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玄參 Scrophularia (Scrophulariae Radix) Xuan Shen

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玄参

 

(植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
玄参(拉丁学名:Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.)为玄参科草本植物,可达1米余。支根数条,纺锤形或胡萝卜状膨大,粗可达3厘米以上。生于海拔1700米以下的竹林、溪旁、丛林及高草丛中。产河北(南部)、河南、山西、陕西(南部)、湖北、安徽、江苏、浙江、福建、江西、湖南、广东、贵州、四川。
中文学名
玄参
拉丁学名
Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.
别    称
元参、浙玄参、黑参、重台、鬼藏、正马、鹿肠、端、玄台、元参
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
管状花目
玄参科
亚    科
玄参科
玄参属
玄参
分布区域
主产浙江、四川、湖北。此外,贵州、湖南、江西等地亦产

形态特征编辑

高大草本,可达1米余。支根数条,纺锤形或胡萝卜状膨大,粗可达3厘米以
上。茎四棱形,有浅槽,无翅或有极狭的翅,无毛或多少有白色卷毛,常分枝。叶在茎下部多对生而具柄,上部的有时互生而柄极短,柄长者达4.5厘米,叶片多变化,多为卵形,有时上部的为卵状披针形至披针形,基部楔形、圆形或近心形,边缘具细锯齿,稀为不规则的细重锯齿,大者长达30厘米,宽达19厘米,上部最狭者长约8厘米,宽仅1厘米。
花序为疏散的大圆锥花序,由顶生和腋生的聚伞圆锥花序合成,长可达50厘米,但在较小的植株中,仅有顶生聚伞圆锥花序,长不及10厘米,聚伞花序常2-4回复出,花梗长3-30毫米,有腺毛;花褐紫色,花萼长2-3毫米,裂片圆形,边缘稍膜质;花冠长8-9毫米,花冠筒多少球形,上唇长于下唇约2.5毫米,裂片圆形,相邻边缘相互重叠,下唇裂片多少卵形,中裂片稍短;雄蕊稍短于下唇,花丝肥厚,退化雄蕊大而近于圆形;花柱长约3毫米,稍长于子房。蒴果卵圆形,连同短喙长8-9毫米。花期6-10月,果期9-11月。[1] 

植物形态

  •  
    玄参全株
    玄参全株(1张)
  •  
  •  
    玄参根茎
    玄参根茎(1张)
  •  
  •  
    玄参花果
    玄参花果(1张)

生长习性编辑

生于海拔1700米以下的竹林、溪旁、丛林及高草丛中。[1] 

地理分布编辑

为中国特产,是一分布较广,变异较大的种类,产河北(南部)、河南、山西、陕西(南部)、湖北、安徽、江苏、浙江、福建、江西、湖南、广东、贵州、四川。[1] 

栽培技术编辑

繁殖技术

用子芽、种子、分株、扦插等繁殖。生产上一般采用子芽繁殖。
在玄参收获时,选择无病、健壮、白色、长3-4cm的子芽,从芦头上下留作繁殖材料。南方采用冬种,于12月中、下旬至翌年1月上、中旬栽种。按行距40-50cm,株距34-40cm开穴,穴深8-10cm,每穴放子芽1个,芽向上。北方以春种为主,于2月下旬至4月上旬栽种,方法与冬种相同。

田间管理

生长期中,从4-6月时行中耕除草3-4次。除施足基肥外,在6月中旬再追肥、培土,防止倒伏。干旱时须灌溉,使土壤湿润;多雨积水应及时排水。南方在开花期要将顶部花序摘除,促进根产膨大。

病虫害防治

斑枯病
可清洁田地,实行轮作,增施磷钾肥。发病初期用1:1:100波尔多液喷洒3-4次,进行防治。
白绢病
可实行轮作,拔除病株、病空用石灰水消毒,选用抗病和无病子芽,用哈茨木霜进生物防治。
虫害
有棉红蜘蛛,在发病初期喷波美0.2-0.3度石硫合剂防治。蜗牛可人工捕杀,或喷洒1%石灰水。[2] 

