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荆芥 Schizonepeta (Schizonepetae Herba) Nepeta - Jing Jie

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荆芥

 

(唇形科荆芥属植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
荆芥(Nepeta cataria L.),别名:香荆荠、线荠、四棱杆蒿、假苏,是唇形科荆芥属多年生植物。茎坚强,基部木质化,多分枝,高40-150厘米,基部近四棱形,上部钝四棱形,具浅槽,被白色短柔毛。入药用其干燥茎叶和花穗。鲜嫩芽小儿镇静最佳,荆芥叶黄绿色,茎方形微带紫色,横切面黄白色,穗子稍黑紫黄绿色。味平,性温,无毒,清香气浓。荆芥为发汗,解热药,是中华常用草药之一,能镇痰、祛风、凉血。治流行感冒头疼寒热发汗,呕吐。
中文学名
荆芥
拉丁学名
Nepeta cataria L.
别    称
香荆荠、线荠、四棱杆蒿、假苏
二名法
Nepeta cataria
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
合瓣花亚纲
管状花目
唇形科
亚    科
野芝麻亚科
荆芥族
荆芥属
荆芥
分布区域
自中南欧经阿富汗,向东一直分布到日本,在美洲及非洲南部。

形态特征编辑

多年生植物。坚强,基部木质化,多分枝,高40-150厘米,基部近四
荆芥荆芥
棱形,上部钝四棱形,具浅槽,被白色短柔毛。叶卵状至三角状心脏形,长2.5-7厘米,宽2.1-4.7厘米,先端钝至锐尖,基部心形至截形,边缘具粗圆齿或牙齿,草质,上面黄绿色,被极短硬毛,下面略发白,被短柔毛但在脉上较密,侧脉3-4对,斜上升,在上面微凹陷,下面隆起;叶柄长0.7-3厘米,细弱。
花序为聚伞状,下部的腋生,上部的组成连续或间断的、较疏松或极密集的顶生分枝圆锥花序,聚伞花序呈二歧状分枝;苞叶叶状,或上部的变小而呈披针状,苞片、小苞片钻形,细小。花萼花时管状,长约6毫米,径1.2毫米,外被白色短柔毛,内面仅萼齿被疏硬毛,齿锥形,长1.5-2毫米,后齿较长,花后花萼增大戍瓮状,纵肋十分清晰。花冠白色,下唇有紫点,外被白色柔毛,内面在喉部被短柔毛,长约7.5毫米,冠筒极细,径约0.3毫米,自萼筒内骤然扩展成宽喉,冠檐二唇形,上唇短,长约2毫米,宽约3毫米,先端具浅凹,下唇3裂,中裂片近圆形,长约3毫米,宽约4毫米,基部心形,边缘具粗牙齿,侧裂片圆裂片状。雄蕊内藏,花丝扁平,无毛。花柱线形,先端2等裂。花盘杯状,裂片明显。
子房无毛。小坚果卵形,几三棱状,灰褐色,长约1.7毫米,径约1毫米。花期7-9月,果期9-10月。[1] 

植物形态

  •  
    荆芥全株
    荆芥全株(10张)
  •  
  •  
    荆芥花果
    荆芥花果(3张)

生长习性编辑

荆芥的适应力很强,性喜阳光,多生
荆芥荆芥
长在温暖湿润的环境中,对土壤要求不严,一般土壤都能种植,但以在疏松、肥沃的土壤上生长较好,高温多雨季节怕积水,短期积水会造成死亡。种子容易萌发,发芽对温度要求不严格,种子在15~20℃即可发芽,生长适温为20~25℃,幼苗能耐0℃左右的低温。荆芥耐高温,较耐寒,但-2℃以下会出现冻害,忌连作。[2]  [3] 
荆芥出苗期要求土壤湿润,怕干旱和缺水。成苗期喜干燥的环境,雨水多则生长不良。[2] 

分布情况编辑

产新疆,甘肃,陕西,河南,山西,山东,湖北,贵州,四川及云南等地;自中南欧经阿富汗,向东一直分布到日本,在美洲及非洲南部逸为野生。模式标本采自欧洲。[1] 
人工栽培主产安徽、江苏、浙江、江西、湖北、河北等地。

栽培技术编辑

繁殖方法

一般都用种子繁殖,在4月份播种。[3] 
整地施肥
荆芥播种比较密,生长期施肥非常不便,所以土地选好后,应多施基肥,每
荆芥穗荆芥穗
亩可施用堆肥、厩肥或熏土等有机肥2000千克以上,重茬地要增施底肥,禁用硝态氮肥。将基肥均匀撒于地面后耕深25厘米左右,深耕后,做成宽1.2米左右、高10厘米的畦。畦做好后,为提高种子发芽率,应进行浇灌塌墒,待土壤干爽后,再进行浅翻。在翻地之前可撒施土壤处理颗粒剂,防止地下害虫对种子造成为害,影响发芽率。翻地不宜过深。5~6厘米即可,整平后待播。[3] 
浸种、播种
播种前应对种子进行筛选,拣出其中的杂质和已损伤的种子,然后用水浸泡12~24小时,捞出后晾晒到通风干燥处,这样可使种子内部新陈代谢加快,增强成活力,提高发芽率。由于荆芥种子细小,为使播种更均匀,可等到种子表面无水时掺拌适量细沙或细土,种子与沙土的比例为3:1,搅拌均匀后即可播种。在畦上用工具顺畦开沟,沟距20厘米左右,沟深5厘米左右。将种子撒入沟内,通常每亩地用种量为1千克左右。
播种后,盖土1~2厘米厚,用脚稍踏实,再用铁耙耧平,使种子与土壤紧密接触。播后浇水,保持畦面土壤湿润,有利出苗。播后地温在16~18℃时需10~15天出苗,如地温在19~25℃、湿度适宜,约1周就可出苗,出苗前后也要保持土壤湿润。[3] 

