Home‎ > ‎Common Herbs 常用草藥‎ > ‎

黄芩 Scute (Scutellariae Radix) Skullcap - Huang Qin

Click to get cool Animations for your MySpace profileSet 12 up AnimationSet 12 up Animation 


黄芩

 

(唇形科植物)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
黄芩(拉丁学名:Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi),别名山茶根、土金茶根,是唇形科黄芩属多年生草本植物;肉质根茎肥厚,叶坚纸质,披针形至线状披针形,总状花序在茎及枝上顶生,花冠紫、紫红至蓝色,花丝扁平,花柱细长,花盘环状,子房褐色,小坚果卵球形,花果期7~9月。
黄芩生于向阳草坡地、休荒地上,海拔60~1300(1700~2000)米。产于黑龙江,辽宁,内蒙古,河北,河南,甘肃,陕西,山西,山东,四川等地,中国北方多数省区都可种植。俄罗斯东西伯利亚,蒙古,朝鲜,日本均有分布。模式标本采自俄罗斯。[1] 
黄芩的根入药,味苦、性寒,有清热燥湿、泻火解毒止血安胎等功效。主治温热病、上呼吸道感染、肺热咳嗽、湿热黄胆、肺炎痢疾咳血、目赤、胎动不安、高血压、痈肿疖疮等症。黄芩的临床抗菌性比黄连好,而且不产生抗药性。
中文学名
黄芩
拉丁学名
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
别    称
山茶根、土金茶根
二名法
Scutellaria baicalensis
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
合瓣花亚纲
管状花目
唇形科
亚    科
黄芩亚科
黄芩属
亚    属
黄芩亚属
黄芩
分布区域
中国、苏联东西伯利亚、蒙古、朝鲜、日本
毒    性
小毒
功    能
清热燥湿、消炎抗菌、消肿

形态特征编辑

黄芩黄芩
多年生草本;根茎肥厚,肉质,径达2厘米,伸长而分枝。茎基部伏地,上升,高30~120厘米,基部径2.5-3毫米,钝四棱形,具细条纹,近无毛或被上曲至开展的微柔毛,绿色或带紫色,自基部多分枝。[1] 
叶坚纸质,披针形至线状披针形,长1.5~4.5厘米,宽0.5~1.2厘米,顶端钝,基部圆形,全缘,上面暗绿色,无毛或疏被贴生至开展的微柔毛,下面色较淡,无毛或沿中脉疏被微柔毛,密被下陷的腺点,侧脉4对,与中脉上面下陷下面凸出;叶柄短,长2毫米,腹凹背凸,被微柔毛。[1] 
花序在茎及枝上顶生,总状,长7~15厘米,常再于茎顶聚成圆锥花序;花梗长3毫米,与序轴均被微柔毛;苞片下部者似叶,上部者远较小,卵圆状披针形至披针形,长4~11毫米,近于无毛。花萼开花时长4毫米,盾片高1.5毫米,外面密被微柔毛,萼缘被疏柔毛,内面无毛,果时花萼长5毫米,有高4毫米的盾片。花冠紫、紫红至蓝色,长2.3~3厘米,外面密被具腺短柔毛,内面在囊状膨大处被短柔毛;冠筒近基部明显膝曲,中部径1.5毫米,至喉部宽达6毫米;冠檐2唇形,上唇盔状,先端微缺,下唇中裂片三角状卵圆形,宽7.5毫米,两侧裂片向上唇靠合。雄蕊4,稍露出,前对较长,具半药,退化半药不明显,后对较短,具全药,药室裂口具白色髯毛,背部具泡状毛;花丝扁平,中部以下前对在内侧后对在两侧被小疏柔毛。花柱细长,先端锐尖,微裂。花盘环状,高0.75毫米,前方稍增大,后方延伸成极短子房柄。子房褐色,无毛。[1] 
坚果卵球形,高1.5毫米,径1毫米,黑褐色,具瘤,腹面近基部具果脐。花期7-8月,果期8-9月。[1] 

植物形态

  •  
    黄芩全株
    黄芩全株(12张)
  •  
  •  
    黄芩枝叶
    黄芩枝叶(1张)
  •  
  •  
    黄芩花果
    黄芩花果(5张)