药材鉴定编辑

显微鉴别

该品横切面:皮层较宽,石细胞单个散在或2~5个成群,多角形、类圆形或类方形,壁较厚,层纹明显;韧皮射线多裂隙。形成层成环。木质部射线宽广,亦多裂隙;导管少数,类多角形,直径约至113μm,伴有木纤维。薄壁细胞含核状物。[3] 

理化鉴别

取该品粉末50g(40目),用甲醇在沙氏提取器中回流3b,
回收甲醇,残留提取物回蒸馏水100ml溶解,用正丁醇提取3次,每次50ml,减压回收正丁醇,提取物用乙醚洗涤3次,每次5ml,残留物用因酮容解,通过活性炭柱层析,用丙酮洗脱,洗脱液加Godin试剂(1%香草醛的乙醇溶液和3%高氯酸水溶液,临用时等量混合)呈红紫色。或取间苯三酚试剂和盐酸各1滴,置发皿中,加上述丙酮溶液1滴;呈蓝绿色。[2] 

药用价值编辑

功效主治

清热凉血;滋阴降火;解毒散结。主温热病热和营血;身热;烦渴;舌绛;发斑;骨蒸劳嗽;虚烦不寤;津伤便秘;目涩昏花;咽喉喉肿痛;瘰疬痰核;痈疽疮毒。[2] 

附方

①治伤寒发汗吐下后,毒气不散,表虚里实,热发于外,故身斑如锦文,
甚则烦躁谵语,兼治喉闭肿痛:玄参、升麻、甘草(炙)各半两。上锉如麻豆大,每服抄五钱匕,以水一盏半,煎至七分,去滓服。(《类证活人书》玄参升麻汤)
  ②治三焦积热:玄参、黄连、大黄各一两。为末,炼蜜丸梧子大。每服三、四十丸,白汤下。小儿丸粟米大。(《丹溪心法》)
  ③治阳明温病,无上焦证,数日不大便,当下之,若其人阴素虚,不可行承气者:玄参一两,麦冬(连心)八钱。水八杯,煮取三杯,口干则与饮令尽。不便,再作服。(《温病条辨》增液汤)
  ④治伤寒上焦虚,毒气热壅塞,咽喉连舌肿痛:玄参、射干、黄药各一两。上药捣筛为末,每服五钱,以水一大盏,煎至五分,去滓,不拘时温服。(《圣惠方》玄参散)
  ⑤治急喉痹风,不拘大人小儿:玄参、鼠粘子(半生半炒)各一两。为末,新汲水服一盏。(《圣惠方》)
  ⑥治瘰疬初起:元参(蒸)、牡蛎(醋煅,研)、贝母(去心,蒸)各四两。共为末,炼蜜为丸。每服三钱,开水下,日二服。(《医学心悟》消瘰丸)
  ⑦解诸热,消疮毒:玄参、生地黄各一两,大黄五钱(煨)。上为末,炼蜜丸,灯心、淡竹叶汤下,或入砂糖少许亦可。(《补要袖珍小儿方论》)
  ⑧治赤脉贯瞳:玄参为末,以米泔煮猪肝,日日蘸食之。(《济急仙方》)[4] 

药用禁忌

脾胃有湿及脾虚便溏者忌服。
  1.《雷公炮炙论》:使用时勿令犯铜,饵之噎人喉,丧人目。
  2.《本草经集注》:恶黄耆、干姜、大枣、山茱萸。反黎芦。
  3.《本草经疏》:血少目昏,停饮寒热,支满,血虚腹痛,脾虚泄泻,并不宜服。
  4.《医林纂要》:虚寒则忌。[2] 