管理养护

间苗定苗
当苗高6~10厘米时,间去过密的弱苗、小苗。当苗高10~15厘米时按行株距10~15厘米留苗2~3株进行定苗,如有缺苗,应将间出的大苗、壮苗带土移栽,最好选阴天移栽,避免在阳光强烈时进行。移
荆芥荆芥
苗时尽量多带原土,补苗后要及时浇水,以利于幼苗成活。[3] 
中耕除草
中耕除草是荆芥生长发育良好的关键措施,主要是疏松土壤,提高地温,调节土壤水分,铲除杂草,这样才能够促进根系发育,保证幼苗的健壮生长。当苗高5厘米左右时,用小锄松土,划破地皮即可,防止伤根。幼苗期中耕要突出“早、浅、细”3个字:“早”是指出苗后要及时进行中耕;“浅”是指中耕深度不能超过5厘米,以防伤根、伤苗、跑墒;“细”是指中耕时做到深浅一致,土壤疏松细碎。
荆芥进人生长期后,也要经常中耕除草,保持田间土松无杂草,20天左右进行1次,或视具体情况再定,撒播的因不便中耕,所以要注意除草,或适当中耕1~2次,一般封行后就不便进行松土了。松土宜浅,以免伤根。中耕宜在土壤干湿度适中时进行。[3] 
施肥排灌
荆芥幼苗期需氮肥较多,为了促使秆壮穗多,也应适当追施磷、钾肥。当苗高15~20厘米时,顺行间撒入一些化肥,每亩追施尿素10~15千克、饼肥25~40千克。幼苗期应经常浇水,以利生长。成株后抗旱能力增强,可不再进行浇灌,但夏季久旱无雨,土壤含水量在8%以下,植株呈萎蔫状态时应进行轻浇水,每次浇水量不宜过大。荆芥在此时期最怕水涝,如雨水过多,应及时排掉田间积水,以免引起病害。当苗高20~25厘
荆芥荆芥
米时,加施氯化钾10千克,开沟施人,施后培土。当苗高30厘米以上时,每亩撒施腐熟饼肥60千克,并可配施少量磷、钾肥。7月份荆芥进入生长后期,此时一般不进行田问管理,让其自然生长,这样可以抑制生殖生长,有利于营养生长,提高产量和质量。[3] 
采收与加工
采收茎叶宜在夏季孕穗而未抽穗时,芥穗宜于秋季种子50%成熟、50%还在开花时采收。选晴天露水干后,用镰刀割下全株阴干,即为全荆;摘取花穗晾干,称荆芥穗;其余的地上部分由茎基部收割、晾干,即为荆芥梗;在收获药材时,需选留种株,待种子充分成熟后再收割,放在半阴半阳处晾干,干后脱粒,除去茎叶等杂质后收藏。[3] 

病虫防治

根腐病
7~8月高温多雨荆芥植株易发生真菌感染,感染后地上部迅速萎蔫,根、根茎变黑、腐烂。
防治方法:注意排水,播前每公顷用70%敌磺钠(敌克松)15千克处理土壤;发病初期用五氯硝基苯200倍液浇灌根际。[3] 
立枯病
多发生在5~6月,低温多雨、土壤很潮湿时易发病,发病初期苗茎部发生水渍状小黑点,小黑点扩大后呈褐色,茎基部变细,倒伏枯死。
防治方法:选用良种,加强田间管理,做好排水工作;遇低温多雨天气,要喷波尔多液1:1:100倍液,10天喷1次,连喷2~3次;发病初期用50%甲基硫菌灵1500倍液防治。[3] 
茎枯病
茎枯病为害叶、茎、花穗,叶片感病后,似开水烫伤状,叶柄为水渍状病斑;茎部染病后,出现水渍状褐色病斑,后扩展成绕茎枯斑,造成上部茎叶萎焉;花穗染病后,呈黄色,不能开花。
防治方法:在发病初期,用50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂800倍液,或用50%甲基硫菌灵可湿性粉剂1000倍液喷雾防治,每隔7天1次,连喷3次。[4] 
黑斑病
该病为害叶片,产生不规则形褐色小斑点,后扩大,叶片变黑色枯死;茎部发病呈褐色、变细,后下垂、折倒。发现后应注意防治。[3] 
地老虎、蝼蛄、银纹夜蛾等
防治方法:栽植前用辛硫磷等进行土壤处理;蝼蛄可采用毒饵诱杀;地老虎和银纹夜蛾幼虫发生期喷苏云金杆菌乳剂、灭幼脲等,发生严重时喷洒菊酯类农药防治。[3] 