生长习性编辑

根的生长:黄芩为直根系,主根在前三年生长正常,其主根长度、粗度、鲜重和干重均逐年增加,主根中黄芩苷含量较高。第四年以后,生长速度开始变慢,部分主根开始出现枯心,以后逐年加重,八年生的家重黄芩几乎所有主根及较粗的侧根全部枯心,而且黄芩苷的含量也大幅度降低。[2] 
、叶生长:出苗后,主茎逐渐长高,叶数逐渐增加,随后形成分枝并现蕾、开花、结实。5~6月为茎叶生长期,一年生黄芩主茎约可长出30对叶,其中前五对叶每4~6天长出1对,其后叶片每2~3天长出1对。[2] 
开花结果:一年生植株一般出苗后2个月开始现蕾,二年生及其以后的黄芩,多于返青出苗后70~80天开始现蕾,现蕾后10天左右开始开花,40天左右果实开始成熟,如环境条件适宜黄芩开花结实可持续到霜枯期。[2] 
生长环境
生于向阳草坡地、休荒地上,海拔60~1300(1700~2000)米。[1] 
黄芩野生于山顶、山坡、林缘、路旁等向阳较干燥的地方。喜温暖,耐严寒,成年植株地下部分在-35℃低温下仍能安全越冬,35℃高温不致枯死,但不能经受40℃以上连续高温天气。耐旱怕涝,地内积水或雨水过多,生长不良,重者烂根死亡。排水不良的土地不宜种植。土壤以壤土和沙质壤士,酸碱度以中性和微碱性为好,忌连作。[2] 

地理分布编辑

人工栽培

黄芩主要分布在山东、陕西、山西、甘肃四大产区,其中集中在山西绛县南凡镇、运城市夏县瑶峰镇、新绛县万安镇、万荣县、闻喜县薛店镇等地;陕西商洛、渭南临渭区桥南镇、商州市商州区孝义镇、洛南县景村镇、丹凤县棣花镇、商洛市夜村镇、丹凤县商镇等地;山东沂蒙山区、莒县库山乡、莱芜市茶叶口镇、富官庄乡等地;甘肃主产陇西、渭源、漳县,次产岷县、宕昌、河西等地。

野生

黄芩主要分布中国内蒙中东部和东北三省大部,河北承德,内蒙古赤峰等几个最具规模的主产区,是中国北方野生中药材的主要产地之一。

繁殖方法编辑

种子繁殖:
⑴直播法
种子繁殖以直播为主,直播黄芩根系直,根叉少,商品外观品质好,同时省工。
黄芩黄芩
直播多于春季进行,一般在地下5厘米地温稳定在12℃-15℃时播种,北方地区多在4月上中旬前后。[2] 
⑵育苗移栽法
育苗移栽法可节省种子,延长生长时间,利于确保全苗,但较为费工,同时移栽黄芩主根较短,根叉较多,商品外观品质差,一般在种子昂贵或者旱地缺水直播难以出苗保苗时采用。[2] 
扦插繁殖:扦插虽可繁殖,但生产中很少采用。扦插成败的关键在于扦插季节和取条部分。扦插时间以春季5-6月份扦插成活率高。插条应选茎尖半木质化的幼嫩部分,扦插成活率可达90%以上。[2] 
分根繁殖:即挖取洞未萌发的3年生黄芩根茎,切取主根留供药用,然后根据根茎生长的自然形状分切成若干块,每块有芽眼2-3个即可栽种。[3]  分根繁殖虽然生长快,但繁殖系数太低,生产中很少采用。[2] 

栽培技术编辑

间苗定苗

采取种子直播时,当幼苗长到4厘米高时要间去过密和瘦弱的小苗,按株距10厘米定苗。育苗地不必间苗。[2] 

中耕除草

幼苗出土后,应及时松土除草,并结合松土向幼苗四周适当培土,保持疏松、无杂草,一年需要除草3-4次。[2] 

施肥灌溉

苗高10-15厘米时,追肥1次,施用量为每亩用人畜粪水1500-2000千克。6月底-7月初,每亩追施过磷酸钙20千克、尿素5千克,行间开沟施下,覆土后浇水。次年收获的待植株枯萎后,于行间开沟每亩追施腐熟厩肥2000千克、过磷酸钙20千克、尿素5千克、草木灰150千克,然后覆土盖平。[2] 
黄芩耐旱怕涝,雨季需注意排水,田间不可积水,否则易烂根。遇严重干旱时或追肥后,可适当浇水。[2] 

摘除花蕾

在抽出花序前,将花梗减掉,可减少养分消耗,促使根系生长,提高产量。[2] 

病虫防治

病害有叶枯病,可清洁田园,发端正初期喷洒1:1:200波尔多液,或用50%多菌灵1000倍液防治。
根腐病,注意排水,实行轮作;及早拨出病株烧毁,病株处土壤用石灰消毒。
虫害有黄芩舞蛾,可用90%敌百虫防治。[3] 

药用价值编辑

付方

性味:苦,寒。
①《本经》:味苦,平。
②《别录》:大寒,无毒。
③《药性论》:味苦甘。
归经:入心、肺、胆、大肠经。
①《品汇精要》:行手太阴、阳明经。
②《纲目》:入手少阴、阳明,手足太阴、少阳六经。
③《雷公炮制药性解》:入肺、大肠、膀胱、胆四经。[4] 