现代研究编辑

化学成分

玄参主要含环烯醚萜类、苯丙素苷类,尚含植物甾醇,有机酸类
,黄酮类,三萜皂苷,挥发油,糖类,生物碱及微量的单萜和二萜成分等。
环烯醚萜类
玄参的环烯醚萜成分分成4类:九碳骨架的环戊烷型、7,8-环戊烯型和7,8一环氧环戊烷型和变异环烯醚萜。
苯丙素苷类
从玄参中分离得到11个苯丙素苷类化合物:斩龙剑苷A(即6-O-反式肉桂酰-1-O-α-D-果糖基-8-D-葡萄糖,sibirioside A,xs-4)、赛斯坦苷F(即4-O-咖啡酰基-3-O-α- L-鼠李糖基-D-葡萄糖,cistanoside F,XS-5)、安格洛苷C(angorosideC,xs-8)、赛斯坦苷D(cistanoside D,xs-9)、毛蕊花糖苷(acteoside,XS-10)、去咖啡酰毛蕊花糖苷(decaffeoylacteoside,XS-11)、3-O-乙酰基-2-O-阿魏酰基-α-L-鼠李糖(ningposide A,XS-12)、4-O-乙酰基-2-O-阿魏酰基-α-L-鼠李糖(ningposide B,XS-13)、3-O-乙酰基-2-O-对羟基肉桂酰基-α-L-鼠李糖(ningposide C,XS-14)、4-O-(对甲氧基肉桂酰基)-α-L-鼠李糖和3-O-乙酰基-2-O-对甲氧基肉桂酰基-α-L-鼠李糖(ningposide D)。
甾醇类
玄参含有甾醇及其苷类如G-谷甾醇、胡萝卜甙等。
其它化合物
玄参还含有有机酸类肉桂酸、4-羟基-3-甲氧基苯甲酸、阿魏酸、对甲氧基肉桂酸、琥珀酸;5-羟甲基糖醛;二萜类柳杉醇;三萜类熊果酸及天冬酰胺、果糖、蔗糖、葡萄糖、三萜皂苷、黄酮苷元、生物碱及挥发油等。[5] 

药理作用

对心血管系统的影响
(1)扩张冠状动脉作用:玄参醇浸膏水溶液能显著增加离
体兔心冠脉流量,同时对心率、心收缩力有轻度抑制;玄参能明显增加小鼠心肌营养性血流量,并对小鼠垂体后叶素所致的冠脉收缩有明显对抗作用。
(2)降血压作用:药理学研究表明玄参水浸液、醇提液和煎剂均有降血压作用。玄参醇提液静脉注射可使麻醉猫的血压随即下降,血压平均下降40.5% ;煎剂对肾性高血压犬的降压作用更明显。降压作用初步分析玄参无对抗a-肾上腺素能受体作用,对阻断颈动脉血流所致的升压反射无明显影响,降压机理可能与扩张血管有关,有待进一步的研究。
(3)抗血小板聚集作用:苯丙素苷XS-8,XS-10 和环烯醚萜苷XS-6,XS-7在0.5mmol/L下都有抗血小板聚集作用,但苯丙素苷作用较强。苯丙素苷XS-8对血浆中的TXB2和6-keto-PGF10均有降低作用,但对TXE2的降低作用更明显,可能都是其抗血小板聚集的机制。玄参的亲脂性成分亦有抑制血小板聚集的作用,相同剂量条件下玄参醚提取、醇提物、水提物的抑制率分别为55.5% ,40.5 %,51.9% ,三者都有显著降低血小板聚集率的作用。