主要价值编辑

药用价值

性味
味辛;微苦;性微温。
1、《本经》:味辛,温。
2、《医学启源》:气温,味辛苦
荆芥荆芥
[5] 
归经
入肺、肝经。
1、《纲目》:入足厥阴经气分。
2、《雷公炮制药性解》:入肺、肝二经。
3、《本草汇言》:足厥阴、少阳、阳明经。[5] 
功效主治
祛风;解表;透疹;止血。主感冒发热;头痛;目痒;咳嗽;咽喉肿痛;麻疹;痈肿;疮疥;衄血;吐血;便血;崩漏;产后血晕。用于感冒,头痛,麻疹,风疹,疮疡初起。炒炭治便血,崩漏,产后血晕。解表散风,透疹,消疮,止血。用于感冒,麻疹透发不畅,便血、崩漏、鼻衄。[5] 
①《本经》:主寒热,鼠瘘,瘰疬生疮,破结聚气,下瘀血,除湿痹。
②《药性论》:治恶风贼风,口面歪邪,遍身顽痹,心虚忘事,益力添糟。主辟邪毒气,除劳,治丁肿;取一握切,以水五升,煮取二升,冷分二服,主通利
荆芥荆芥
血脉,传送五脏不足气,能发汗,除冷风;又捣末和醋封毒肿。
③孟诜:产后中风身强直,研末酒服。
④《食疗本草》:助脾胃。
⑤《食性本草》:主血劳风气壅满,背脊疼痛,虚汗,理丈夫脚气,筋骨烦痛及阴阳毒,伤寒头痛,头旋目眩,手足筋急。
⑥《日华子本草》:利五脏,消食下气,醒酒。作菜生热食并煎茶,治头风并汗出;豉汁煎治暴伤寒。
⑦《本草图经》:治头风,虚劳,疮疥,妇人血风。
⑧《滇南本草》:治跌打损伤,并敷毒疮。治吐血。荆芥穗,上清头目诸风,止头痛,明目,解肺、肝、咽喉热痛,消肿,除诸毒,发散疮痈。治便血,止女子暴崩,消风热,通肺气鼻窍塞闭。
⑨《纲目》:散风热,清头目,利咽喉,消疮肿。治项强,目中黑花,及生疮,阴颓,吐血,衄血,下血,血痢,崩中,痔漏。[5] 
荆芥荆芥
临床应用
1、荆防败毒散(《外科理例》)治疮疡时毒,肿痛发热,左手脉浮数者:荆芥、防风、人参、羌活、独活、前胡、柴胡、桔梗、枳壳、茯苓、川芎、甘草各3g。水煎。食远服。[6] 
2、荆芥解表汤(时逸入方)治风寒感冒:荆芥、防风、苏叶、白芷、杏仁各6g,赤苓9g,陈皮6g,神曲9g,生姜2片,葱白2段。水煎,日服1剂。[6] 
3、荆芥连翘汤(《回春》)治鼻渊:荆芥、柴胡、川芎、当归、生地黄、赤芍药、白芷、防风、薄荷叶、栀子仁、黄芩、桔梗、连翘各1.5g,甘草1g,锉作1服,水煎服。[6] 
药理作用
用人工发热的家兔,口服荆芥煎剂与浸剂2克(生药)/公斤,无甚解热作用。在
荆芥 Nepeta cataria荆芥 Nepeta cataria
体外,高浓度(1:100)有抗结核杆菌之作用。[5] 
附方
1、治风热头痛:荆芥穗、石膏等分。为末。每服二钱,茶调下。(《永类钤方》)
2、治头目诸疾,血劳,风气头痛,头旋目眩:荆芥穗为末。每酒服三钱。(《眼科龙木论》)
3、治风热肺壅,咽喉肿痛,语声不出,或如有物哽:荆芥穗半两,桔梗二两,甘草(炙)一两。上为粗末。每服四钱,水一盏,姜三片,煎六分,去渣,食后温服。(《局方》荆芥汤)
4、治一切风,口眼偏斜:青荆芥一斤,青薄荷一斤。一处砂盆内研,生绢绞汁于磁器内,煎成膏;余滓三分,去一分,将二分滓日干为末,以膏和为丸,如梧桐子大。每服二十丸,早至暮可三服。忌动风物。(《经验后方》)
5、治大便下血:
(1)荆芥,炒,为末。每米饮服二钱,妇人用酒下。亦可拌面作馄饨食之。(《经验方》)
(2)荆芥二两,槐花一两。炒紫为末。每服三钱,清茶送下。(《简便单方》)
6、治产后血晕,筑心,眼倒,风缩欲死者:干荆芥穗,捣筛。每用末二钱匕,童子小便一酒盏,
荆芥荆芥
调热服,口噤者挑齿,闭者灌鼻中。(《本草图经》)
7、治小便尿血:荆芥、缩砂,等分。为末。糯米饮下三钱日三服。(《濒湖集简方》)
8、治痔漏肿痛:荆芥煮汤,日日洗之。(《简便单方》)
9、治癃闭不通,小腹急痛,肛门肿疼,无问新久:大黄(小便不通减半)、荆芥穗(大便不通减半),等分。各别为末。每服一、二钱,温水调下,临时加减服。(《宣明论方》倒换散)
10、治一切疮疥:荆芥、金银花、土茯苓,等分。为末,熟地黄熬膏为丸,梧子大。每旦、晚各服百丸,茶酒任下。(《本草汇言》)
11、治风毒寡疬、赤肿痛硬:鼠粘子一升(微炒),荆芥穗四两。捣粗罗为散。每服三钱,以水一中盏,煎至五分,去滓,入竹沥半合,搅匀服之,日三服。(《圣惠方》)
12、治脚桠湿烂:荆芥叶捣敷之。(《简便单方》)[5] 
药物配伍
1)荆芥配防风,加强祛风解表作用。
2)荆芥配薄荷,一气一血,可加强解表发汗之效。
荆芥-中药材荆芥-中药材
3)荆芥配僵蚕,祛风解表,治湿胜带下等症。
4)荆芥配白矾,祛风化痰之效增强,用治风痰壅盛,小儿惊风。
5)荆芥配石膏,治风热头痛。
6)荆芥配槐花炭,祛风止血,用治肠风下血。
7)荆芥配升麻炭,升清阳,止出血。
8)荆芥配大黄,清热通便。
9、当归荆芥治中风

食用价值

荆芥有强烈香气,主要以鲜嫩的茎叶供作蔬菜食用。荆芥富含芳香油,以叶片含量最
荆芥荆芥
高,味鲜美,还可驱虫灭菌,生食熟食均可,但以凉拌为多,一般将嫩尖作夏季调味料,是一种经济效益高、很有发展前途的无公害、保健型辛香蔬菜。[7] 
菜谱
清炒荆芥、 荆芥拌黄瓜、荆芥浇汁、荆芥腐竹、荆芥洋葱(俗称老虎菜)等。