功能主治

泻实火,除湿热,止血,安胎。治壮热烦渴,肺热咳嗽,湿热泻痢,黄疸,热淋,吐、衄、崩、漏,目赤肿痛,胎动不安,痈肿疔疮。
①《本经》:主诸热黄疸,肠澼,泄利,逐水,下血闭,(治)恶疮,疽蚀,火疡。
②《别录》:疗痰热,胃中热,小腹绞痛,消谷,利小肠,女子血闭,淋露下血,小儿腹痛。
③陶弘景:治奔豚,脐下热痛。
④《药性论》:能治热毒,骨蒸,寒热往来,肠胃不利,破壅气,治五淋,令人宣畅,去关节烦闷,解热渴,治热腹中疞痛,心腹坚胀。
⑤《日华子本草》:下气,主天行热疾,疔疮,排脓。治乳痈,发背。
⑥《珍珠囊》:除阳有余,凉心去热,通寒格。
⑦李杲:治发热口苦。
⑧《滇南本草》:上行泻肺火,下行泻膀胱火,(治)男子五淋,女子暴崩,调经清热,胎有火热不安,清胎热,除六经实火实热。
⑨《纲目》:治风热湿热头疼,奔豚热痛,火咳,肺痿喉腥,诸失血。
⑩《本草正》:枯者清上焦之火,消痰利气,定喘嗽,止失血,退往来寒热,风热湿热,头痛,解瘟疫,清咽,疗肺痿肺痈,乳痈发背,尤祛肌表之热,故治斑疹、鼠瘘,疮疡、赤眼;实者凉下焦之热,能除赤痢,热蓄膀胱,五淋涩痛,大肠闭结,便血、漏血。
⑾《科学的民间药草》:外洗创口,有防腐作用。[4] 

用法用量

内服:煎汤,1~3钱;或入丸、散。外用:煎水洗或研末撤。[4] 

化学成分

黄芩根含黄酮类化合物:黄芩素(baicalein),黄芩新素(neobaicalein),即黄芩黄酮Ⅱ(skullcapflavoneⅡ),黄芩甙(baicalin),汉黄芩素(wogonin),汉黄芩甙(wogono-side),木蝴蝶素A(oroxylin,oroxylin A),7-甲氧基黄芩素(7-methoxbaic alein),黄芩黄酮(skullcapflavone)Ⅰ,二氢木蝴蝶素A(dihydrooroxylin A),白杨素(chrysin),2,5,8-三羟基-7-甲氧基黄酮(2,5,8-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-flavone),2,5,8-三羟基-6,7-二甲氧基黄酮(2,5,8-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone),4,5,7-三羟基-6-甲氧基黄烷酮(4,5,7-trhydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone),2,3,5,6,7-五羟基黄烷酮(2,3,5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone),汉黄芩素-5-β-D-葡萄糖甙(wogonin-5-β-D-glucoside),2-(3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯基)-乙基-1-O-α-L-鼠李糖基(1→3)-β-D(4-阿魏酰基)-葡萄糖〔2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl-1-O-α-L-rhamnosyl(1→3)-β-D-(4-feruloyl)glucoside〕,白杨素-6-C-α-L-阿拉伯糖甙(chrysin-6-C-β-D-glucoside-8-C-β-L-arabinoside),白杨素-6-C-α-L-阿拉伯糖甙-8-C-β-D-葡萄糖甙(chrysin-6-C-α-L-arabi-noside-8-C-β-D-glucoside),(2S)-2,5,6,7-四羟基黄烷酮〔(2S)-25,6,7-terahydroxyflavanone〕,5,7,2,6-四羟基黄酮(5,7,2,6-tetrahydroxyflavone),5,8-二羟基-6,7-二甲氧基黄酮(5,8-dihydroxy-6,7-drimethoxyflavone),5,7,4-三羟基-8-甲氧基黄酮(5,7,4-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone),木蝴蝶素A-7-O-葡萄糖醛酸甙(oroxylinA-7-O-glucuronide),5,7,2-三羟基甲氧基黄酮(5,7,2-trihyroxy-6-methoxyflavone),5,2-二羟基-6,7,8-三甲氧基黄酮(5,2-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyfla-vone),5-闳基-7,8-二甲氧基黄酮(5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-flavone),去甲汉黄芩素(norwogonin),二氢黄芩素(dihydro-baicalin),5,7,2-三羟基黄酮(5,7,2-trihydroxyflavone),5,7,2-三羟基-8,6-二甲氧基黄酮(5,7,2-trihydroxy-8,6-dimethoxyflavone),5,7,2,5-四羟基-8,6-二甲氧基黄酮即粘毛黄芩素Ⅲ(5,7,2,5-tetrahydroxy-8,6-dimethoxyflavone,vis-ciduiin Ⅲ,5,2,5-三羟基三甲氧基黄酮(5,2,5-trihy-droxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone),黄芩素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙(baicalein-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside),5,7,2-三羟基-8-甲氧基黄酮(5,7,2-trhiyroxy-8-methoxyflavone),5,7,2,3-四羟基黄酮(5,7,2,3-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone),5,7,2,3-四闳基黄酮(5,7,2,3-tetrahydroxyflavone),3,5,7,2,5,6-五羟基黄酮(3,5,7,2,5,6-pentahydroxyflavone)即粘毛黄芩素Ⅰ(viscidulin Ⅰ),(2S)-7,2,6-三羟基-5-甲氧基黄烷酮〔(2S)-7,2,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone〕,2,6,2,4-四羟基-6-甲氧基查尔酮(2,6,2,4-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxychalcone),5,7,2,5-四羟基黄酮(5,7,2,5-tetrahydroxyflavone),左旋圣草素(eriodictyol),半枝莲种素(rivularin)及粘毛黄芩素Ⅲ-2-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙(viscidulin Ⅲ-2-O-β-D-glucoplyranoside)等。另外还含β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol),菜油甾醇(campesterol)及豆甾醇(stigmasterol)。[3] 