(4)促进纤溶作用:玄参醚、醇、水提取物对PAI-1都有显著降低作用,其中玄参石油醚提取物作用最强,与生理盐水对照组、相同剂量的丹参水提取液对照组比较有均显著差异,与阿司匹林组比较也有显著差异。
(5)改善血液流变性:玄参醚、醇、水提液对大鼠全血黏度、全血还原黏度、血浆黏度、细胞比容均无显著影响,但玄参提取液可明显改善缺血2h后皮层CBF(P%0.05),其中5mg/kg剂量组对于缺血各时间点的血流改善均有显著作用(P<0.05)。
(6)抗脑缺血损伤作用:玄参提取物对大鼠脑缺血有保护作用,尾静脉注射玄参提取物可明显减少缺血24h后大鼠的脑梗死体积,明显改善神经功能,此作用可能与提高脑血流量有关。
镇痛作用
玄参口服液给药1h后对醋酸所致小鼠扭体反应有明显的抑制作用,且作用与剂量有一定的依赖关系。
抗炎作用
玄参有抗炎作用,临床可用于齿龈炎、扁桃体炎、咽喉炎等。玄参对巴豆油致炎引起小鼠耳壳肿胀,蛋清、角叉菜胶和眼镜蛇毒诱导引起大鼠足趾肿胀,小鼠肉芽肿的形成均有明显的抑制作用。
抗菌作用
玄参根和叶的杀菌作用比较弱,其最低杀菌浓度均需每1ml含药量在50mg以上。玄参叶的抑菌效力较根强,尤对金黄色葡萄球菌有效,对白喉、伤寒杆菌次之,对乙型链球菌等作用差,但弱于黄连 。
免疫增强活性
哈帕酯苷皮下注射能使阴虚小鼠抑制的免疫功能恢复;哈帕苷和哈帕酯苷均能促进阴虚小鼠体外脾淋巴细胞增殖。在生理条件及环磷酰胺所致免疫功能抑制条件下玄参、黄芪均能升高白细胞数和胸腺指数。
保肝作用
玄参中苯丙素苷有保肝作用。研究发现苯丙素苷XS-10对D-氨基
半乳糖造成的肝细胞损伤有明显的保护作用且能抑制肝细胞凋亡。抗肝损伤细胞凋亡可能与其调控肝细胞凋亡相关基因有关。
抗氧化作用
玄参中苯丙素苷类抗氧活性明显比环烯醚萜类强。苯丙素苷XS-8与XS-10对脱氧核苷酸羟基加成自由基产生显著的修复作用,而环烯醚萜苷XS-6与XS-7在相同条件下作用不明显。对红细胞氧化性溶血四者均有显著抑制作用,且前两者明显强于后两者。
毒副作用
玄参叶较玄参毒性小。玄参叶LD50的95 可信限为19.35~24.63g/kg体重,最小致死量为15.4g/kg~玄参LD50的95 %可信限为15.99~19.81g/kg体重,最小致死量为10.8g/kg。两者均无明显的蓄积作用。小白鼠中毒表现为安静、消瘦、反应迟钝、腹泻、黑稀便,尸检未发现对肝、脾、心、肺和肾脏等器官造成病理改变凹。[5] 

