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紅 藤 Sargentodoxa Vine (Sargentodoxae Caulis ) Cuneata - Hong Teng 大血藤

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大血藤

 

(木通科植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
大血藤(拉丁学名:Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv. ) Rehd. et Wils.),习称红藤,又名血藤、红皮藤等,大血藤为落叶、木质藤本植物;茎红褐色;复叶三出,互生;花单性异株,辐射对称,花瓣6,极小,花萼6,花瓣状;果实为聚合果,由多个肉质小浆果组成
生于山坡疏林、溪边;有栽培。主产湖北、四川、江西、河南、江苏;安徽、浙江亦产。性味苦,平。具有清热解毒,活血通络,祛风止痉的作用。风湿痹痛,赤痢,血淋,月经不调,疳积,虫痛,跌扑损伤。
中文学名
大血藤
拉丁学名
Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv. ) Rehd. et Wils.
别    称
血藤、红皮藤、大活血、红藤
二名法
Sargentodoxa cuneata
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
原始花被亚纲
毛茛目
木通科
大血藤属
大血藤
分布区域
中国、中南半岛北部(老挝、越南北部)

形态特征编辑

大血藤大血藤
落叶木质藤本,长达到10余米。藤径粗达9厘米,全株无毛;当年枝条暗红色,老树皮有时纵裂。三出复叶,或兼具单叶,稀全部为单叶;叶柄长与3-12厘米;小叶革质,顶生小叶近棱状倒卵圆形,长4-12.5厘米,宽3-9厘米,先端急尖,基部渐狭成6-15毫米的短柄,全缘,侧生小叶斜卵形,先端急尖,基部内面楔形,外面截形或圆形,上面绿色,下面淡绿色,干时常变为红褐色,比顶生小叶略大,无小叶柄。总状花序长6-12厘米,雄花与雌花同序或异序,同序时,雄花生于基部;花梗细,长2-5厘米;苞片1枚,长卵形,膜质,长约3毫米,先端渐尖;萼片6,花瓣状,长圆形,长0.5-1厘米,宽0.2-0.4厘米,顶端钝;花瓣6,小,圆形,长约1毫米,蜜腺性;雄蕊长3-4毫米,花丝长仅为花药一半或更短,药隔先端略突出;退化雄蕊长约2毫米,先端较突出,不开裂;雌蕊多数,螺旋状生于卵状突起的花托上,子房瓶形,长约2毫米,花柱线形,柱头斜;退化雌蕊线形,长1毫米。每一浆果近球形,直径约1厘米,成熟时黑蓝色,小果柄长0.6-1.2厘米。种子卵球形,长约5毫米,基部截形;种皮,黑色,光亮,平滑;种脐显著。花期4-5月,果期6-9月。[1] 

植物形态

  •  
    大血藤全株
    大血藤全株(3张)
  •  
  •  
    大血藤根茎
    大血藤根茎(1张)
  •  
  •  
    大血藤枝叶
    大血藤枝叶(7张)
  •  
  •  
    大血藤花果
    大血藤花果(5张)

生长习性编辑

常见于山坡灌丛、疏林和林缘等,海拔常为数百米。[2] 

分布范围编辑

主产中国湖北、四川、江西、河南、江苏;安微、浙江亦产。中南半岛北部(老挝、越南北部)有分布。[3] 

栽培技术编辑

栽培方法
选地整地
据鸡血藤的生长环境,可选择海拔1600米以下,土层深厚、利于排水保墒、背风潮湿的缓坡地作为育苗的苗床地。把土深翻晒5~10天,每亩均匀施入农家肥800~1000千克、或复合肥者40~50千克作为底肥,深翻做墒后加盖一层生土即可进行播种或扦插。
种苗准备野生鸡血藤的种子到秋末冬初呈暗兰色时为成熟,可采集晒干作为种用。扦插用种苗一般选择一年生以上半木质化的无病害株,也可以用已有虚根的茎进行扦插。
育苗时间实生育苗一般4月上旬至5月下旬播种。扦插育苗一般在6~8月份进行。
播种及扦插播种前可用0.3~0.5%的高锰酸钾浸种24小时作催芽除菌处理,浸泡后捞起凉干,半天后可播种。一般播种的原则是:土干种干,土湿种湿,以利于提高出苗率。种子均匀撒播后要加盖一层薄土。扦插苗一般长10~15厘米,插口切面要进行晾干,使创液凝固,然后按行距 20厘米打浅沟,按株距5X5定植,种苗入土2/3,与地面呈45。角,压实。

药用价值编辑

【药材】干燥茎呈圆柱形,略弯曲,通常截成长约30厘米的段状,直径1~3厘米。外表棕色或灰棕色,粗糙,具有浅的纵槽纹及明显的横裂纹,有时可见膨大的节部及略凹陷的枝痕或叶柄痕,栓皮常呈鳞片状开裂,脱落处露出淡红棕色的内皮部。质坚韧,有弹性,折断面裂片状;平整的横切面,本质部黄白色,导管呈细孔状,髓射线棕红色,放射状排列。气异香,味淡微涩。以条匀、径粗者佳。
【炮制】用水浸泡,洗净泥屑,润进,切片,晒干。

功用主治

败毒消痈,活血通络,祛风杀虫的作用。治急、慢性阑尾炎,风湿痹痛,赤痢,血淋,月经不调,疳积,虫痛,跌扑损伤。[4] 
①《本草图经》:"攻血,治血块。"[4] 
②《简易草药》:"治筋骨疼痛,追风,健腰膝,壮阳事。"[4] 
③《中药志》:"祛风通经络,利尿杀虫。治肠痈,风湿痹痛,麻风,淋病:蛔虫腹痛。"[4] 
④《湖南药物志》:"通经补血,强筋壮骨,驱虫。治跌打损伤,风湿疼痛,血晕,血淋,筋骨疼痛,疮疖,血丝虫病。"[4] 
⑤《闽东本草》"治心腹绞痛,赤白痢疾。"[4] 
⑥广州部队《常用中草药手册》:"治肢节酸痛,麻木拘挛,水肿,血虚头昏。"[4] 
⑦《陕西中草药》:"抗菌消炎,消肿散结,理气活血,祛风杀虫。治阑尾炎,月经不调,崩漏,小儿疳积,蛔虫、蛲虫症。"[4] 

