮萍、木贼等。此外,某些解表药还可用治表邪外束,麻疹不透;肌肤有湿,复感表邪,风疹瘙痒;肺失宣降,咳嗽气喘;风邪袭表,肺失宣降,风水水肿;风寒湿痹,肢节疼痛,痈疽初起,兼有表证;风热上攻,眩晕目赤,咽喉肿痛等证。

性能特点编辑

解表药根据其性味和临床功效的不同,可以分为发散风寒,发散风热两类。

药性

发散风寒药主治表寒证,发散风热药主治表热证。前者性味多辛温,发汗作用较强;后者性味多辛凉,发汗作用比较缓和。

药味

解表药大多气味芳香,性质轻宣疏散,主要用以发散表邪,故一般为辛味;发散风热药又因能清泄,而多兼苦味。

归经

因为肺合皮毛,开窍于鼻足太阳膀胱经亦主一身之表,故解表药的解表功效应归太阳病或膀胱经的证侯,现代中药学多言其归肺经,而古代本草多言其归太阳经或膀胱经

升降沉浮

其作用趋向以升浮为主,其中兼能平喘、止咳或清泄者,在升浮为主的同时又具有沉降之性。

毒性

根据狭义毒性,本章中的细辛、苍耳子为有毒之药。

配伍应用编辑

表证兼里寒者,配伍温里药;兼里热者,配伍清热药;兼暑邪者,配伍解暑药;兼湿邪者,配伍化湿药或其他祛湿药;若虚人外感,正虚邪实,难以祛散表邪,应根据虚证的不同,将解表药分别与补气、养血、助阳、滋阴等补益药同用,以扶正祛邪。

注意事项编辑

1、解表药虽有辛散发汗之共性,但其性质又有温、凉不同,所以用以治疗表证时必须注意辨证准确,分清表寒证或是表热证,以免药石误投,贻误治疗。
薄荷薄荷

2、解表药发汗作用有强有弱,须视病症具体表现选择应用。
3、对解表药发汗力较强的药物应控制用量,中病即止,以免发汗太过而耗伤津液,导致亡阳或亡阴。
4、温暖季节及东南地区用量宜小,寒冷季节及西北地区用量可酌情增大。
5、解表药一般忌用于表虚自汗、阴虚发热、久病体虚及失血等症。
6、解表药多属辛散轻扬之品,不宜久煎,以免有效成份挥发而降低疗效。
7、解表药虽能透过发汗解发散风寒药,性味多为辛温,发汗作用较强。适用于感冒风寒,呈现恶寒发热、无汗、鼻塞或流清涕、舌苔薄白、口不渴、脉浮等寒象比较突出的表症。对于咳嗽气喘、脚气水肿及风湿痛等初起具有上述表症的,也可应用。但汗出过多能耗散阳气,损伤津液;因此,凡自汗、盗汗、热病伤津以及阴虚发热、久患疮痈,淋病,失血等症,都应慎用。
8、解表药根据自身特点,春夏腠理疏松,容易出汗,用量宜轻;秋冬腠理致密,不易出汗,用量宜重。

临床应用编辑

解表药多属辛散之品,辛能发散,可使外邪从汗而解,故适用于邪在肌表的病症。也即《内经》所说的“其在皮者,汗而发之”的意义。解表药的临床应用,有以下几点:
1、 感受外邪,具有恶寒、发热、头痛、身痛、无汗、脉浮等表症者。
2、表邪郁闭,麻疹透发不畅者;水肿初期或麻疹初期兼有表证者,以及其它疾病具有表证需要发汗解表者。

常用功效编辑

发散风寒

麻黄:发汗解表,宣肺平喘,利水消肿。
麻黄麻黄
桂枝:发汗解肌,温通经脉,助阳化气。
生姜:解表散寒,温中止呕,温肺止咳。
香薷:化湿和中,利水消肿。(夏月香薷,冬月麻黄)
紫苏:解表散寒,行气宽中,安胎。
荆芥:祛风解表,透疹消疮,止血。
防风:祛风解表,胜湿止痛,止痉。
羌活:解表散寒,祛风胜湿,止痛。(上半身风寒湿痹)
白芷:解表散寒,祛风止痛,通鼻窍,燥湿止带,消肿排脓。
细辛:解表散寒,祛风止痛,通鼻窍,温肺化饮。
苍耳子:发散风寒,通鼻窍,祛风湿,止痛。