食用禁忌编辑

表虚自汗、阴虚头痛忌服。
1、《药性论》:荆芥久服动渴疾。
荆芥药用图荆芥药用图
2、《苇航纪谈》:凡服荆芥风药,忌食鱼。
3、《纲目》反驴肉、无鳞鱼。
4、《本草经疏》:病人表虚有汗者忌之;血虚寒热而不因于风湿风寒者勿用;阴虚火炎面赤,因而头痛者,慎匆误入。[5] 

鉴别方法编辑

理化鉴别
该品粉末黄棕色。宿萼表皮细胞垂周壁深波状弯曲。腺鳞头部8细胞,直径96~112μm;柄单细胞,棕黄色。小腺毛头部1~2细胞,柄单细胞。非腺毛1~6细胞,大多具壁疣。外果皮细胞表面观多角形,壁黏液化,胞腔含棕色物。内果皮石细胞淡棕色,垂周壁深波状弯曲,密具纹孔。纤维直径14~43μm,壁平直或微波状。[8] 
取该品粗粉0.8g,加石油醚(60~90℃)20ml ,密塞,时时振摇,放置过夜,滤过,滤液挥散至1ml ,作为供试品溶液。另取荆芥对照药材0.8g,同法制成对照药材溶液。照薄层色谱法试验,吸取上述两种溶液各10μl ,分别点于同一硅胶H薄层板上,以正己烷-醋酸乙酯(17:3)为展开剂,展开,取出,晾干,喷以5%香草醛的 5%硫酸乙醇溶液,在105℃加热至斑点显色清晰。供试品色谱中,在与对照药材色谱相应的位置上,显相同颜色的斑点。[8] 
化学成份
含挥发油1.8%,油中主成分为右旋薄荷酮、消旋簿荷酮、少量右旋柠檬烯。[5] 

荆芥属

浙荆芥组
心叶荆芥系
 心叶荆芥
浙荆芥系
 黑绿荆芥 齿叶荆芥 浙荆芥
无柄系
 无柄荆芥
松潘荆芥系
 松潘荆芥
头序组
丛卷毛系
 丛卷毛荆芥 淡紫荆芥
活血丹花组
 腺荆芥 密叶荆芥 长苞荆芥
大荆芥组
康藏荆芥系
 白绵毛荆芥 康藏荆芥 鼠尾草叶荆芥 川西荆芥 圆齿荆芥
西伯利亚系
 蓝花荆芥 黑龙江荆芥 膜叶荆芥 大花荆芥 多花荆芥
 细花荆芥
小花组
小花系
 小花荆芥
小荆芥组
刺尖荆芥系
 南疆荆芥 刺尖荆芥
荆芥组
荆芥系
 荆芥
直齿荆芥组
直齿荆芥系
 直齿荆芥 帚枝荆芥
尖齿荆芥组
尖齿系
 尖齿荆芥
穗序组
密花系
 密花荆芥 绢毛荆芥
光果系
 异色荆芥 穗花荆芥
具柄荆芥系
 黄花具脉荆芥
平卧茎系
 绒毛荆芥 平卧荆芥
藏荆芥组
 藏荆芥
以上物种均分布于中国

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
  • 1.  荆芥 Nepeta cataria L.  .中国植物物种信息数据库[引用日期2012-11-13]
  • 2.  丁军章,李春艳.《现代农业》:药用植物荆芥规范化生产栽培技术:《现代农业》编辑部, 2013:7-8
  • 3.  何莉,石娜 .《科学种养》:荆芥无公害高效栽培技术:金盾出版社,2014:27-28
  • 4.  徐绍峰 .《中国果菜》:荆芥高产栽培技术:《中国果菜》编辑部, 2012:20-21
  • 5.  荆芥  .中国医药网[引用日期2014-04-20]
  • 6.  荆芥  .中国医药网[引用日期2014-04-20]
  • 7.  韩春梅 .《四川农业科技》:荆芥高产栽培技术 :《四川农业科技》编辑部, 2011:29
  • 8.  荆芥  .中国医药网[引用日期2014-04-20]
http://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%8D%86%E8%8A%A5/404018

Nepeta (Lamiaceae Nepeta spp) Edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Nepeta (Nepeta cataria L.), Alias: Hong Jing chestnut, chestnut lines, rectangular bar tarragon, leave the Soviet Union, is Labiatae, Nepeta is a perennial. Stem strong, woody base, much branched, 40-150 cm high, base nearly four prism, the upper blunt four prism, with a shallow groove, is white pubescent. The medicinal dried leaves and flower spikes. Fresh buds best pediatric sedation, Nepeta leaf yellow green, stems square patch of purple, yellow and white cross-section, ears a little black purple yellow green. Taste flat, warm, non-toxic, clean aroma concentration. Nepeta is sweating, antipyretic drugs, it is one of the commonly used Chinese herbs, to the town of sputum, chills, cooling. Cure flu, headache chills and fever sweating, vomiting.
Chinese scientific name Latin name Nepeta Nepeta cataria L. aka Jing Hong chestnut, chestnut lines, rectangular rod Artemisia, false Su two law Nepeta cataria world Flora door Angiosperms Gang Dicotyledon subclass gamopetalous Asia outline tubular Flower Head Branch lip 科亚科 Lamium subfamily Belong family Nepeta Nepeta Nepeta species distribution area in Southern Europe through Afghanistan from the east has been distributed to Japan, south America and Africa.
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 cultivation techniques for the distribution of breeding methods ▪ management ▪ pest control ▪ 5 major conservation value ▪ ▪ edible medicinal value 6 7 Identification of food taboos
Morphological characteristics editor
Perennials. Stem strong, woody base, much branched, 40-150 cm high, base nearly four
Nepeta
Nepeta
Prism, the upper blunt four prism, with a shallow groove, is white pubescent. Leaves ovate to three angular heart-shaped, 2.5-7 cm long, 2.1-4.7 cm wide, apex obtuse to acute, base cordate to truncate, margin coarsely crenate or teeth, herbaceous, above the yellow-green, is very short bristles, slightly below whitish pubescent on veins but more dense, lateral veins 3-4 pairs, obliquely rising above the micro-pits, ridges below; petiole 0.7-3 cm long, thin.
Inflorescences cymose lower axillary, upper part of the composition of continuous or intermittent, loose or very dense apical branching panicles, cymes was dichotomous branching shape; change bract leaflike, or the upper part Small and showed lanceolate, bracts, bracteoles subulate, small. Calyx tubular flowers when, about 6 mm, diameter 1.2 mm, outside white pubescent, inside calyx teeth are only sparsely hirsute, conical teeth, 1.5-2 mm long, after the teeth longer, increasing calyx after flowering Shu urn-shaped, longitudinal ribs very clear. Corolla white, purple lower lip point, outside the white pubescence, the inner surface of the throat pubescent, about 7.5 mm, the highest fine tube, diameter of about 0.3 mm, since the calyx tube suddenly expanded into a wide throat, crown eaves lipped, upper lip short, about 2 mm, a width of 3 mm, apex with shallow pockets, lower lip 3-lobed, lobes nearly circular, about 3 mm, a width of 4 mm, base cordate, margin coarse teeth, lateral lobes round split flaky. Stamens included, filaments flat, hairless. Style linear, apex 2, etc. crack. Disk cup-shaped, lobes obvious.
Ovary glabrous. Nutlets ovoid, several triangular-shaped, gray-brown, about 1.7 mm, diameter of about 1 mm. Flowering from July to September, the fruit of September to October. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Nepeta whole plant
Nepeta whole plant (10)
 