相关配方

①治肠痈,生于小肚角,微肿而小腹隐痛不止者是,若毒气不散,渐大,内攻而溃,则成大患:红藤一两许,以好酒二碗,煎一碗,午前一服,醉,卧之。午后用紫花地丁一两许,亦如前煎服,服后痛必渐止为效。然后以当归五钱,蝉退、僵蚕各二钱,天龙、大黄各一钱,石礍蚆五钱(此草药),老蜘蛛二个(捉放新瓦上,以酒钟盖定,外用火煅干存性),共为末,每空心用酒调送一钱许,日逐渐服自消。(《景岳全书》)[4] 
②治急、慢性阑尾炎,阑尾脓肿:红藤二两,紫花地丁一两。水煎服。(《浙江民间常用草药》)[4] 
③治风湿筋骨疼痛,经闭腰痛:大血藤六钱至一两。水煎服。(《湖南农村常用中草药手册》)[4] 
④治风湿腰腿痛:虹藤、牛膝各三钱,青皮、长春七、朱砂七各二钱,水煎服。(《陕西中草药》)[4] 
⑤治肠胃炎腹痛:大血藤三至五钱,水煎服。(《浙江民间常用草药》)[4] 
⑥治钩虫病:大血藤、钩藤、喇叭花、凤叉蕨各三钱,水煎服。(《湖南农村常用中草药手册》)[4] 
⑦治小儿疳积,蛔虫或蛲虫症:红藤五钱,或配红石耳五钱,共研细末,拌白糖食。(《陕西中草药》)[4] 
⑧治小儿蛔虫腹痛:红藤根研粉,每次吞服一钱半。(《浙江中医杂志》6:1959)[4] 
⑨治跌打损伤:大血藤,骨碎补各适量共捣烂,敷伤处。(《湖南农村常用中草药手册》)[4] 
⑩治血虚经闭:大血藤五钱,益母草三钱,叶下红四钱,香附二钱。水煎,配红砂糖适量调服。(《闽东本草》)[4] 
⑾治血崩:红藤、仙鹤草、茅根各五钱。水煎服。(《湖南药物志》)[4] 

临床应用

大血藤大血藤
①治疗急性阑尾炎:以红藤为主,配合其它清热解毒及活血化瘀药物组成复方治疗。初步观察对急性阑尾炎、阑尾脓肿有较好疗效。上海地区用复方红藤片(每12片含红藤2两、蒲公英1两、生大黄6钱、川朴3厘)内服,每日3次,每次4片(大便次数增多者剂量可减半),先后治疗急性单纯性、早期化脓性阑尾炎1213例。其中首批观察354例,有效率达98%,服药后在3~4天内腹肌紧张、腹痛、触痛均消失,平均在2天和2.5天白细胞和体温分别恢复正常;其后观察的859例,有效率亦达90%。随访146例(时间最长为治疗后11个月,最短为6个月),除25例复发(17.1%)外,余均良好。复发后有14例作手术治疗,11例继续服中、西药物治愈。[4] 
②治疗胆道蛔虫病:以红藤1两,加黄酒4两,煎至60毫升为1剂。成人日服2次,每次1剂。小儿用量酌减。初步观察5例,分别于服药1~4日后腹痛消失;治疗期间有4例排出蛔虫。[4] 
③治疗瘤型麻风结节反应:红藤1斤,研粉,制成丸剂,日服2次,每次3钱,或用红藤根1斤切片,白酒10斤浸泡10~20天,每次服10~20毫升,每日3次。分别治疗瘤型麻风结节反应18例和38例,服药后症状均减轻而渐消失。[4] 
④治疗风湿性关节炎:用大血藤、透骨香、香樟根各1两,水煎,两次分服,每日1剂。连服数天可见关节红肿消退,疼痛减轻。[4] 
⑤治疗灼伤:以大血藤、金樱子根各1斤,水煎成500毫升,对已发生感染的创面可行湿敷,能促使创面清洁,加速愈合。[4] 
大血藤不同于鸡血藤,在用途上要加以区别。[4] 