发散风热

薄荷:疏散风热,清利头目,利咽透疹,疏肝行气。
牛蒡子:疏散风热,宣肺祛痰,利咽透疹,解毒消肿,滑肠通便。
桑叶:疏散风热,清肺润燥,平抑肝阳,清肝明目。
菊花:疏散风热,平抑肝阳,清肝明目,清热解毒。
柴胡:解表退热,疏肝解郁,升举阳气。
升麻:解表透疹,清热解毒,升举阳气。
葛根:解肌退热,透疹,生津止渴,升阳止泻。
淡豆豉:解表,除烦,宣发郁热。

现代研究编辑

解表药有不同程度的发汗、解热、镇痛作用,对多种致病细菌、流行性感冒病毒也有抑制作用。部分药物还有降压及改善心、脑血液循环的作用。解表药分别对西医诊为一般感冒、流行性感冒、上呼吸道感染流行性脑脊髓膜炎、乙型脑炎初起、麻疹、支气管炎、肺炎、哮喘、急性肾炎、风湿性关节炎、化脓性皮肤病等都有一定的治疗作用,部分药物还可用于防治高血压、冠心病、脑血管病及突发性耳聋等病。

药理作用编辑

发汗作用

祖国医学认为本类药物一般都有发汗或促进发汗的作用,通过发汗使表邪从汗而解,有所谓“其在皮者汗而发之”,“体若燔炭,汗出而散”的理论,可见发汗是中医治疗表证的重要治法之一。解表药中以发散风寒药类的发汗作用较强调,其中以麻黄配桂枝的作用尤为显著,如麻黄汤就是一典型发汗方剂。麻黄中所含挥发油有发汗作用,近有资料证实麻黄碱和麻黄水溶性提取物能促使实验动物发汗。生姜的挥发油和辛辣成分(姜酚及姜烯酚)能使血管扩张,促进血液循环。受寒后煎服生姜汤则感觉全身温暖,说明生姜能改善体表血循环而协助发汗。桂枝也因能扩张末梢血管,促进皮肤表面的血液循环而加强麻黄的发汗作用。

解热作用

本类药物大多有不同程度的解热作用,使实验性致热动物体温降低,以柴胡作用最显著,桂枝、荆芥、防风、葛根、紫苏、浮萍等也有一定的退热效果。其作用方式,有通过发汗,或促进发汗,以及通过抗炎、抗菌和抗病毒等作用而促使体温下降。此外,葛根等还有降低正常体温的作用。

镇痛作用

柴胡、桂枝、细辛、防风、紫苏等对小鼠尾部机械压迫法或醋酸扭体法等引起的疼痛反应均有明显的抑制作用,表明它们均有一定的镇痛作用。

抗菌作用

体外实验证明,柴胡、桂枝、紫苏、防风、薄荷、桑叶等对多种细 菌,如金葡菌、溶血链球菌、伤寒杆菌、痢疾杆菌、结核杆茵以及某些致病性真菌分别有一定的抑制作用,麻黄、桂枝、柴胡、紫苏、菊花等对流感病毒有一定的抑制作用。