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
  • 1.  玄参  .中国植物志[引用日期2014-05-25]
  • 2.  国家中医药管理局《中华本草》编委会编 著.中华本草:上海科学技术出版社,1999年
  • 3.  玄参  .中国医药网[引用日期2014-05-26]
  • 4.  玄参  .中国医药网[引用日期2014-05-26]
  • 5.  胡瑛瑛 黄真.玄参的化学成分及药理作用研究进展:浙江中医药大学学报,2008年
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/29780/16125521.htm

Scrophulariaceae (plants) edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Scrophulariaceae (Latin name:. Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl) Scrophulariaceae herb, up to more than 1 meter. Several rootlets, spindle or carrot-shaped enlargement, up to 3 cm thick or more. Born altitude of 1700 meters below the bamboo forest, stream, jungle and high grass. Production of Hebei (South), Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi (south), Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan.
Chinese scientific name Latin name Scrophulariaceae Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. Nickname Yuan ginseng, Zhejiang Scrophulariaceae, black ginseng, weight bench, ghost possession, positive horses, deer sausage, end, mysterious station, per reference sector Flora door Angiosperms Gang Twins leaf plant outline tubular flowers. Branch Ke Yake Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae genera scrophularia species distribution area is mainly produced in Zhejiang, Sichuan, Hubei. In addition, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi and other places are also produced
7 Modern research Contents 1 Morphology Growth Habit 2 3 4 cultivation techniques ▪ geographical distribution ▪ reproductive technology field management ▪ pest control ▪ 5 herbs identified microscopic identification of physical and chemical identification ▪ 6 medicinal value attached side ▪ Indications ▪ ▪ ▪ medical contraindications ▪ pharmacological effects of chemical composition
Morphological characteristics editor
Tall herb, up to more than 1 meter. Several rootlets, spindle or carrot-shaped enlargement, up to 3 cm thick with
On. Stems four prism, there is a shallow groove, wingless or very narrowly winged, glabrous or how much white curly, often branched. In the lower part of the leaf stems and stipitate opposite, sometimes alternate while the upper part of the handle is very short, up to 4.5 cm handle the elderly, many changes leaves mostly ovate, sometimes for the upper ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, base cuneate, rounded or nearly heart-shaped, finely serrated edge, thin serrated irregular heavy fine, and the larger up to 30 cm, 19 cm wide, the upper most narrow by about 8 cm, width of only 1 cm.
For the evacuation of large inflorescence panicles, synthesized by thyrses apical and axillary, up to 50 cm long, but in smaller plants, only the top students thyrses, less than 10 cm long, cymose 2-4 inflorescences often reply that, pedicels 3-30 mm, with glandular hairs; flowers maroon, calyx 2-3 mm long, lobes rounded, margin slightly membranous; corolla 8-9 mm long, much spherical corolla tube , upper lip, lower lip longer than about 2.5 mm, rounded lobes, adjacent edges overlap each other, how much lower lip lobes ovate, slightly shorter lobes; stamens slightly shorter than lower lip, filaments hypertrophy, staminode large and nearly circular; Style ca. 3 mm, slightly longer than ovary. Capsule ovoid, 8-9 mm long, along with a short beak. Flowering from June to October, the fruit of September to November. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Scrophulariaceae whole plant
Scrophulariaceae whole plant (1)
 
 
Scrophulariaceae rhizome
Scrophulariaceae rhizome (1)
 
 
Scrophulariaceae fruit
Scrophulariaceae fruit (1)
Growth habit editor
Born altitude of 1700 meters below the bamboo forest, stream, jungle and high grass. [1] 
Geographical Distribution Edit
China's specialty, is a widely distributed species varied greatly, production of Hebei (South), Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi (south), Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan ʱ?? [1] 
Cultivation Technical Editor
Reproductive technology

With sub-buds, seeds, division, cuttings and other propagation. Production generally use sub-bud reproduction.
When Scrophulariaceae harvest, select disease-free, healthy, white, long 3-4cm child bud, reserved for propagation material from the reed head. South using winter, in mid-December to late January next year, the mid-planted. Row spacing 40-50cm, spacing 34-40cm open hole, hole depth 8-10cm, bud per hole put a child shoots up. North to the main spring planting in late February to early April planting, the same methods and winter.
Field management

Growing season, from 4 - 6 months row weeding 3-4 times. In addition Shizujifei, in mid-June and then dressing, earth, to prevent lodging. Drought must irrigate the soil moist; rainy water should be drained. To the top of the South during flowering inflorescence removal, promote root production enlargement.
Pest Control

Septoria
You can clean fields, rotating their crops, increasing the phosphorus potassium. Early onset of 1: 1: 100 Bordeaux mixture spray 3-4 times, for control.
Southern Blight
Viable crop rotation, removal of diseased plants, disease empty with lime disinfection, selection of resistant and disease-free child bud, cream with Hartz wood into biological control.
Insect pest
Cotton spider mite, in the early stages of 0.2-0.3 degrees Baume lime sulfur spray control. Snails can be manually kill, or spray 1% lime. [2] 
Medicine identification editor
Microscopic identification

The cross-section of: Cortex wide, stone cells scattered single or 2 to 5 groups, polygonal, round or square type, thick-walled, laminated obvious; phloem ray multi fissure. Cambium into the ring. Xylem ray broad, it resembles crack; catheter minority, polygonal, diameter about to 113μm, with wood fiber. Parenchyma cells containing nuclear substance. [3]
Physical and chemical identification

Take the product powder 50g (40 mesh) with methanol reflux 3b in Sarbanes-extractor
Recovery of methanol, the residue was extracted back with distilled water 100ml dissolved with n-butanol extracted three times, each 50ml, vacuum recovery of n-butanol, washed with ether and extracted three times, each 5ml, the residue was content because one solution, by activated charcoal column chromatography using acetone eluate plus Godin reagent (1% vanillin in ethanol and 3% perchloric acid solution, temporary use when mixing equal) reddish purple. Or take phloroglucinol each reagent and 1 drop of hydrochloric acid, home made dish, add 1 drop of acetone solution of the above; bluish green. [2] 
Medicinal value edit
Indications