药理作用

大血藤大血藤
1.对离体蟾蜍心脏的作用按八木氏离体心脏装置,以20ml任氏液灌流,将0.1g红藤加入灌流液中(0.5%),发现对离体心脏呈轻度抑制,表现心缩力减弱,心率减慢(P<0.05),心输出量减少(P<0.01)。[5] 
2.对离体家兔主动脉条的作用将离体家兔的主动脉条,在离体装置水槽中(37±0.5度)放置lh,0.2ml提取液(1g生药/ml)加入20ml克氏液中(1%),结果血管开始出现明显的收缩作用,该作用可被酚妥拉明阻断,提示其收缩作用可能与a-受体有关。随后又渐出现持久的松弛作用。[5] 
3.对离体猪冠状动脉的作用实验方法同上,以0.2ml提取物加入20ml克氏液中,以去甲肾上腺素与氯化钾作正负反应对照,出小时的作用与家兔主动脉条相似。但在氯化钾引起的收缩状态下,加入药物,则收缩作用不再出现,而且立即使血管松弛,提示对治疗冠脉痉挛有利。[5] 
4、血藤水溶性提取物对家兔实验性心肌梗塞的影响红藤水溶性提取物(中药用95%乙醇冷浸,减压浓缩,乙醚提取去除醚溶性物质,糖浆状沉淀加水至沉淀不再发生,滤去沉淀,加明胶溶液至沉淀不再产生,水溶液减压浓缩成糖浆状,甲醇提取,甲醇不溶物,制成水溶剂,内含糖类与甙类)。取健康家兔24只,随机分3组,对照组(等容量生理盐水),红藤水溶性提取物组(100mg/kg;相当原生药100g),心得安组(0.05mg/kg)。用戊巴比妥钠(300mg/kg)iv麻醉,进行胸前多导联心电图标测。开胸,在左前降支的根部用4号丝线结扎。关胸,描记胸前心电图后立即iv药物,以后每隔6小时推注1次,共4次。在结扎后4小时及24小时再分别进行心电图标测。24小时际测后取出心脏,计算心梗范围的百分率,结果各组家兔在结扎左前降支后4小时,红藤组与心得安组心电图ST段抬高的总毫伏数(∑△ST)相似,两组均明显低于对照组(P<0.05。在结扎后24小时差异更为显著(P<0.01。在结扎后24小时,红藤组的心梗范围缩小为19.17%,同心得安组19.88%相似,与对照组比较,差异均极其显著P<0.001。同时又进行了心肌梗塞家兔中心肌乳酸含量的测定:42只家兔分4组,即正常组不结扎左前降支,也不给任何药物,其他3组结扎左前降支,并在描记心电图后,心肌梗塞组ivlmg/kg生理盐水,红藤组ivl00mg/kg体重,心得安组iv心得安0.05mg/kg体重。每次实验同时测定4组家兔心肌组织内乳酸含量。结果在给药前,心肌梗塞对照组、红藤组和心得安组的平均∑△ST差异不显著(P>0.05)。揭示结扎左前降支所致的心肌缺血程度3组间可能基本相似。心肌梗塞动物给生理盐水或药物后l小时,心肌梗塞组在心梗后l小时,心肌组织中乳酸含量显著增加,而红藤组和心得安组均不增加(与正常组心肌乳酸含量相似),差异极其显著(P<0.001),由此表明红藤水溶性提取物能改善心肌乳酸代谢的紊乱。[5] 
5.红藤水溶性提取物对狗实验性心肌梗塞的影响实验用杂种狗19只,随机分为3组:心肌梗塞对照组,在结扎左前降支后不用任何药物治疗;红藤组,在结扎左前降支的同时,ivl00mg/kg,以后每隔6小时重复1次,共4次;心得安组,在结扎左前降支的同时,iv心得安0.5mg/kg,以后每隔6小时注射1次,共4次。结果表明,红藤组在结扎左前降支后5分钟心外膜心电图ST段与对照组一样明显抬高,无明显差别P<0.05。但抬高的ST段恢复较快,在结扎后30分钟,与对照组相比,有明显差别,P<0.05。与心得安组比较,红藤的作用较缓慢而弱。红藤组对结扎后30分钟的心率和股动脉血压影响不大,但左心室峰压下降和左心室舒末压上升,两者变化幅度与对照组相比,差别显著P<0.05。血液乳酸含量结果与心肌梗塞家兔心肌组织中乳酸含量的变化一致。心梗范围,红藤组心梗范围缩小,与对照组比较,差异极其显著P<0.001。心得安组效果更为明显,但与红藤组比较无显著差异P<0.05。[5] 
6.红藤水溶性提取物100mg/kg静脉注射,能使兔实验性心肌梗塞已抬高的ST段显著下降,改善结扎左冠状动脉前降支所致的心肌乳酸代谢紊乱,并缩小心肌梗塞范围。[5] 
7.红藤水溶性提取物对异丙肾上腺素(ISO)诱导的大鼠心肌缺血的作用大鼠体重150-200g,按体重随机分为用药组(毛柳甙、Lriodendrin、多糖均为5mg/kg,普萘洛尔2mg/kg)及对照组为生理盐水(NS),每只0.5mL,共5组,每组15只。Ip给药30-40分钟后,麻醉并将四肢与心电图机联接,测定肢体标准导联Ⅱ的EKG后,给ISO4mg/kg(ip)观察1、5、10、30、60分钟时EKG的变化。24小时后,按前一天给药、记录的顺序重复一遍。48小时后麻醉、测EKG后即开胸取心,制片,进行病理学检查。结果红藤多糖对EKG变化的影响,dlP<0.05,d2P<0.01。要能具有潜在的治疗意义,病理检查对心肌坏死的保护作用最强(P<O.01)。Liriodendrin对EKG的作用弱且慢,到d2才出现差别(P<0.05),病理检查也有保护作用(P<0.05)。毛柳甙组与盐水对照组之间无统计学差别。植物性多糖主要具有增强或抑制免疫功能,过去未见有抗心肌缺血的报道。其作用机理值得进一步探讨。[5] 
8.对麻醉猫血压的影响健康猫4只,麻醉后按常规切开气管,插气管套管,分离颈动脉测血压,股iv0.1g/kg红藤水提液(1g生药相当1ml)后,出现一过性的降压作用,该作用可被阿托品阻断;切除两测迷走神经,降压作用无影响,提示其降压作用要能与外周胆碱能系统有关。[5] 
9.对小鼠血浆中环核苷酸的影响取健康雄豚鼠,体重18-24g,分3组,每组5只,第1组每天ip红藤水提物3g/kg(相当1/4LD50),第2组每天ip丹参素200mg/kg,第3组每天ip生理盐水作对照,连续7日,在最后一天给药后l小时,眼眶取血,测定血浆中cAMP和cGMP量。结果红藤组和丹参组血浆中cAMP量均明显增加,cCMP量减少不明显。另取小鼠,每组5只,1次ip3g/kg,每隔15、30、90和120分钟,分别从眼眶采血,每组有生理盐水对照。观察不同时间血浆中cAMP和cGMP的变化规律。结果表明在给药后50分钟内,cAMP和cGMP量均上升,其中cAMP增加更明显。cAMP/cGMP值下降,但在60分钟后,cAMP与cCMP量均逐渐下降,cAMP/cGMP值上升。红藤水溶性提取物100mg/kg,使兔血浆cAMP明显增加。[5] 
10.对血小板聚集的影响红藤水溶性提取物体外试验对ADP诱导的兔的兔血小板聚集有明显的抑制和促进解聚作用,ID50为14.6mg/ml。红藤水溶性提取物40、100mg/kg对大鼠ADP诱发的血小板聚集有抑制作用。该品二氯甲烷的提取部位,包括二氢愈创木脂酸在内,能抑制PAF(血小板活化因子)与受体相结合。[5] 
11.对小鼠常压下耐缺氧的影响取健康雄小鼠,体重17-22g,分3组,每组10只,红藤水提物2g(相当生药)/kg,小鼠ip的LD50为l1.83±2.12g/kg),对照用同体积生理盐水,定时观察,以呼吸停止为死亡指标,结果表明在不同间隔时间均有明显作用。[5] 
12.抑菌作用用平碟法试验,25%煎剂对金黄色葡萄球菌、乙型链球菌有极敏感抑菌作用,对大肠杆菌、绿脓杆菌、甲型链球菌、卡他球菌、白色葡萄球菌均有高敏感抑菌作用。[5] 
13.对动物胃肠道平滑肌的作用将小鼠或豚鼠离体肠段,置于20ml不断通空气的洛氏液中,1%及5%红藤对小鼠肠段当明显的抑制作用。而对豚鼠只需0.5%及2.5%即表现先兴奋后抑制作用,大剂量时还能减弱乙酰胆碱的作用。对小鼠肠蠕动实验表明5-10g/kg的红藤水提液均能显著抑制小鼠肠蠕动速度。[5] 
14.其它作用该品与丹皮合用可预防实验动物的腹腔内粘连。毛柳甙有抗疲劳作用;Liriodendrin有抑制cAMP磷酸二酯酶的作用。[5-6] 