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Relieving medicine editor
Statement
This entry may involve drugs content, online any recommendations on the use of drugs are not a substitute for medical advice.
Where it can be sparse muscle of the table, prompting perspiration to diverge table evil, lifting table validated drug, called relieving drugs, or leave medicine. According herbs and attending difference relieving drugs generally be divided into divergent cold medicine and divergent wind-heat drug categories, also known as Xin Wen relieving drugs and Xinliang relieving drugs. Divergent cold medicine mostly Xin Wen, also known as Xin Wen relieving drugs for cold table card, on behalf of drug ephedra, Guizhi, Nepeta, wind, etc; divergent wind-heat drug mostly Xinliang, also known as Sheen cool relieving drugs for wind-heat syndrome, on behalf of drug Radix, arrowroot, Arctium, mint, chrysanthemum.
Drug Name relieving drugs whether prescription drugs prescription drugs mainly applied disease exogenous table card
Contents 1 Table 2 Indications efficacy license ▪ ▪ total effect of both the effectiveness of 3 herbal medicinal Category 4 Features ▪ ▪ ▪ Smell go through ups and downs ▪ ▪ lifting application compatibility toxicity 5 6 Notes 7 8 commonly used in clinical application effect ▪ ▪ divergent divergent cold wind 9 10 Hot Modern pharmacological studies ▪ sweating ▪ ▪ antipyretic and analgesic effects ▪ antibacterial effect
Card table editor
The so-called prima facie evidence, refers to disease in the superficial. More common in the early exogenous, lung by the evil, symptoms are chills, fever, headache, no sweat or sweat, stuffy nose, cough, thin white fur, floating pulse and so on. The equivalent of modern medicine, the early symptoms of respiratory infections and infectious diseases. Facie evidence is caused by violations of the muscular form of evils, can be divided into tables heat syndrome and Table cold syndrome two types. The latter have real and virtual table table of the other. Fever, no sweat, chills, floating and tight pulse and other cold like the obvious empirical table to Mahuangtang Lord; fever, spontaneous, evil wind, floating pulse slow and other cold like a table lighter deficiency to Guizhi Tom Lord. Table heat syndrome refers mainly fever; neither chills nor evil wind, thirst, sore throat, red tongue, floating pulse, etc. hot as obvious prima facie evidence to Sangju drink, Yinqiaosan main The.
Indications effect editor
Total effect

Relieving drugs mostly Xinsan goods, all with sweating relieving effect, the main treatment of exogenous table card. Zheng Jian chills, fever, headache, body pain, nasal congestion, no sweat, floating pulse and so on. Where:
(1) divergent cold potency Weixin temperature, with divergent cold mainly for heavy chills, fever, no sweat, head and body pain, nasal congestion, runny nose, thin white fur, floating and tight pulse of cold table card. Drugs commonly used ephedra, Guizhi, Nepeta, wind, Asarum, basil, Rhizoma, Angelica, ginger and so on.
(2) divergent wind-heat cold potency Weixin, divergent wind-heat mainly for heavy fever, micro aversion to cold, headache, sore throat, thirst, red tongue, moss thin yellow, floating pulse of wind-heat card. Commonly used drugs are mint, Arctium, mulberry leaf, chrysanthemum, arrowroot, Bupleurum, Cimicifuga, cicada and the like.
Both efficacy

This class of drugs expelling its power, also integrated the itching, nasal orifices of efficiency, but also commonly used in Feng Xie canopy muscular form of skin itching, nasal congestion Feng Xie Yu resistance pulmonary orifices nowhere. Part relieving drugs also declared table Touzhen, cough and asthma, pain, benefits of water swelling and other effects, can also be used for wind cold dampness card.
Medicinal taxonomy editor
Depending on the potency and indications, relieving drugs can be divided into Xin Wen relieving drugs and Xinliang relieving drugs categories.
① Xin Wen relieving drugs. Oct with scattered wind, temperature can be relieving, therefore, divergent cold effect. Also known as divergent cold medicine. Mainly used for chills, fever, no sweat, headache, body aches, stuffy nose clear nasal discharge, itchy throat cough, thin white fur, floating and tight pulse or slow chill floating table card. Commonly used drugs are ephedra, Guizhi, Asarum, basil leaves, Nepeta, wind, Notopterygium, Ligusticum, Angelica, magnolia, cocklebur, centipeda, ginger, scallion stalk, Elsholtzia, coriander, tamarisk and so on.
② Xinliang relieving drugs. Oct with scattered wind, cold can be cured hot, it is divergent wind-heat effect. Also known as divergent wind-heat drug. Mainly used for fever, chills, headache, red eyes, sore throat, thirst, red tongue, thin white fur, floating pulse of wind-heat syndrome and febrile disease early, in the Guardian points were evil. Commonly used drugs are mint, Arctium, cicada, chrysanthemum, mulberry leaf, Vitex, SSP, arrowroot, Cimicifuga, Bupleurum, duckweed, Equisetum and the like. In addition, some relieving drugs can also be used outside the beam treatment table evil, measles impervious; skin wet, complex sense evil table, rubella itching; lung failure declared down, cough, asthma; pathogenic wind hit the table, lung failure declared down, feng shui edema; wind musculoskeletal, limb pain, ulcer beginning, both table card; wind-heat upside, dizziness, red eyes, sore throat and other evidence.
Features Editor
Relieving drugs depending on their clinical efficacy of taste and can be divided into divergent cold, wind-heat divergent categories.
Herbs