Qingreliangxue; nourishing yin; detoxification Sanjie. Main camp warm heat illness and blood; fever; thirst; tongue purple; fat spot; Gu Zheng labor cough; virtual trouble http; Tianjin injury constipation; head Shibuya dim; sore throat throat; scrofula sputum nuclear; ulcer sore. [2] 
With side

① spit after sweating under the rule of typhoid, gas dispersed, virtual table in solid, hot fat on the outside, so the body spots such as Jin Wen,
And even then agitated delirium, to rid sore throat closing: Scrophulariaceae, cohosh, licorice (Sunburn) half two. Madou on file as large, each serving five money dagger copy to water a half, and simmer till seven, to sediment clothing. ("Class Certificate living book" Scrophulariaceae cohosh soup)
② triple burner heat to cure: Scrophulariaceae, berberine, rhubarb twelve. To the end, refining pill Wu Zi. Each serving three, forty pills, white soup. Children with big pill corn. ("Danxi Heart")
③ Yangming temperature cure disease, and no coke certificate, a few days without stool, the moment of, if their human female hormone deficiency, viable chengqi by: Scrophulariaceae twelve, Radix (even the heart) eight money. Eight glasses of water, Zhuqu cups, dry mouth is and make the best drink. Inconvenient, and then make clothing. ("Warm Diseases identified" by liquid soup)
④ virtual focus on governance typhoid, gas heat congestion, sore throat and even tongue: Scrophulariaceae, Shegan xanthate one or two. Drug and destroyed the screen at the end, each serving five money, a large cup of water, fry a fifth, to the dregs, when the temperature informal clothes. ("Sheng Hui Fang" Scrophulariaceae bulk)
⑤ treatment of acute pharyngitis wind, informal adult children: Scrophulariaceae, mouse sticky child (half-half fried) each twelve. To the end, a new draw water service. ("Sheng Hui Fang")
⑥ cure scrofula beginning: Yuan ginseng (steamed), oysters (calcined vinegar, Research), Fritillaria (to the heart, steamed) each forty-two. Total at the end, refining honey for the pills. Each serving three money, under water, day two clothing. ("Medical Heart Awakening" Xiao Lei Wan)
⑦ solutions of various heat, eliminate sore: Scrophulariaceae, traditional Chinese medicine each twelve, rhubarb five money (simmer). For the end, refining the next pill, wick, light bamboo soup, or the sugar a little also. ("Complement to pocket side on the children")
⑧ Governance red veins consistent pupil: Scrophulariaceae for the end of Gan cooked liver, dipping the day. ("Economic emergency Xian Fang") [4]
Medicinal taboo

Wet stomach and spleen, loose stools Jifu.
1. "Treatise on Thunder Gun": With Wuling people committed choke copper, bait the throat, head mourning people.
2. "Annotations of Materia Medica": evil Astragalus, ginger, jujube, dogwood. Anti veratryl.
3. "Ben Cao Jing Shu": less blood head faint, stop drinking cold and heat, support full, anemia, abdominal pain, diarrhea spleen, and should not be served.
4. "Doctor Lin compile to": Deficiency the bogey. [2] 
Modern research editor
chemical composition