性状鉴别编辑

茎呈圆柱形,略弯曲,长约30~70cm,直径6~45mm。表面灰棕色,粗糙,有多数颗粒状突起的皮孔,和有浅纵沟及明显的横裂纹。栓皮有时呈鳞片状剥落而露出暗棕色皮部。节部略膨大,有时可见凹陷的枝痕及叶痕。质硬,体轻,折断面裂片状。横断面皮部红棕色,有六处向木部内嵌。木部黄白色,有多数细孔状导管及红棕色放射状排列射线。气微,味微涩。以条匀,粗如拇指者为佳。[5] 
鉴别
1、本品横切面:木栓层为多列细胞,含棕红色物。皮层石细胞常数个成群,有的含草酸钙方晶。 维管束外韧型。韧皮部分泌细胞常切向排列,与筛管群相间隔;有少数石细胞群散在。束内形成层明显。木质部导管多单个散在,类圆形,直径约至400μm,周围有木纤维。射线宽广,外侧石细胞较多,有的含数个草酸钙方晶。髓部可见石细胞群。薄壁细胞含棕色或棕红色物。[5] 
2、取本品粗粉 5g 左右,加甲醇 50ml ,超声处理 30 分钟,滤过,滤液蒸干,残渣加 2%NaOH 水溶液 10ml 溶解,用盐酸调节 PH 值至 2 ,用乙醚振摇提取 3 次,每次 10ml ,合并乙醚液,挥去乙醚,残渣加甲醇 2ml 使溶解,作为供试品溶液。另取大雪虅对照药材 5g 左右,同法制成对照药材溶液。照薄层色谱法(附录Ⅵ B )试验,吸取供试品溶液、对照药材溶液各 2 μ l ,分别点于同一硅胶 G 薄层板上,以氯仿:丙酮:甲酸( 8 : 1 : 0.8 )为展开剂,展开,取出,晾干,喷以 2% 三氯化铁乙醇溶液。供试品色谱中,在与对照药材色谱相应的位置上,显相同颜色的斑点。[5] 

化学成分编辑

大血藤含大黄素(emodin),大黄素甲醚(physcion),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol),胡萝卜甙(daucsterol),硬脂酸(stearic acid),毛柳甙(salidroside),右旋丁香树脂酚二葡萄糖甙(syringaresinol bisglucoside),右旋二氢愈创木脂酸(dihydroguaiaretic acid),大黄酚(chrysophanol),香草酸(vanillicacid),原儿茶酸(protocatechuic acid)以及对香豆酸-对羟基苯乙醇酯(p-hydroxyhenylethylcoumarate)和红藤多糖。[5] 