 
Nepeta fruit
Nepeta fruit (3)
Growth habit editor
Nepeta resilience of strong, likes the sun, more students
Nepeta
Nepeta
Long in the warm and humid environment, strict requirements on the soil, the soil can be planted in general, but on the loose, fertile soil grow better, hot and rainy season, fear of water, short-term water can cause death. Seeds germinate easily, germination temperature is not critical, the seeds can germinate in 15 ~ 20 ℃, optimum growth temperature of 20 ~ 25 ℃, the seedlings resistant to low temperature about 0 ℃. Nepeta temperature, more cold, but the following will appear frost -2 ℃, avoid continuous cropping. [twenty three] 
Nepeta requirements seedling soil moist, fear of drought and water shortages. Hi seedling into a dry environment, the growth of undesirable rain. [2] 
Distribution Edit
Production of Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi, Henan, Shanxi, Shandong, Hubei, Guizhou, Sichuan and Yunnan and other places; from Southern Europe through Afghanistan to the east has been distributed to Japan, the Americas and southern Africa Yi wild. The type specimen was collected from Europe. [1] 
Cultivated mainly produced in Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hebei and other places.
Cultivation Technical Editor
Breeding methods

Usually by seed propagation, planting in April. [3]
Site preparation fertilization
Nepeta relatively dense planting, growing fertilizer is very inconvenient, so the land selected should be more Fertilizers, each
Nepeta ear
Nepeta ear
Mu can compost, manure or other organic soil fertilizer smoked more than 2000 kg, cropping land to increase base fertilizer, nitrate fertilizer is disabled. The basal evenly spread on the ground after plowing about 25 cm deep, deep back, made about 1.2 meters wide, 10 cm high furrow. After the plot well, to improve seed germination rate, should be watered collapse moisture, soil until dry, then turn pale. Before plowing can handle applicator soil granules, prevent soil pests cause damage to the seed, affect the germination rate. Plowing should not be too deep. 5 to 6 cm can, after leveling to be broadcast. [3]
Soaking, sowing
Before sowing seeds should be screened, picked up one of the impurities and seeds have been damaged, and then soaked in water for 12 to 24 hours, remove and dry to dry air, so that the seeds can accelerate internal metabolism and enhance viability, improve the germination rate ʱ?? Since Nepeta small seeds, to make planting more uniform, can wait until the seed surface water mixed with the right amount of sand or fine soil mix, the proportion of seed with sand to 3: 1, can be planted after the stir. On the stretch of tools along furrow ditch, ditch about 20 cm away from the Goushen about 5 cm. The seed thrown into the trench, usually per acre seed quantity is about 1 kg.
After planting, mulch 1 to 2 centimeters thick, a little at ease with their feet, and then flat iron Palou, the seed and the soil in close contact. After sowing watering, keep the soil moist Qimian favorable emergence. After sowing ground temperature at 16 ~ 18 ℃ takes 10 to 15 days emergence, such as ground temperature at 19 ~ 25 ℃, humidity suitable for about one week can be emergence, keep the soil moist but also before and after emergence. [3]
Management and maintenance