Scrophulariaceae mainly containing iridoid class, phenylpropanoid glycosides, still contain plant sterols, organic acids
, Flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, volatile oil, sugars, alkaloids and trace amounts of monoterpenes and diterpenes ingredients.
Iridoid class
Iridoid components figwort is divided into four categories: nine-carbon skeleton type cyclopentane, 7,8-cyclopentene-type cyclopentane and 7,8-epoxy-type and mutant iridoid.
Phenylpropanoid glycosides
Isolated from Scrophularia 11 phenylpropanoid glycosides: Killing the Dragon Sword glycosides A (ie, 6-O- trans-cinnamic acid -1-O-α-D- fructose group -8-D- glucose, sibirioside A , xs-4), Sai Sitan glycosides F (i.e., 4-O- caffeoyl -3-O-α- L- rhamnose group -D- glucose, cistanoside F, XS-5), Angelo glycoside C ( angorosideC, xs-8), Sai Sitan glycoside D (cistanoside D, xs-9), verbascoside (acteoside, XS-10), to caffeoyl verbascoside (decaffeoylacteoside, XS-11), 3-O- acetyl - 2-O- feruloyl -α-L- rhamnose (ningposide A, XS-12), 4-O- acetyl -2-O- feruloyl -α-L- rhamnose (ningposide B, XS-13), 3-O- acetyl-p-hydroxy -2-O- cinnamoyl -α-L- rhamnose (ningposide C, XS-14), 4-O- (p-methoxy cinnamoyl) - α-L- rhamnose, and 3-O- -2-O- acetyl-p-methoxy cinnamoyl -α-L- rhamnose (ningposide D).
Sterols
Scrophulariaceae contain sterols and glycosides such as G- sitosterol, daucosterol like.
Other compounds
Scrophulariaceae also contains organic acids and cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-methoxy cinnamic acid, succinic acid; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural; diterpenoid Japanese cedar alcohol ; triterpenes ursolic acid and asparagine, fructose, sucrose, glucose, triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids aglycone, alkaloids and volatile oil. [5]
Pharmacological effects