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/51338/16616682.htm

Cuneata (Lardizabalaceae plants) edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Cuneata (... Latin name: Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv) Rehd et Wils), commonly known as SFAS, also known as blood vine, red vine, etc. cuneata deciduous, woody vines; stems reddish-brown; complex leaves three, alternate; flowers unisexual, actinomorphic, petals 6, small, 6 sepals, petals; aggregate fruit fruit, by a plurality of small fleshy berries composition.
Born in the hillside woodland, stream; cultivated. The main production Hubei, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Henan, Jiangsu; Anhui, Zhejiang also produced. Bitter, flat. With detoxification, Huoxuetongluo chills antispasmodic effect. Rheumatism, dysentery, discredited, irregular menstruation, malnutrition, insect pain, injury or flutter.
Chinese scientific name Sargentodoxa Latin name Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd. Et Wils. Nickname Bloodvine, red vine, big circulation, SFAS two law Sargentodoxa cuneata world Flora door Angiosperms Gang Dicotyledon subclass Original metachlamydeae outline Ranunculales families Lardizabalaceae is a large blood rattan species distribution area Sargentodoxa China, SOUTH northern peninsula (Laos, northern Vietnam)
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 cultivation techniques for the distribution of medicinal value 5 Indications ▪ ▪ ▪ clinical applications associated recipe ▪ 6 character identification 7 pharmacological effects of chemical composition
Morphological characteristics editor
Sargentodoxa
Sargentodoxa
Deciduous woody vine, reach more than 10 meters long. Cane diameter is up to 9 cm, glabrous; current year shoots dark red, old bark sometimes diastema. Three compound leaves, or both single leaf, dilute all single leaf; petiole long and 3-12 cm; leaflets leathery, terminal leaflet edged down nearly oval, long 4-12.5 cm, width 3-9 cm, apex acute, base attenuate into a short handle 6-15 mm, entire, lateral leaflets obliquely ovate, apex acute, base inner surface of the wedge, outside truncate or round, green above, pale green below, Stem often becomes reddish-brown, slightly larger than the terminal leaflet, no small petiole. Racemes 6-12 cm long, male and female same sequence or different sequences, when the same sequence, male born in the base; pedicels slender, 2-5 cm long; bracts 1, long oval, membranous, ca. 3 mm, apex acuminate; sepals 6, petal-like, oblong, 0.5-1 cm long, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, apex obtuse; petals 6, small, round, about 1 mm, nectary sex ; stamens 3-4 mm long, anther filaments only half or less long, slightly prominent anther apex; staminodes ca. 2 mm, apex more prominent, not cracking; pistil majority, helical projection receptacle born ovate , the ovary bottle shaped, about 2 mm, linear style, stigma oblique; pistillode linear, 1 mm. Each berry nearly spherical, a diameter of about 1 cm, when ripe dark blue, small stalk length 0.6-1.2 cm. Seeds ovoid, ca. 5 mm, base truncate; testa, black, shiny, smooth; hilum significantly. Flowering from April to May, fruiting from June to September. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Sargentodoxa whole plant
Sargentodoxa whole plant (3)
 
 
Sargentodoxa roots
Sargentodoxa rhizome (1)
 
 
Sargentodoxa foliage
Sargentodoxa foliage (7)
 
 
Sargentodoxa fruit
Sargentodoxa fruit (5)
Growth habit editor
Common in the hillside scrub, woodland and forest edge, etc., often hundreds of meters above sea level. [2] 
Edit distribution
Production of China, Hubei, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Henan, Jiangsu; Anhui, Zhejiang also produced. SOUTH northern (Laos, northern Vietnam) peninsula distributed. [3]
Cultivation Technical Editor
Cultivation method
Site preparation root
According Millettia growth environment, choose elevation of 1,600 meters below, deep soil, soil moisture is conducive to drainage, humid leeward gentle slope as the nursery seedbed. The soil deep Fanshai 5 to 10 days per acre applied uniformly into the manure from 800 to 1000 kg, or were 40 to 50 kilograms of fertilizer as base fertilizer, deep plowing done after moisture can be covered with a layer of adobe seeding or cuttings.
Millettia wild seeds and seedlings ready Qiumodongchu to dark blue when mature, can be collected and dried as breeding. Cutting with seedlings generally choose more than half of annual non-woody disease strains, can also be carried out using the existing virtual root cuttings of stems.
Time nursery seedling nursery in late April to early general May planting. Cuttage generally carried out from June to August.
Before sowing and planting cuttings available from 0.3 to 0.5 percent of Soaked 24 hours for germination sterilization process, picked up dry after soaking, after half a day can be sowing. Sowing general principle is: the soil dry seed dry, wet kinds of wet soil, in order to facilitate germination rate increase. After sowing the seeds evenly thin layer of soil to be stamped. Cutting seedlings generally 10 to 15 cm long, socket section to be dry, so creating solidification, and then press play shallow trench spacing 20 cm, according to 5X5 spacing planting, seed buried 2/3, and the ground was 45. Angle, compaction.
Medicinal value edit
[Medicine] dried stems cylindrical, slightly curved, usually growing segment shaped cut of about 30 cm in diameter from 1 to 3 cm. The appearance of brown or gray-brown, rough, with a shallow vertical flutes and apparent transverse cracks, sometimes visible dilated section section and slightly concave marks branches or petioles marks, cork often has scaly cracking, loss of the exposed reddish brown Endothelial section. Quality tough, flexible, sheet-like fracture surface crack; flat cross section, nature section yellow-white, the catheter was pore shape, medullary rays reddish brown, radially arranged. Air fragrant, tasteless slightly astringent. In Article absorbed, diameter is a plus.
[Cooked] soaked with water, washed the mud cuttings, run into, sliced, dried in the sun.
Indications

Baidu carbuncle, Huoxuetongluo, expelling insecticidal effect. Treatment of acute and chronic appendicitis, rheumatism, dysentery, discredited, irregular menstruation, malnutrition, insect pain, injury or flutter. [4]
① "The sketches by": "attack blood clots governance." [4]
② "simple herbs": "Governance muscles pain, Herd, Jian lassitude, impotence thing." [4]
③ "Chinese Medicine Chi": "Qufeng meridians, diuretic insecticide treatment appendicitis, rheumatism, leprosy, gonorrhea: roundworm pain." [4]
④ "Hunan Drug Chi":. "Pass through the blood, sinews and bones, deworming cure bruises, rheumatic pain, bruise, discredited, aching pain, boils, blood filariasis." [4]
⑤ "Fujian Materia Medica", "rule confidant colic, dysentery Chibai." [4]
⑥ Guangzhou forces "Chinese Herbal Medicine Handbook": "Governance limb pain, numbness Spasm, edema, anemia dizziness." [4]
⑦ "Shaanxi Chinese herbal medicine": "anti-bacterial anti-inflammatory, reducing swelling, qi and blood circulation, expelling insecticide treatment of appendicitis, irregular menstruation, uterine bleeding, infantile malnutrition, roundworm, pinworm disease.." [4]
Related Recipe