药理作用

抗菌作用:黄芩煎剂100%浓度,平板法试验,对痢疾杆菌、伤寒杆菌、副伤寒杆菌、霍乱弧菌、大肠杆菌、变形杆菌、绿脓杆菌、葡萄球菌、溶血性琏球菌(a,B)、肺炎双球菌、白喉杆菌等有抑制作用。黄芩煎剂试管法试验1:1280 浓度可抑制伤寒杆菌、溶血性链球菌a,1:640 浓度抑制溶血性链球菌B,肺炎双球菌及福氏痢疾杆菌、人结核杆菌H37,1:320 浓度可抑制霍乱弧菌、志贺氏痢疾杆菌;1:80 浓度时宋内氏痢疾杆菌有抑制作用。黄芩醇浸液0.5g/ml或0。05g/ml,用琼脂斜面培养,药液与培养基1:1 混合,对绿脓杆菌有抑制作用。黄芩醇浸液2g/ml浓度,平皿法试验对大肠杆菌桔草杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌有抑制作用。黄芩煎剂、醇提剂1g/ml浓度,用平板法试验时对脑膜炎球菌均有抑作用。[5] 
抗真菌作用:黄芩煎液,试管斜面法试验4%浓度抑制狗小牙胞菌及堇色毛癣菌,8%浓度抑制许兰氏黄癣菌,10%浓度抑制许兰氏黄癣菌蒙古变种,15%浓度抑制共心性毛癣菌及铁锈色毛癣菌。黄芩水浸剂1:3浓度在试管内对堇色毛癣菌、同心性毛癣菌,许兰氏黄癣菌、奥杜盎氏小芽胞癣菌、羊毛样小芽胞癣菌、红色表皮癣菌、K、W、氏表皮癣菌、星形奴卡氏菌等有不同程度抑菌作用。[5] 
抗病毒作用:黄芩煎剂25-100%浓度,体外试验对乙型肝炎病毒DNA复制有抑制作用。[5] 
抗炎抗变态反应:黄芩70%乙醇提取物200,500mg/kg 灌胃黄芩素、黄芩甙、汉黄芩素50,100mg/kg 灌胃,可抑制醋酸引起的小鼠腹腔渗出增加,对48/80(一种化合物名称,Sigma 生产)引起的大鼠足肿也有抑制作用,黄芩70%乙醇提取物500mg/kg 灌胃,黄芩素、黄芩甙及汉黄芩素100mg/kg灌胃对大鼠佐剂性关节炎有抑制作用。黄芩水提物100,200mg/kg 灌胃,对大鼠被动皮肤过敏反应(PCA)有抑制作用,但对氯化苦引起的小鼠接触皮炎(耳肿胀)无明显影响。[5] 
对中枢神经系统的作用:黄芩煎剂4g/kg 腹腔注射,对小鼠防御性条件反射可使阳性反射时延长,而对非条件反射及分化无影响,说明黄芩可加强皮层抑制过程。黄芩煎剂2g/kg,对伤寒混合疫苗致热家兔有解热作用。但也有报道黄芩水煎剂或酒浸剂5-9g/只灌胃,或2g/只im,均不能证明黄芩对伤寒疫苗致热家兔有解热作用。[5] 
对心血管的作用:黄芩醇提液1g/kg静脉注射,可使麻醉犬血压下降。黄芩煎剂0。06g/kg 静脉注射,对麻醉犬有明显降压作用。黄芩素20mg/kg 静脉注射,可使麻醉犬血压下降40-50%。黄芩浸剂灌胃/kg 灌胃,3次/天,连续4周,使慢性肾性高血压犬血压下降,心率变慢。黄芩甙2×10(-4)mol/l,在豚鼠离体主动脉条、肺动脉条、气管条及右心房均有竞争性的拮抗肾上腺素,去甲肾上腺素及多巴胺引起的收缩作用,也拮抗异丙肾上腺素舒张气管和增加右心房自发频率作用,提示黄芩甙对a,B1,B2 受体均有阻断作用。[5] 