Divergent cold medicine attending Table cold syndrome, divergent wind-heat drug Indications table heat syndrome. Taste former multisymplectic temperature, sweating stronger; the latter more than the taste Xinliang, sweating more relaxed.
Smell

Relieving drugs mostly fragrance and properties declared evacuation light, mainly for the divergence table evil, it is usually pungent; divergent wind-heat drug because of energy Qingxie, and more and bitterness.
Meridian

Because lung together fur, opens into the nose Bladder Meridian also one of the main table, so relieving drugs relieving effect shall be vested in the sun disease or bladder syndromes, the modern pharmacy say normalized lung, and ancient herbal say the sun by its owned or bladder
Lift ups and downs

Its role tend to rise float-based, and which can be asthma, cough or Qingxie who dominated in the ascending float but also has the property settlement.
Toxicity

According narrow toxicity, this chapter Asarum, cocklebur toxic drug.
Application compatibility editor
Card table and in cold person, compatibility temperature in medicine; and in the heat, compatibility antipyretic; and summer evil person, compatibility Jieshu medicine; and wet evil person, compatibility dampness drugs or other dampness drug; Ruoxu people exogenous , imaginary evil is real difficult to remove loose table evil, should be based on different deficiency will relieving drugs respectively qi, blood, yang, yin tonic and other drug use, in order to uphold.
Notes Editor
1, relieving Xinsan sweating despite the common drugs, but its nature there are temperature, different cold, so the treatment table card for accurate differentiation must be noted, cold syndrome to distinguish table or tables heat syndrome, so desperate and misdirected, delaying treatment.
Mint
Mint

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2, sweating relieving drugs have strong or weak, subject to conditions to select specific performance applications.
3, sweating relieving drugs strong force should be controlled drug dosage, the disease lasts, so as to avoid sweating too much and Hao Shang body fluid, leading to death or perish yin yang.
4, the warm season and Southeast dosage should be small, cold season and the Northwest dosage can be increased as appropriate.
5, bogey for relieving drugs generally spontaneous virtual table, Yin fever, Jiubingtixu embolism and blood loss.
6, relieving drugs mostly Xinsan Qingyang goods, not long fried, so as not to reduce the effect of volatile active ingredients.
7, relieving drugs can solve through sweating, although divergent cold medicine, mostly the taste Xin Wen, sweating stronger role. Suitable for cold cold, showing chills, fever, no sweat, stuffy or runny, thin white fur, thirst, floating pulse and other cold symptoms such as prominent table. For cough, asthma, beriberi edema and rheumatic pain and other symptoms of early having the above table it can also be used. However, excessive sweating yang energy dissipation, damage body fluid; therefore, all spontaneous, night sweats, fever disability allowance and Yin fever, sore carbuncle long suffering, gonorrhea, bleeding, embolism, should be used with caution.
8, relieving drugs according to their characteristics, Spring Cou loose, easy sweating, the dosage should be light; autumn and winter Cou compact, easy to sweating, the dosage should be heavy.
Clinical application editor
Relieving drugs mostly Xinsan goods, Sim can diverge, and the solution allows the evils from the sweat, it applies to the evil in the muscular form of illness. Also known as "its skin's sweat and hair," the meaning of "via" said. Relieving drugs for clinical application, the following points:
1, feelings of evils, with chills, fever, headache, body pain, no sweat, floating pulse and other symptoms of the person.
2, Table evil canopy, measles poor through the hair person; early or incipient edema of both measles prima facie evidence, as well as other diseases with a table card required diaphoresis person.
Common effect editor
Divergent cold