① cure appendicitis, born Tripe angle, slightly swollen and abdominal pain than those who yes, if the gas dispersed, gradually, over the attack and collapse, the National Cheng Kung University suffering: SFAS twelve promise to two bowls of wine, will prepare a bowls, one morning, drunk, lying it. Viola afternoon with a couple of promises, and as before decoction, after serving as the effect of the pain will gradually stop. Then Angelica five money, cicada back, silkworm the second money, Denon, rhubarb money, stone 礍 蚆 five money (this herbal medicine), two old spider (catch put on the new tile to cover a given wine bell, topical fire calcined dry-existence), for a total end of each hollow with wine to send a money transfer Xu, Japan gradually clothing from the consumer. ("Jing Yue Quan Shu") [4]
② treatment of acute and chronic appendicitis, appendix abscess: SFAS twenty-two, Viola twelve. Decoction. ("Zhejiang people used herbs") [4]
③ cure rheumatic pain, low back pain amenorrhea: Sargentodoxa six money to twelve. Decoction. ("Hunan Rural Chinese Herbal Medicine Handbook") [4]
④ rheumatism low back pain: rainbow rattan, Achyranthes all three money, blue, Changchun seven cinnabar seven the second money, decoction. ("Shaanxi Chinese herbal medicine") [4]
⑤ treatment of gastroenteritis, abdominal pain: Sargentodoxa three to five money, decoction. ("Zhejiang people used herbs") [4]
⑥ treatment of hookworm disease: large blood vine, Uncaria, morning glory, Phoenix fork fern all three money, decoction. ("Hunan Rural Chinese Herbal Medicine Handbook") [4]
⑦ Treatment of Infantile Malnutrition, roundworm or pinworm disease: SFAS five money, or with Redstone ear five money, research to fine, mixed with sugar and food. ("Shaanxi Chinese herbal medicine") [4]
⑧ cure children with abdominal pain roundworm: SFAS root powdered, each swallow a penny and a half. ("Zhejiang Traditional Chinese Medicine" 6: 1959) [4]
⑨ rule bruises: large blood rattan, Drynaria the amount were smashed, dressing wounds. ("Hunan Rural Chinese Herbal Medicine Handbook") [4]
⑩ treatment deficiency amenorrhea: Sargentodoxa five money, three money motherwort leaves under red four money, Cyperus two money. Decoction, with red sugar amount transfer service. ("Fujian Materia Medica") [4]
⑾ cure vaginal bleeding: SFAS, Agrimony, Chine all five money. Decoction. ("Hunan Drug Chi") [4]
Clinical application

Sargentodoxa
Sargentodoxa
① treatment of acute appendicitis: to SFAS mainly with other detoxification and blood circulation drug composition of compound treatment. Preliminary observations of acute appendicitis, appendix abscess has a good effect. Shanghai area with compound SFAS tablets (each containing 12 SFAS 2 2, 1 two dandelion, rhubarb 6 money, River Park 3%) increase orally, 3 times a day, every four (stool frequency were dose can be reduced half), has the treatment of acute simple, suppurative appendicitis early 1213 cases. Wherein the first observation of 354 cases, the effective rate of 98%, after taking 3 to 4 days, muscle tension, abdominal pain, tenderness disappeared, an average of 2 days and 2.5 days, respectively, WBC and body temperature returned to normal; subsequently observed 859 cases, there are also up to 90 percent efficiency. Follow-up of 146 cases (for up to 11 months after treatment, a minimum of six months), in addition to 25 cases of recurrence (17.1%), the remainder were good. There are 14 cases for recurrence after surgery, 11 cases continue to serve in the West drugs cure. [4]
② treatment of biliary ascariasis: with SFAS 1 two, plus wine 4 two, fry 60 ml to 1. Adult day service 2 times a. Pediatric dosage reduce it. Preliminary observation of 5 cases, respectively, in taking 1 to 4 days abdominal pain; there are four cases of roundworm discharge during treatment. [4]
③ nodular lepromatous leprosy treatment response: SFAS 1 kg, powdered, pellets, 2 times a day, each 3 money, or 1 kg of SFAS root slices, wine 10 pounds soaking 10 to 20 days, each serving 10 to 20 ml, 3 times a day. Treatment of lepromatous leprosy nodules were 18 cases and 38 cases of the reaction, after taking to alleviate the symptoms were and evanescent. [4]
④ treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: with a large blood rattan, Speranskia incense, camphor root 1 two, decoction, two hours service, a daily one. Even served a few days visible joint swelling subsided, and pain relief. [4]
⑤ treatment of burns: a large blood rattan, laevigata root for each 1 kg of water to cook into a 500 ml, wound infection has occurred feasible wet, can promote wound clean and accelerate healing. [4]
Unlike cuneata Millettia on purpose to be distinguished. [4]
Pharmacological effects