Thinning Dingmiao
When the height of 6 to 10 cm, the room went tight weak seedling, seedlings. When the height of 10 to 15 cm row spacing of 10 to 15 cm Liumiao 2 to 3 were Dingmiao Deficiency, if any, should be out between seedlings, transplanting seedlings with soil, transplanting the best selection cloudy , avoid the sun is intense. Shift
Nepeta
Nepeta
As much as possible when seedlings with the original soil, timely watering after fill the gaps, in order to facilitate seedling survival. [3]
Weeding
Weeding is a key measure Nepeta good growth, mainly loose soil, increase in temperature, adjust the soil moisture, eradicate weeds, so as to promote root development, to ensure robust growth of seedlings. When a height of about 5 cm, with a small hoe cultivation, the land can be cut to prevent root injury. Seedlings of cultivators to highlight the "early, shallow, thin" three words: "early" is pointed to timely postemergence cultivators; "light" refers to the depth of not more than 5 cm cultivators prevent root damage, injury seedling, run moisture ; "fine" means to achieve a consistent depth when cultivating the soil loose crushing.
Nepeta into life after a long-term, have always weeding, loose soil to keep the field free of weeds, 20 days for a second, or as the case may be given, because of the inconvenience cultivator sow, so pay attention to weeding, cultivating, or appropriate 1 ~ 2 times, usually after the closure line scarification the inconvenience. Rippers Yi Qian, in order to avoid root injury. Cultivator should be at moderate soil humidity. [3]
Fertilization irrigation
Seedling of Nepeta need more nitrogen, in order to promote strong spike stalk much, but should be appropriate dressing phosphorus and potassium. When the height of 15 to 20 cm, between antegrade thrown some of the fertilizer per acre topdressing urea 10 to 15 kg, cake 25 to 40 kg. Seedling should be watered frequently, in order to facilitate growth. After adult enhance drought resistance, it can no longer be watered, but the summer drought, no rain, soil moisture content below 8%, plants were wilting state should be light watering every watering should not be too large. Nepeta fear waterlogging during this period, such as excessive rainfall, field water should be drained in order to avoid diseases. When the height of 20 to 25 cm
Nepeta
Nepeta
Meters, plus 10 kilograms of potassium chloride applied to open Summer person, Shi Houpei soil. When more than 30 cm height, 60 kg per acre applicator maturity cake, and a small amount of combined application phosphorus and potassium. July Nepeta into the late growth, when field management is generally not allowed to grow naturally, so can inhibit the reproductive growth conducive to vegetative growth, improve the yield and quality. [3]
Harvesting and processing
Stems and leaves should be harvested in the summer when booting without heading, mustard seeds fall 50 percent spike suitable for mature, while 50% are still flowering harvest. After the election sunny dew dry, cut the whole plant dry with a sickle, is full Jing; removal of spikes dry, said Nepeta ear; the rest of the ground portion of the stem base harvesting, drying, namely Nepeta Terrier; in When harvesting herbs, selected seed strains need to be fully mature and then harvest the seeds, put a half-shady place to dry, dry threshing, remove the stems and leaves and other impurities collection. [3]
Pest control

Root rot
July and August hot and rainy Nepeta plant prone to fungal infection, infection rapidly wilting shoots, roots, rhizomes black, rot.
Control methods: pay attention to drainage, the enemy before sowing with 70% sodium sulfonate (Fenaminosulf) 15 kilograms per hectare of soil; early onset PCNB 200 times with water rhizosphere. [3]
Blight
Occurred in May and June, cold and rainy, when the soil is moist vulnerable to disease, early onset of seedling stems occur water-soaked black specks, black specks expand after brown, stem base tapering, lodging dead.
Control methods: the selection of seed, strengthen field management, good drainage work; in case of cold and rainy weather, to spray Bordeaux mixture 1: 1: 100 times, 10 days, spray, and even spray 2-3 times; early stages, with 50% thiophanate-methyl 1500 times control. [3]
Stem blight
Stem blight damage the leaves, stems, spikes, after leaves of susceptible, like water burns like, water-soaked lesion petiole; stems infected, the emergence of water-soaked brown spots, after extended to around stem blight spots, causing the upper leaf wilt; after infected spikes, yellow, can not blossom.
Control methods: In the early stages, with 50% carbendazim WP 800 times, or 50% thiophanate-methyl WP 1000 times spraying, once every seven days, and even spray three times. [4]
Alternaria
The disease damage leaves, produces small irregularly shaped brown spots, enlarged leaves turn black dead; stem the incidence of brown, thinning, after sagging, Zhedao. After finding should pay attention to prevention. [3]
Cutworms, mole crickets, looper, etc.
Control methods: Before planting soil treatment with Phoxim; when spraying pyrethroid pesticides to control cutworms and looper larvae of emulsion spray Bacillus thuringiensis, diflubenzuron, etc., serious; mayflies can bait trap. [3]
The main value edit
Medicinal Value