Ephedra: sweating solution form, Xuanfei asthma, benefits of water swelling.
Ephedra
Ephedra
Gui: sweating Jie Ji, warm meridians, yang of the gas.
Ginger: relieving cold, temperature and the vomiting, warm the lung cough.
Elsholtzia: dampness and the benefits of water swelling. (Elsholtzia summer months, winter months ephedra)
Basil: relieving cold, Qi wide, and miscarriage.
Nepeta: Qufeng solution form, Touzhen eliminate sores, bleeding.
Wind: Qufeng solution form, wins wet analgesic, antispasmodic.
Notopterygium: relieving cold, expelling wind wins wet pain. (Upper wind musculoskeletal)
Angelica: relieving cold, chills and pain, nasal orifices, ended with dampness, swelling and pus.
Asarum: relieving cold, chills and pain, nasal orifices, drink warm the lung.
Xanthium: divergent cold, nasal orifices, rheumatism, pain.
Divergent wind-heat

Mint: evacuation of wind-heat, clearing leader, Liyan rash, liver qi.
Arctium: evacuation of wind-heat, Xuanfei expectorant, pharynx rash, swelling detoxification, Hua Chang laxative.
Mulberry: evacuation of wind-heat, clearing the lungs and moistening, stabilize the liver-yang, Liver eyesight.
Chrysanthemum: scattered wind-heat, stabilize the liver-yang, Liver eyesight, detoxification.
Chaihu: relieving fever, liver qi stagnation, lifting yang.
Black cohosh: relieving Touzhen, detoxification, lifting yang.
Kudzu: Jieji fever, rash, thirst, Sun diarrhea.
Semen: the table, Chufan, Xuanfa Yu heat.
Modern research editor
Relieving drugs sweating, antipyretic and analgesic effects of varying degrees, to a variety of pathogenic bacteria, influenza viruses also inhibited. Some of the drugs as well as blood pressure and improve heart, brain and blood circulation. Relieving drugs were for Western medicine diagnosed as the common cold, influenza, upper respiratory tract infection, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, encephalitis since the beginning of measles, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, acute nephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, suppurative skin diseases have a certain therapeutic effect, some of the drugs can be used to control high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and sudden deafness and other diseases.
Pharmacological effects editor
Sweating

Chinese medicine believes that this class of drugs generally have the effect of sweating or promote sweating, sweating to make the table by evil from the sweat and the solution, so-called "sweat of its skin and hair of the person," "body if burnt charcoal, sweating and scattered" theory, showing that sweating is one of the important Chinese medicine treatment table card therapies. Relieving drugs in the more emphasis on the role of divergent cold sweat drug class, in which to act with Guizhi ephedra is particularly significant, such as ephedra sweating soup is a typical prescription. Ephedra volatile oil contained sweating, nearly Data confirmed that a water soluble extract ephedrine and ephedra can cause sweating experimental animals. The volatile oil and ginger spicy ingredients (ginger phenol and phenol zingiberene) allows blood vessels to dilate, promoting blood circulation. Raw ginger decoction after exposure to cold the body is feeling warm, indicating that ginger can improve blood circulation and assisting the body surface sweating. Gui also due to expansion of peripheral blood vessels, promote blood circulation and strengthen the skin's surface sweating ephedra.
Antipyretic effect

Most of this class of drugs have varying degrees of fever, so experimental animals hypothermia induced by heat, Chaihu most significant effect, Gui, Nepeta, wind, arrowroot, basil, duckweed, also have some cooling effect ʱ?? Its mode of action, there is by sweating, or promote sweating, and by anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral effect and cause hypothermia. In addition, Pueraria also reduce the role of normal body temperature.
Analgesic effect

Radix, Guizhi, Asarum, wind, basil and other pain mouse tail mechanical compression method or acetic acid writhing reaction caused significantly inhibited, suggesting that they have a certain analgesic effect.
Antibacterial effect

In vitro experiments show that Radix, Gui, basil, wind, mint, mulberry and so on a variety of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, typhoid bacillus, dysentery bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Yin and certain pathogenic fungi each has a certain extent, ephedra, Guizhi, Radix, basil, chrysanthemum influenza virus has a certain extent.




















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