Sargentodoxa
Sargentodoxa
1. Effects on isolated toad heart by Yagi's isolated heart devices to 20ml Ringer solution perfusion, 0.1g of SFAS added to the perfusate (0.5%), find the isolated heart were mild suppression, manifested cardiac contractility decreased heart rate (P <0.05), reduced cardiac output (P <0.01). [5]
2. Effect on isolated rabbit aortic strips will be isolated rabbit aortic strips, in vitro means tank (37 ± 0.5 °) placing lh, 0.2ml extract (1g crude drug / ml) was added 20ml Krebs solution In (1%), the results began to appear obvious vascular contraction, the effect could be phentolamine, suggesting contraction may a- receptor. Followed by relaxation of lasting and gradually appear. [5]
3. From the role of experimental methods of porcine coronary artery above and the extract was added to 0.2ml 20ml Klinefelter solution to norepinephrine and potassium chloride as a negative reaction control, the hour is similar to the role and rabbit aortic strips ʱ?? But in the KCl-induced contraction, adding drugs, the contraction does not occur, and immediately relaxes blood vessels, suggesting a favorable treatment of coronary spasm. [5]
4, affecting blood vine extract on rabbits myocardial infarction SFAS water-soluble extract (traditional Chinese medicine with 95% ethanol quenched, concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the ether ether extract soluble substances, syrupy precipitate not add water to precipitate recur precipitate was filtered off, mecamylamine gum solution to precipitate no longer produce, concentrated under reduced pressure to a syrupy solution, methanol extract, methanol insolubles to prepare aqueous solvent, containing sugars and glycosides). Take 24 healthy rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, the control group (equal volume of saline), SFAS water-soluble extract group (100mg / kg; quite original drug 100g), propranolol group (0.05mg / kg). With sodium pentobarbital (300mg / kg) iv anesthesia, performed chest multi-lead ECG mapping. Thoracotomy, the left anterior descending artery ligation roots with the 4th silk. Closed chest, ECG tracings chest immediately after iv drug every six hours after injection of 1, a total of 4 times. In 4 hours and 24 hours respectively after ligation and then ECG mapping. After 24 hours, remove the heart of international measurement, calculate the percentage of infarct, the results for each group of rabbits in four hours after ligation of the left anterior descending artery, SFAS group and propranolol group ST segment elevation total millivolt (Σ △ ST ) is similar in both groups were significantly lower than the control group (P <0.05. in 24 hours after ligation more significant difference (P <0.01. in 24 hours after ligation, infarct SFAS group reduced to 19.17%, with experience 19.88% similar security group compared with the control group, the differences were extremely significant P <0.001 while rabbits were measured myocardial infarction lactic acid content: 42 rabbits were divided into 4 groups, normal group without ligation of the left anterior descending artery nor to any drugs, other groups LAD ligation, and after ECG tracings, myocardial infarction group ivlmg / kg saline, SFAS group ivl00mg / kg body weight, iv propranolol propranolol group 0.05mg / kg body weight. Simultaneous determination of each experiment, four groups of rabbits myocardial tissue content of lactic acid. The results prior to administration, with an average difference Σ △ ST myocardial infarction control group, SFAS group and propranolol group was not significant (P> 0.05). reveal ligation of the left anterior LAD induced myocardial ischemia among the three groups may be substantially similar to l hour after saline or drugs, in l hour after myocardial infarction, myocardial tissue was significantly increased lactic acid content of myocardial infarction myocardial infarction group of animals, and SFAS group and propranolol group not increase (and normal myocardium similar to lactic acid content), the difference was extremely significant (P <0.001), thus indicating SFAS water-soluble extract can improve myocardial lactate metabolism disorder. [5]
5. SFAS extract on experimental myocardial infarction in dogs affect experimental 19 mongrel dogs were randomly divided into three groups: control group, myocardial infarction, after ligation of the left anterior descending artery without any medication; SFAS group, ligation of the left anterior while descending artery, ivl00mg / kg, after repeated once every six hours, a total of 4 times; propranolol group, ligation of the left anterior descending artery, while, iv propranolol 0.5mg / kg, every 6 hours after injection of 1 a total of four times. The results showed that SFAS group ligation of the left anterior descending artery in 5 minutes epicardial ST segment elevation as obvious with the control group, no significant difference P <0.05. However, ST segment elevation recover faster, at 30 minutes after ligation, compared with the control group, a significant difference, P <0.05. An group compared with experience, the role of SFAS relatively slow and weak. SFAS small group 30 minutes after ligation of the femoral artery of the heart rate and blood pressure effect, but the peak pressure decreased left ventricular and left ventricular diastolic pressure increases, both the magnitude of change compared with the control group, a significant difference P <0.05. The results of blood lactate content is consistent with changes in rabbit myocardium infarction lactic acid. MI range, narrow the scope of SFAS MI group compared with the control group, the difference is extremely significant P <0.001. Propranolol group effect is more obvious, but with SFAS group showed no significant difference P <0.05. [5]
6. SFAS water-soluble extract 100mg / kg intravenously, rabbits can make ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction has decreased significantly, improve front left anterior descending coronary artery ligation-induced myocardial lactate metabolism, and reduce myocardial infarct size. [5]
7. SFAS water-soluble extract cardiac isoproterenol (ISO) induced ischemia on the body weight of rats 150-200g, were randomly divided into treatment group (salidroside, Lriodendrin, polysaccharides are 5mg / kg propranolol 2mg / kg) and the control group of normal saline (NS), each 0.5mL, a total of five groups of 15. Ip after 30-40 minutes after administration of anesthesia and ECG machine coupling and limb, the limb measured standard EKG leads Ⅱ, giving ISO4mg / kg (ip) to observe 1,5,10,30,60 minutes EKG changes ʱ?? After 24 hours, according to the order of the day before administration, record repeat. 48 hours after anesthesia, after thoracotomy EKG test coring, producer, pathological examination. Results Effect of SFAS polysaccharides on EKG changes, dlP <0.05, d2P <0.01. To be able to have potential therapeutic implications, pathological examination of the protective effect of myocardial necrosis strongest (P <O.01). Liriodendrin EKG effect of weak and slow to emerge d2 difference (P <0.05), pathology also has a protective effect (P <0.05). No statistical difference between salidroside group and the saline control group. Plant polysaccharides predominantly enhance or inhibit immune function, in the past there was no reports of anti-myocardial ischemia. Its mechanism of action is worthy of further discussion. [5]