Effects on the cardiovascular system
(1) expansion of coronary role: Scrophulariaceae alcohol aqueous extract significantly increased from
Rabbit hearts coronary flow, while the heart rate, cardiac contractility mild suppression; Scrophulariaceae can significantly increase myocardial nutritional blood flow in mice, and the mice vasopressin induced coronary contraction obvious antagonism ʱ??
(2) The blood pressure lowering effects: pharmacological studies have shown that aqueous extracts of Scrophularia, alcohol extract and decoction have a hypotensive effect. Scrophulariaceae alcohol extract of anesthetized cats intravenous injection can decrease blood pressure immediately, blood pressure dropped by an average 40.5 percent; decoction antihypertensive effect of renal hypertension dog more obvious. Preliminary analysis of the antihypertensive effect Scrophulariaceae unopposed a- adrenergic receptors, boosting reflection of blocking the carotid artery blood flow caused no significant effect on blood pressure and dilation of blood vessels may be related to the mechanism, pending further study.
(3) Anti-platelet aggregation effect: phenylpropanoid glycosides XS-8, XS-10 and iridoid glycosides XS-6, XS-7 in 0.5mmol / L under both anti-platelet aggregation, but phenylpropanoid glycosides stronger role. Phenylpropanoid glycosides XS-8 in plasma level of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF10 have reduced the role, but to reduce the role of TXE2 more significant, it may have been the mechanism of its anti-platelet aggregation. Lipophilic component figwort also inhibiting platelet aggregation, at the same doses Scrophulariaceae ether extract, the inhibition rate of alcohol extract, aqueous extract of 55.5% and 40.5%, 51.9%, the three have significantly reduced platelet aggregation rate.
(4) to promote fibrinolysis: Scrophulariaceae ethers, alcohols, water extract of PAI-1 have a significant lowering effect, which Scrophulariaceae petroleum ether extract strongest, with the control group, the same dose of Salvia water extraction There was the control group were significantly different, there was significant difference between aspirin group also.
(5) improve blood rheology: Scrophulariaceae ethers, alcohols, whole blood viscosity in rats, there was no significant effect on whole blood reduced viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit water extract, but Scrophulariaceae extract can significantly improve ischemic After 2h cortical CBF (P% 0.05), in which the 5mg / kg dose group at each time point for ischemic blood flow improvements have a significant effect (P <0.05).
Ischemic injury (6) Anti-Brain: Scrophulariaceae extract on rat cerebral ischemia has a protective effect, tail vein injection Scrophulariaceae extract can significantly reduce ischemic infarct volume in rats after 24h, significant improvement in neurological function, This effect may be related with the increase cerebral blood flow.
Analgesic effect
Scrophulariaceae 1h after oral administration of acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice significantly inhibited, and the role of a certain dose-dependency.
Anti-inflammatory effect
Scrophulariaceae have anti-inflammatory effects, can be used in clinical gingivitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis. Scrophulariaceae croton oil-induced inflammation caused by auricular swelling in mice, egg white, carrageenan and cobra venom-induced paw edema in rats, mice granuloma formation were significantly inhibited.
Antibacterial effect
Scrophulariaceae bactericidal effect is relatively weak roots and leaves, the minimum bactericidal concentration per 1ml dose required is contained in more than 50mg. Antibacterial effect than root figwort leaves strong, especially effective against Staphylococcus aureus, diphtheria, typhoid bacillus, followed by B streptococcus and other effects of poor, but weaker than berberine.
Immune enhancing activity
Harper ester glycosides Yin mice subcutaneously enables suppression of immune function recovery; Harper Harper ester saponin glycosides and can promote the proliferation of mouse lymphocytes in vitro spleen deficiency. In physiological conditions and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression conditions Scrophulariaceae, astragalus can increase white blood cell count and thymus.
Hepatoprotective effect
Phenylpropanolid Scrophulariaceae glycosides have hepatoprotective effect. The study found phenylpropanoid glycoside XS-10 对 D- amino
Liver cell damage caused by galactose have a significant protective effect and inhibit apoptosis of liver cells. Anti-apoptosis of liver cell damage may be related to the regulation of liver cell apoptosis related genes.
Antioxidant
Scrophularia phenylpropanoid glycosides antioxidant activity was significantly stronger than the iridoid class. Phenylpropanoid glycosides XS-8 and XS-10 deoxidation nucleotide addition hydroxyl radical generating significant repair, and iridoid glycosides XS-6 and XS-7 in the same conditions is not obvious. Erythrocytes oxidative hemolysis of the four were significantly inhibited, and the former two is stronger than the latter two.
Side effects
Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae leaves relatively little toxicity. Scrophulariaceae leaf LD50 95 confidence interval 19.35 ~ 24.63g / kg body weight, the minimum lethal dose of 15.4g / kg ~ figwort LD50 95% confidence limit of 15.99 ~ 19.81g / kg body weight, the minimum lethal dose of 10.8 g / kg. Neither significant accumulation effect. Mice poisoning manifested as quiet, thin, unresponsive, diarrhea, black stools, the autopsy did not find the liver, spleen, heart, lung and kidney and other organs cause pathological changes recess. [5]
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Scrophulariaceae
Scrophulariaceae (16)
Scrophulariaceae whole plant
Scrophulariaceae whole plant (1)
Scrophulariaceae rhizome
Scrophulariaceae rhizome (1)
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Scrophularia
Scrophulariaceae group
▪ ▪ He Lanxuan ginseng and other lip Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae North ▪ ▪ ▪ Yanxi flower Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae
▪ heavy tooth Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae ▪ ▪ High long-stemmed Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae ▪ ▪ western Hubei, Xinjiang Scrophulariaceae
Dandong Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae alpine ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ large fruit Gansu Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae ▪ Single tooth
▪ ▪ Shanxi Mabian Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae NORTH ▪ ▪ ▪ Nanjing Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae
▪ ▪ florets round flower Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae flower spike ▪ ▪ ▪ winged stems long column Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae
▪ ▪ Yunnan nettle leaves Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae
Gravel Scrophulariaceae group
▪ ▪ gravel tooth leaves Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae ▪ pinnatifid
Above species are distributed in China
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. Scrophulariaceae. Flora of China [reference date 2014-05-25]
2. The State Administration of Traditional "Chinese herbal medicine" editorial edited. Chinese herbal medicine: Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1999
3. Scrophulariaceae. China Medical Network [reference date 2014-05-26]
4. Scrophulariaceae. China Medical Network [reference date 2014-05-26]
5. Hu Yingying Huang Zhen. Studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological effects figwort: the Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2008










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