抗血小板聚集及抗凝:黄芩素、汉黄芩素、千层纸素A、黄芩黄酮Ⅱ及白杨素(chrysin)于浓度1。0mM时,均可抑制胶原诱导的大鼠血小板聚集,白杨素对ADP诱导的血小板聚集也有抑制作用,黄芩素及汉黄芩素对花生四烯酸诱导的血小板聚集也有抑制作用,黄芩素及黄芩甙对凝血酶诱导的纤维蛋白原转化为纤维蛋白也抑制;黄芩素及黄芩甙20,50mg/kg 灌胃,对内毒素诱导的大鼠弥漫性血管内凝血,可以防止血小板及纤维蛋白原含量的降低。[5] 
降血脂:黄芩水浸液10%2ml/只灌胃,连续给药7周,可使胆固醇喂饲的家兔血清胆固醇含量下降。黄芩素、黄芩甙100mg/kg 灌胃,可降低实验性高血脂大鼠玉米油-胆固醇-胆酸喂饲血清游离脂肪酸、甘油三酯及肝甘油三酯的含量,黄芩黄酮Ⅱ100mg/kg 灌胃,可降低血清总胆固醇及肝甘油三酯的含量,增加血清高密度脂蛋白-胆固醇(HDL-ch)的含量,汉黄芩素100mg/kg 灌胃,可防止肝甘油三酯的沉积并增加血清HDL-ch的含量。黄芩素、黄芩甙 100mg/kg 灌胃,对乙醇引起的高血脂大鼠,可降低肝总胆固醇、游离胆固醇及甘油三酯含量,汉黄芩素能降低血清甘油三酯的水平,黄芩素能增加血清HDL-ch含量。[5] 
保肝、利胆、抗氧化:黄芩甲醇提取物1000mg/kg 腹腔注射,对异硫氰酸萘酯(ANIT)引起的大鼠肝损害有抑制作用,可抑制血清胆红素的增加。黄芩醇提物50,100mg/kg,黄芩甙50,100mg/kg 灌胃,对家兔有利胆作用。汉黄芩素10(-4)-10(-6)mol/l 浓度体外试验,对大鼠肝微粒体脂质过氧化有抑制作用,使丙二醛(MDA)含量下降。黄芩素及黄芩甙2。5×10(-4)mol/l,1.0×10(-4)mol/l,汉黄芩素2.5×10(-4)mol/l,黄芩黄酮Ⅱ2。5×10(-4)mol/l,汉黄芩素-7-O-D葡萄糖醛酸2.5×10(-4)mol/l,1.0× 10(-4)mol/l,对FeC12-维生素C-ADP混合物诱导的大鼠肝匀浆脂质过氧化有抑制作用,使肝MDA的形成显著下降,对NADPH一ADP引起的脂质过氧化也抑制。[5] 
抗癌:黄芩醚提物对小鼠白血病L1210细胞有细胞毒作用,半数有效量为10.4mg/ml,黄芩黄酮Ⅱ对小鼠L1210 细胞的半数有效量 为1.5μg/ml,黄芩甙、黄芩素及汉黄芩素对L1210作用不显著。[5] 
其它作用:黄芩素10,20mg/kg 静脉注射,对麻醉犬有利尿作用。黄芩煎剂
黄芩展示图
黄芩展示图 (20张)
4g/kg 灌胃,对大鼠半乳糖性白内障有防治作用,可延缓白内障的形成。黄芩甙对大鼠晶体醛糖还原酶有抑制作用,其ID50 为1.81 × 10(-3)mg/ml。黄芩甙150mg/kg 灌胃,对链黑霉素引起的糖尿病大鼠血糖水平无明显下降,但红细胞山梨醇含量于治疗后显著降低,提示在动物体内也有抑制醛糖酶的作用,有可能用于糖尿病性并发症的防治。黄芩甙、黄芩素及汉黄芩素50-125μg/ml 对小鼠唾液酸酶有抑制作用。黄芩甙100mg/kg,葡萄糖醛酸43mg/kg皮下注射均可对抗士的宁引起的小鼠死亡,而甙元黄芩素无效,认为黄芩甙水解后的葡萄糖醛酸起的解毒作用。黄芩对PGs的代谢有较广泛的影响,水提物对PGs的生物合成有抑制作用。[5] 