Taste
Weixin; bitter; slightly warm.
1, "The Classic": spicy, warm.
2, "Medical Kai source": temperature, taste hard
Nepeta
Nepeta
ʱ?? [5]
Meridian
Lungs, liver.
1, "outline": the foot Jueyin gas separation.
2, "Thunder concocted herbal solution": lung, liver two classics.
3, "Materia Medica words": Foot Jue Yin, Shaoyang, Meridian. [5]
Indications
Chills; relieving; Touzhen; hemostasis. Main cold and fever; headache; eye itch; cough; sore throat; hives; carbuncles; scabies; Nvxue; vomiting; stool; bleeding; postpartum blood halo. For colds, headaches, measles, rubella, sore early. Fried carbon treatment in the stool, uterine bleeding, postpartum blood halo. XieBiao scattered wind, Touzhen, eliminate sores, bleeding. For colds, measles poor through the hair, blood in the stool, uterine bleeding, epistaxis. [5]
① "The Classic": the main cold and heat, rat fistula, scrofulous sores, broken knot gas gathering, under stasis, dehumidification weakness.
② "medicinal theory": cure evil wind drafts, orofacial crooked evil, Bianshen stubborn weakness, guilty forget things, Yakult Tim worse. Main evil poison gas, in addition to labor, governance Ding swollen; get a grip cut to five liters of water, Zhuqu two liters, cold sub-two, main Tongli
Nepeta
Nepeta
Blood, internal organs transmit gas shortage, to sweat, in addition to the cold; and pound at the end and vinegar seal swollen poison.
③ Meng Shen: postpartum stroke body rigidity, powder wine service.
④ "Herbal": help stomach.
⑤ "Herbal Diet": the main labor atmosphere obstruct blood filled, back pain, sweating, Li husband beriberi, aching pain and trouble poison yin and yang, typhoid fever, headache, dizziness head spin, foot Jinji.
⑥ "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": Lee five internal organs, digestion under the gas, sober. Hot food and raw vegetables as Sencha, governance head wind and sweating; soy sauce fried with violence typhoid.
⑦ "The sketches by": governance head wind, Consumption, sores, woman in blood.
⑧ "Southern Yunnan Materia Medica": governance bruises, and apply canker. Governance vomiting. Nepeta ear, the supernatant leader all the wind, stop headaches, eyesight, solution lungs, liver, throat heat pain, swelling, in addition to various drugs, divergent carbuncle. Cure blood in the stool, the women stop violent collapse, eliminate wind-heat, through the lung nasal orifices stoppered.
⑨ "outline": scattered wind-heat, clear head, throat, eliminate sores. Governance items strong, heads black flowers, and sores, Yin decadent, vomiting, epistaxis, blood, bloody diarrhea, collapse, and anal fistula. [5]
Nepeta
Nepeta
Clinical application
1, Jing anti-sepsis scattered ("Surgical treatment cases") is sore cure poison, pain, fever, left floating pulse by: Nepeta, wind, ginseng, Notopterygium, independent living, Peucedanum, Bupleurum, bellflower, orange shell, Poria, Chuanxiong, licorice 3g. Decoction. Eat away clothes. [6]
2, Nepeta relieving soup (when escaping into the party) rule cold cold: Nepeta, wind, sage, Angelica, almond 6g, Chiling 9g, dried tangerine peel 6g, Divine Comedy 9g, ginger 2, light blue. 2. Decoction, served on one. [6]
3, Jingjielianqiao soup ("rejuvenation") rule nasosinusitis: Nepeta, Bupleurum root, angelica, Rehmanniae, red peony medicine, Angelica, wind, mint leaves, gardenia benevolence, skullcap, Campanulaceae, forsythia 1.5g, licorice 1g, filing for a, decoction. [6]
Pharmacological effects
Artificial rabbit fever, oral Nepeta decoction and infusion 2 g (crude drug) / kg, little antipyretic effects. In
Nepeta Nepeta cataria
Nepeta Nepeta cataria
In vitro, high concentrations (1: 100) has the effect of anti-TB. [5]
With side
1, wind-heat headache: Nepeta ear, plaster decile. For the end. Each serving two money transfer under tea. ("Wing type seal side")
2, cure various diseases leaders, blood labor, culture, headache, dizziness head spin: Nepeta ear to the end. Each serving three money wine. ("Ophthalmic Dragon On Wood")
3, wind-heat treatment of lung obstruct, sore throat, no voice, or if there was choking: Nepeta ear and a half two, bellflower twenty-two, licorice (Sunburn) twelve. On the thick end. Each serving four money, water, a light, three pieces of ginger, fried six points, to the residue, after eating warm clothes. ("Council" Nepeta soup)
4, cure all the wind, mouth and eyes skew: Green Nepeta pound, a pound of green mint. A sand basin research, raw silk wringer in the porcelain, fry the paste; I Tre-third, to a point, the dichotomy sediment dry day for the end of creams and pills, such as the Indus sub-major. Each serving twenty pills, morning to evening to three. Avoid moving scenery. ("Experience the rear")
5, treatment of blood stool:
(1) Nepeta, fried, to the end. Beverage second money per meter, the woman with the next wine. Also eat noodles for ravioli. ("Experience side")
(2) Nepeta twenty-two, SJ twelve. Fried purple for the end. Each serving three money, tea next. ("Simple unilateral")
6, treatment of postpartum blood halo, building the heart, eyes down, wind shrink want deceased: Dry Nepeta ear, destroyed the screen. By the end of each two money dagger, a boy urinating wine cup,
Nepeta
Nepeta
Thermal transfer service, lockjaw who pick teeth, closed by nasal irrigation. ("The draft")
7, cure urine hematuria: Nepeta, shrink sand, decile. For the end. Rice drink three money day three. ("Set near Lake Jane Fang")
8, cure anal fistula throat: Nepeta soup, wash it daily. ("Simple unilateral")
9, cure Longbitong barrier, abdominal Ji Tong, anal swelling and pain, no new long asked: rhubarb (urination half), Nepeta ear (constipation half), decile. Individual for the end. Each serving one, two money under warm water, temporary subtraction service. ("Vision on the side" Switching bulk)
10, cure all sores: Nepeta, honeysuckle, soil Fuling, decile. To the end, Rehmannia Aogao for the pills, Wu Zi. Every day and evening clothes one hundred pills, tea and wine under either. ("Materia Medica words")
11, cure poison oligonucleotide scrofulaceum wind, red throat hard: mouse stick sub one liter (Wei Chao), Nepeta ear forty-two. Luo as a casual pound crude. Each serving three money in a cup of water, fry a fifth, to the dregs, into Xianzhuli half together, stir clothes, day three. ("Sheng Hui Fang")
12, Sam wet rot foot rule: Nepeta leaves the pound deposited. ("Simple unilateral") [5]
Drug compatibility
1) Nepeta with wind, strengthen the role of Qufeng solution form.
2) Nepeta with mint, a stretch of blood, can enhance the effect of relieving sweating.
Nepeta - Chinese herbal medicine
Nepeta - Chinese herbal medicine
3) Nepeta with silkworm, dispelling solution form, rule wet win vaginal discharge embolism.
4) The effect of Nepeta with alum, expelling phlegm enhanced with the governance of wind phlegm Sheng, convulsions in children.
5) Nepeta with plaster, cure wind-heat headache.
6) Nepeta with SJ charcoal, chills and bleeding, with treatment of intestinal wind of blood.
7) Nepeta with cohosh charcoal, rose Qing Yang, stop bleeding.
8) Nepeta with rhubarb, heat laxative.
9, Angelica Nepeta treatment of stroke
Food value