8. Effect of blood pressure in anesthetized cats healthy cats 4, after anesthesia according to conventional tracheotomy and insert the tracheal tube, isolated carotid blood pressure, SFAS aqueous extract (1g crude drug quite 1ml) after shares iv0.1g / kg, appear a transient hypotensive effect, this effect can be blocked by atropine; two measured resection vagus nerve, antihypertensive effect no effect, suggesting that the antihypertensive effect you want to work with peripheral cholinergic system related. [5]
9. Effect of mouse plasma cyclic nucleotides from healthy male guinea pigs, weighing 18-24g, divided into three groups, each group 5, group 1 ip SFAS daily water extract 3g / kg (quite 1 / 4LD50), first Group 2 daily ip danshensu 200mg / kg, ip saline group 3 a day as a control for 7 days after dosing in l hour last day orbital blood, plasma cAMP and cGMP amount. Results SFAS group and SM group were significantly increased plasma cAMP, reduce the amount of obvious cCMP. Another mouse, each 5, 1 ip3g / kg, every 15,30,90 and 120 minutes, respectively, from the eyes of blood, each with saline. Observe the changes of plasma at different times of cAMP and cGMP. The results show that within 50 minutes after dosing, cAMP and cGMP volume increased, with more pronounced increases cAMP. cAMP / cGMP value decreased, but after 60 minutes, cAMP and cCMP volume decreased, cAMP / cGMP values ​​rise. SFAS water-soluble extract 100mg / kg, so rabbit plasma cAMP significantly increased. [5]
10. Effects on platelet aggregation test object outside SFAS water soluble extract of ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rabbit rabbit significantly inhibit and promote depolymerization, ID50 was 14.6mg / ml. SFAS water-soluble extract 40,100mg / kg in rats ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition. The product is extracted from the dichloromethane, including dihydro guaiacyl fatty account, can inhibit PAF (platelet activating factor) receptor combined. [5]
11. Effect of hypoxia of mice under pressure from healthy male mice, weighing 17-22g, divided into three groups, each 10, SFAS aqueous extract 2g (fairly crude drug) / kg, ip LD50 of mice l1.83 ± 2.12g / kg), with the same volume of saline control, timed observations to stop breathing as a death index, the results show a significant role both in different intervals. [5]
12. Antibacterial test using a flat plate method, 25% decoction of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci a very sensitive inhibitory effect on E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus, catarrhal cocci, Staphylococcus It is highly sensitive inhibitory effect. [5]
13. The role of gastrointestinal smooth muscle of animals mice or guinea pig intestines, put 20ml constantly through the air Rockwell solution, 1% and 5% of SFAS intestine of mice when inhibited. The guinea pigs after just 0.5 percent and 2.5 percent inhibition that is manifested first excitement, but also to weaken the role of acetylcholine in large doses. Experiments on mice showed peristalsis 5-10g / kg of SFAS water extract significantly inhibited in mice peristalsis speed. [5]
14. The role of the product combined with other preventable experimental animals within the abdominal adhesions and Dan. Salidroside has anti-fatigue effect; Liriodendrin inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase role. [5-6]
Character identification editor
Stem cylindrical, slightly curved, about 30 ~ 70cm, diameter 6 ~ 45mm. Surface gray-brown, rough, with the majority of the granular projections Picon, and a shallow vertical groove and apparent transverse cracks. Cork sometimes scaly skin peeling off to expose the dark brown section. Section section slightly swollen, sometimes visible scar depressions branches and leaves marks. Hard, lightweight, broken facial cleft flaky. Cross-sectional portion of red-brown skin, with an embedded at six to Kibe. Kibe yellow-white, a majority of the pore-like catheters and reddish brown radially arranged rays. Gas micro, taste slightly astringent. In Article uniform, thick as a thumb preferred. [5]
Discriminate
1, the product cross-section: cork layer of a multi-column cells containing reddish brown substance. Cortical stone cells by constant crowds, some containing calcium oxalate crystals. Vascular bundle outside the tough type. Phloem secreting cells often tangentially aligned with the screen group phase interval; there are a few scattered stone cells. Within the beam-forming layer is obvious. Xylem more scattered single, round, diameter about to 400μm, surrounded by wood fibers. Ray broad, outer stone cells are more, and some contain several calcium oxalate crystals. Pith visible stone cells. Parenchyma cells containing brown or reddish brown substance. [5]
2, take the meal about 5g, add methanol 50ml, ultrasonic treatment for 30 minutes, filtered, and the filtrate evaporated and the residue dissolved in 10ml 2% NaOH solution, adjust the PH value to 2 with hydrochloric acid, extracted three times with ether and shake each 10ml, the combined ether solution, waving to the ether, the residue in methanol 2ml dissolve, as the test solution. Another snow 虅 control about herbs 5g, with the legal system as the reference drug solution. Thin layer chromatography (Appendix Ⅵ B) test, to learn the test solution, the reference drug solution of 2 μ l, respectively, the same silica gel G plate with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (8: 1: 0.8) as the agent, started out, dried, sprayed with a 2% solution of ferric chloride in ethanol. Test products for chromatography, chromatography with the reference drug corresponding position, was the same color spots. [5]
Chemical composition editor
Sargentodoxa containing emodin (emodin), physcion (physcion), β- sitosterol (β-sitosterol), daucosterol (daucsterol), stearic acid (stearic acid), salidroside (salidroside), Right Rotary clove phenol resin diglucoside (syringaresinol bisglucoside), right-handed dihydro guaiacyl fatty acid (dihydroguaiaretic acid), chrysophanol (chrysophanol), vanilla acid (vanillicacid), protocatechuic acid (protocatechuic acid) as well as Coumadin acid - ethanol paraben esters (p-hydroxyhenylethylcoumarate) and SFAS polysaccharides. [5]
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Entry pictures
Entry pictures (11)
Sargentodoxa
Cuneata (8)
Sargentodoxa whole plant
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Sargentodoxa roots
Sargentodoxa rhizome (1)
Sargentodoxa foliage
Large blood vine leaves (7)
Sargentodoxa fruit
Sargentodoxa fruit (5)
SFAS plant morphology -...
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Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. Sargentodoxa. Flora of China [reference date 2013-12-2]
2. Sargentodoxa. Plant through [reference date 2013-12-10]
3. Sargentodoxa. China Species Information Database [reference date 2013-12-10]
4. Large blood vine. China Medical Network [reference date 2013-12-24]
5. Sargentodoxa. China Medical Network [reference date 2013-12-24]
6. Sargentodoxa. Chinese family [reference date 2013-12-10]











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