民间传说编辑

李时珍生于明朝嘉靖年间,自幼聪明伶俐,好学上进,小小年纪就立志考取功名。光耀门庭。可是天有不测风云,在李时珍十、六岁时,他突患急病,咳嗽不止,并且久冶不愈。随着病情加剧,他每日吐痰碗余,烦、渴引饮,骨蒸劳热,六脉浮洪,虽服用柴胡、麦冬、荆芥、竹沥等解表退热、润肺清心、清热化痰之剂却并无效果。方圆百里的名医都束手无策,认为其已无药可救。眼看小时珍生命危在旦夕。
正在李时珍的父母悲伤绝望之际,村子里来了一位从远方云游到此的道士,这位道人白发长髯,颇有一种仙风道骨的味道。闻言道人专治疑难杂症,小时珍的父母急忙把道人请到家中给他看病。道士给小时珍号了脉象后,捋捋长髯说: “不妨,不妨,此病只需服用黄芩30克,加水两盅,煎至一盅,服用半月即可痊愈。“时珍的父母半信半疑地按方煎药。奇迹出现了。半月之后,小时珍身热全退,痰多咳嗽的症状也消失了,身体逐渐恢复健康。一味黄芩居然起到了立竿见影的治疗效果。
李时珍深感中国医学的神奇,更对这位身怀绝技的道士钦佩不已,从此,便跟随道人刻苦钻研医学,读遍历代医书,踏遍高山大川。功夫不负有心人,李时珍终于在医学上取得了巨大的成就,成为医林一代宗师。在他编著的《本草纲目》中,李时珍对救了他性命的黄芩这味中药推崇备加,称之为“药中肯綮,如鼓应桴,医中之妙,有如此哉![6] 

黄芩属

黄芩亚属
盔状黄芩组
半枝莲系
 半枝莲
盔状黄芩系
 盔状黄芩
小花黄芩系
 纤弱黄芩 山西黄芩
念珠根茎黄芩系
 念珠根茎黄芩
狭叶黄芩系
 长叶并头草 狭叶黄芩
并头黄芩系
 并头黄芩 沙滩黄芩 图们黄芩
异花黄芩组
 异色黄芩
膜苞黄芩组
 阿尔泰黄芩 少齿黄芩 展毛黄芩 不齐齿黄芩 平卧黄芩
 仰卧黄芩 琴干黄芩 微尖苞黄芩 宽苞黄芩 深裂叶黄芩
腋序黄芩组
 腋花黄芩 竹林黄芩 祁门黄芩 湖南黄芩 罗甸黄芩
 屏边黄芩 瑞丽黄芩 南粤黄芩 河南黄芩 岩藿香
 峨眉黄芩 四裂花黄芩 棱茎黄芩 狭管黄芩 细花黄芩
 巍山黄芩 裂叶黄芩 两广黄芩 尾叶黄芩 方枝黄芩
顶序黄芩组
 黄芩 连翘叶黄芩 直萼黄芩 甘肃黄芩 白花黄芩
 粘毛黄芩 滇黄芩 中甸黄芩 灰岩黄芩 丽江黄芩
 大齿黄芩 喜荫黄芩 韩信草 永泰黄芩 光紫黄芩
 淡黄黄芩 大叶黄芩 京黄芩 假韧黄芩 台湾黄芩
 偏花黄芩 英德黄芩 蓝花黄芩 海南黄芩 爪哇黄芩
 吕宋黄芩 毛叶黄芩 钝叶黄芩 少脉黄芩 伏黄芩
 显脉黄芩 西畴黄芩 缙云黄芩 红茎黄芩 柔弱黄芩
 天全黄芩 毛茎黄芩 大坪子黄芩 韧黄芩 大姚黄芩
 安徽黄芩 囊距黄芩 莸状黄芩 浙江黄芩 赤水黄芩
 紫苏叶黄芩 粗齿黄芩 散黄芩 长管黄芩 龙头黄芩
 小紫黄芩 变黑黄芩 黑心黄芩 紫心黄芩 荨麻叶黄芩
 文山黄芩
囊萼黄芩亚属
 藏黄芩
连钱黄芩亚属
 连钱黄芩 假活血草
以上物种均分布于中国

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
  • 1.  黄芩  .中国植物志[引用日期2013-10-17]
  • 2.  张永清、刘合刚.药用植物栽培学:中国中医药出版社,2013年:358-362
  • 3.  黄芩  .中医药[引用日期2014-05-7]
  • 4.  黄芩  .中医药[引用日期2014-06-26]
  • 5.  黄芩  .中医药[引用日期2013-12-4]
  • 6.  中国大百科全书总编辑委员会 《中国大百科全书》 中国大百科全书出版社
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/21023/16128923.htm