Nepeta has a strong aroma, mainly for fresh leaf eaten as a vegetable. Nepeta rich in aromatic oils, with the most content in leaves
Nepeta
Nepeta
High, taste delicious, but also deworming sterilization, cooked food can be eaten raw, but cold as much, generally tender tip for summer seasoning, is a high economic efficiency, promising pollution, health-octyl fragrant vegetables. [7]
Cookbook
Fried Nepeta Nepeta mixed with cucumber, Nepeta sauce, Nepeta yuba, Nepeta onion (commonly known as tiger dish) and the like.
Food taboos editor
Table virtual spontaneous, Yin Jifu headache.
1, "resistance": Nepeta Jiufu move thirsty illness.
Nepeta medicinal Figure
Nepeta medicinal Figure
2, "Ji Wei Hang talk": Where the service Nepeta wind medicine, eat fish.
3, "outline" anti-donkey, fish without scales.
4, "Ben Cao Jing Shu": patient table virtual Khan bogey; anemia due to cold and heat, and not rheumatoid cold Convicted; Yin Huo red face, therefore headache, Shen hasty strayed. [5]
Identification Method Editor
Physical and chemical identification
The product powder yellow-brown. Calyx epidermal cell anticlinal walls sinuate bending. Glandular squamous cell head 8, the diameter of 96 ~ 112μm; handle single cell, brown. Head small glandular hairs 1-2 cells, handle single cells. Non-glandular hairs 1-6 cells, mostly with wall warts. Exocarp surface view polygonal cells, mucus wall of the cell cavity containing brown material. Endocarp stone cells light brown, dark wavy anticlinal walls curved, densely pits. Fiber diameter of 14 ~ 43μm, walls are straight or wavy. [8] 
Take this product meal 0.8g, plus petroleum ether (60 ~ 90 ℃) 20ml, Mesa, constantly shaking, placed overnight, filtration, the filtrate vaporized to 1ml, as the test solution. Another Nepeta control medicine 0.8g, with the legal system as the reference drug solution. Thin layer chromatography test, draw the two solutions of 10μl, respectively, the same silica gel H TLC plate with hexane - ethyl acetate (17: 3) as the agent, started out, dried, sprayed 5% 5% vanillin sulfuric acid in ethanol, heated at 105 ℃ to spot the color clear. Test products for chromatography, chromatography with the reference drug corresponding position, was the same color spots. [8] 
Chemical composition
Containing 1.8% volatile oil, oil the main component of D-menthol, racemic ketone Dutch book, a small amount of D-limonene. [5]
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Entry pictures (14)
Nepeta
Nepeta (6)
Nepeta whole plant
Nepeta whole plant (10)
Nepeta fruit
Nepeta fruit (3)
Red Nepeta
Red Nepeta (5)
Carvacrol
Carvacrol (5)
Quasi Nepeta
Quasi Nepeta (7)
Nepeta grass
Nepeta grass (5)
Quasi Nepeta
Quasi Nepeta (6)
Nepeta
Nepeta (10)
Nepeta grass plant morphology ...
Nepeta grass plant morphology ... (6)
Nepeta Featured Photos
Nepeta Featured Pictures (6)
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Genus Nepeta
Zhejiang Nepeta group
Leaf Nepeta Department
▪ leaf Nepeta
Zhejiang Nepeta Department
▪ ▪ teeth black and green leaves Nepeta Nepeta Nepeta ▪ Zhejiang
Sessile Department
▪ sessile Nepeta
Songpan Nepeta Department
▪ Songpan Nepeta
Head sequence sets
Cong Curly Department
▪ ▪ Cong Curly purple Nepeta Nepeta
In medicinal flower group
▪ ▪ dense leaf gland Nepeta Nepeta Nepeta ▪ longibracteata
Great Nepeta group
Kozo Nepeta Department
▪ ▪ Kozo white woolly Nepeta Nepeta Nepeta sage leaf ▪ ▪ ▪ scalloped Nepeta Nepeta western Sichuan
Siberian Department
▪ ▪ Heilongjiang blue flower Nepeta Nepeta Nepeta leaves ▪ film ▪ ▪ spend large flower Nepeta Nepeta
▪ small flower Nepeta
Flower Group
Floret Department
▪ floret Nepeta
Small Nepeta group
Thorns Nepeta Department
▪ ▪ thorns southern Nepeta Nepeta
Nepeta group
Nepeta Department
▪ Nepeta
Straight teeth Nepeta group
Nepeta spur line
▪ ▪ broom sticks straight teeth Nepeta Nepeta
Tines Nepeta group
Tines Department
▪ tines Nepeta
Spike sequence sets
Dense flower Department
▪ ▪ sericeous dense flower Nepeta Nepeta
Glabra Department
▪ ▪ Amentotaxus Leis Nepeta Nepeta
Stipitate Nepeta Department
▪ yellow with veins Nepeta
Supine stem Department
▪ ▪ supine fluff Nepeta Nepeta
Tibetan Nepeta group
▪ Tibetan Nepeta
Above species are distributed in China
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. Nepeta Nepeta cataria L.. China Species Information Database [reference date 2012-11-13]
2. Ding Jun Zhang, Li Chunyan. "Modern agriculture": cultivation of medicinal plants Nepeta standardized production techniques: "modern agriculture" Editorial, 2013: 7-8
3. He Li, Na stone. "Scientific breeding": Nepeta pollution efficient cultivation techniques: Golden Shield Press, 2014: 27-28
4. Xu Shaofeng. "Chinese fruits and vegetables": Nepeta yield cultivation techniques: "Chinese fruits and vegetables," the editorial department, 2012: 20-21
5. Nepeta. China Medical Network [reference date 2014-04-20]
6. Nepeta. China Medical Network [reference date 2014-04-20]
7. Han Chunmei. "Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology": Nepeta yield cultivation techniques: "Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology," the editorial department, 2011: 29
8. Nepeta. China Medical Network [reference date 2014-04-20]










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