Skullcap (Labiatae) Edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
Skullcap (Latin name: Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi), alias camellia roots, soil gold root tea is Labiatae Scutellaria is a perennial herb; fleshy rhizome hypertrophy, Kennedy leaves papery, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, racemose inflorescence stems and branches in the terminal, corolla purple, purple to blue, filaments flat, style slender, Disk annular, ovary brown nutlets ovoid, fruit period July to September.
Skullcap born in sunny grass land, Hugh wasteland, altitude 60 to 1300 (1700 to 2000) meters. Produced in Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong, Sichuan and other places, the majority of provinces in northern China can be planted. Russia's East Siberia, Mongolia, North Korea, Japan are distributed. The type specimen was collected from Russia. [1] 
Scutellaria root medicine, bitter, cold, heat and dampness, purging fire detoxification, bleeding, miscarriage and other effects. Indications febrile disease, upper respiratory tract infection, Hyperactivity cough, heat jaundice, pneumonia, diarrhea, coughing up blood, red eyes, fetal irritability, high blood pressure, carbuncles boils embolism. Skullcap clinical antimicrobial berberine than good, and no resistance.
Chinese scientific name Latin name skullcap Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi aka camellia roots, soil gold root tea two law Scutellaria baicalensis world Flora door Angiosperms Gang Dicotyledon subclass gamopetalous Asia outline tubular flowers. Branch lip Keya Ke skullcap subfamily genus subgenus Scutellaria Scutellaria species Scutellaria distribution sub-regions in China, the Soviet Union in eastern Siberia, Mongolia, North Korea, Japan toxicity poison function heat dampness, anti-inflammatory anti-bacterial, swelling
Contents 1 Morphology 2 3 geographical distribution of growth habits ▪ ▪ Cultivated Wild 4 5 cultivation techniques breeding methods thinning Dingmiao ▪ ▪ ▪ weeding fertilizing irrigation ▪ pest control ▪ 6 removal of buds medicinal value payer ▪ ▪ ▪ Indications Dosage ▪ ▪ pharmacological effects of the chemical composition of folklore 7
Morphological characteristics editor
Skullcap
Skullcap
Perennial herbs; rhizome thick, fleshy, up to 2 cm diameter, elongation and branching. Prostrate stem base, rising 30 to 120 cm, base diameter of 2.5-3 mm, blunt four prism, with pinstripes, nearly no micro-pubescent, green or purple hair or the song to carry out, from base pay would branches. [1] 
Ye Jian papery, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.5 to 4.5 cm long, 1.2 cm wide and 0.5, top obtuse, base rounded, entire, dark green above, glabrous or sparsely adnate to carry out puberulent, below paler, subsidence glabrous or along midrib sparsely puberulent, densely sunken glands, lateral veins 4 pairs with midrib above, below projections; petiole short, 2 mm long, belly concave back projection, puberulent. [1] 
Inflorescence stems and branches in terminal, racemose, 7 to 15 cm long, often again in the stem tip clustered into panicles; pedicels 3 mm, and the sequence axis are puberulent; bracts who like the lower part of the leaf, the upper were far smaller, oval-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4 to 11 mm, nearly hairless. Flowering 4 mm long calyx, scutellum high 1.5 mm, outside densely puberulent, puberulous calyx rim, inside glabrous, when fruit calyx length of 5 mm, 4 mm high scutellar. Corolla purple, purple to blue, 2.3 to 3 cm long, outside densely glandular pubescent, the inner surface of the bladder enlargement at pubescent; crown tube near base geniculate obvious central diameter 1.5 mm, to throat wide and 6 mm; limb 2-lipped, upper lip helmet-shaped, apex emarginate, lower lip lobes triangular-shaped oval, 7.5 mm wide, on both sides of the upper lip lobes close by. Stamens 4, slightly exposed for long before, with half the drug, the drug is not obvious degradation and a half, after a relatively short, with the whole drug, drug chamber gap with white bearded, hairy back with bubbly; filaments flat, below the middle front After the inside of both sides to be small in sparsely pubescent. Style slender, apex acute, micro crack. Disk annular, high 0.75 mm, the front slightly increased, extending rearward into a very short ovary stalk. Ovary brown, glabrous. [1] 
Nutlets ovoid, 1.5 mm, diameter of 1 mm, dark brown, tuberculate, with hilum ventral surface near the base. Flowering from July to August, fruiting from August to September. [1] 
Plant morphology

China Plant Image Library (Institute of Botany) provide and co-edited
 
Skullcap whole plant
Skullcap whole plant (12)
 
 
Skullcap leaves
Skullcap leaves (1)
 
 
Skullcap fruit
Skullcap fruit (5)
Growth habit editor
Root growth: skullcap straight roots, taproot first three years of normal growth, its main root length, diameter, fresh weight and dry weight were increased year by year, the higher taproot in Baicalin. After the fourth year, the growth rate began to slow, partly taproot began withered heart, after increasing year by year, eight students heavily skullcap almost all taproot and thick lateral roots all the dead heart, but also the content of baicalin significantly reduced. [2] 
Stem, leaf growth: After emergence, stem gradually grow high, increasing the number of leaves, branches and the subsequent formation of budding and blossom. 5 to 6 months for the stem and leaf growth, annual skullcap main stem can grow to about 30 pairs of leaves, which grow on the leaves of five every 4 to 6 days 1 pair, followed by leaf grown every 2 to 3 days 1 pair. [2] 
Fruition: one year old plants in general two months after the beginning of bud emergence, and its subsequent biennial skullcap, reviving after the emergence of more than 70 to 80 days starting budding, 10 days after the bud begins to bloom about 40 days began to mature fruit such as environmental conditions are suitable for flowering and fruiting sustainable skullcap to frost dry period. [2] 
Growth Environment
Born in the sunny slopes, the upper Hugh wasteland, altitude 60 to 1300 (1700 to 2000) meters. [1] 
Skullcap wild hilltop, hillside, forest margins, roadsides and other sunny dry place. Hi warm, cold-resistant, mature plants underground parts still safe winter temperature at -35 ℃, 35 ℃ high temperature will not die, but can not withstand continuous high temperatures above 40 ℃. Drought fear of floods, water or excessive rainfall over land, poor growth, severe rot to death. Poor drainage of the land should not be planted. Loam and sandy loam soils with disabilities, neutral and slightly alkaline pH as well, avoid continuous cropping. [2] 
Geographical Distribution Edit
Cultivated

Skullcap mainly in Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Gansu four areas, which focused on the south where the town of Xinjiang County of Shanxi Yuncheng City Xiaxian Yao Feng town, Xinjiang County Wan Town, Wanrong County, Wenxi Xuedian and other places; Shangluo, Shaanxi Weinan Linwei Bridge Town, Xiaoyi town Shangzhou District Shangluo Luonan County, King Town, Danfeng County town of Hua Di, Shangluo night Town, Danfeng County commercial town and other places; Shandong Yimeng mountain, Shan Ju County Library, Laiwu tea Town, Fu Township officials and other places; the main producing Gansu Longxi, Weiyuan, Zhangxian, secondary production Minxian, Tanchang, West and other places.
Wild

Skullcap mainly in eastern Inner Mongolia in China and most of the main producing areas in Northeast China, Chengde, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, and several of the largest, is one of the main origin of Chinese herbal medicines wild in northern China.
Reproduction Method Editor
Seed propagation:
⑴ seeding
Seed propagation to live mainly live skullcap root straight, less root fork, good product appearance quality, while saving labor.
Skullcap
Skullcap
Performed live more than spring, usually in the ground 5 cm ground temperature stable before and after sowing, the northern region on more mid-April at 12 ℃ -15 ℃. [2] 
⑵ seedling transplanting method
Seedling transplanting method can save seed, to extend the growth time, which will help ensure that all seedlings, but more of work, while transplanting skullcap short taproot, root fork more, the appearance of poor quality merchandise, generally in the seed expensive or difficult to live in dryland water seedling emergence during adoption. [2] 
Cutting Propagation: Cuttings, although fertile, but the production is rarely used. Cutting the key to success lies in cutting season and take part article. Cutting time in spring 5--6 月份 cutting survival rate is high. Cuttings should be selected semi-woody stem tip young parts, cutting survival rate up to 90%. [2] 
Points root breeding: that dig holes ungerminated 3 years old skullcap roots, cut the taproot stay for medicinal purposes, and according to the natural shape of the rhizome growth cut into several blocks each have 2-3 buds can be planted. [3] points root breeding although growing fast, but the propagation coefficient is too low, the production rarely used. [2] 
Cultivation Technical Editor
Thinning Dingmiao

Taking seeding, when the seedlings grow to 4 cm high among Been to dense and thin seedlings, plant spacing of 10 cm by Dingmiao. Nursery does not have to thinning. [2] 
Weeding

After seedling emergence, timely tillage weeding, combined with loose soil around the seedlings to appropriate earth, keeping loose, no weeds need weeding 3-4 times a year. [2] 
Fertigation

Height 10-15 cm, dressing 1, application rate per acre of water with Ren Chufen 1500-2000 kg. By the end of June - early July, 20 kg per acre topdressing superphosphate, urea 5 kg, between the lines open next Summer, after casing watering. After harvesting the plants withered following year, on the line between ditching per acre topdressing rotted manure 2000 kg, 20 kg superphosphate, urea 5 kg, 150 kg ash and casing cover level. [2] 
Skullcap drought fear of floods during the rainy season should pay attention to drainage, the field can not be water, or easy to rot. In case of severe drought during or after dressing, it may be appropriate watering. [2] 
Bud removal

Before extraction inflorescence, the flower stalk to lose, can reduce nutrient consumption, promote root growth and increase production. [2] 
Pest control

There blight disease can clean the garden, the initial hair spray upright 1: 1: 200 Bordeaux mixture, or 50% carbendazim 1000 times control.
Root rot, attention to drainage, implementation of crop rotation; set aside early burn diseased plants, diseased plants at the soil with lime disinfection.
There skullcap dance moth pests, available 90% trichlorfon control. [3]
Medicinal value edit
Payer

Properties: bitter, cold.
① "The Classic": bitter, flat.
② "Do not record": Big Chill, non-toxic.
③ "medicinal theory": bitter Gan.
Meridian: heart, lung, gall bladder, large intestine.
① "Collection of Essentials": OK hand lunar, Meridian.
② "outline": start Shao, Yangming, foot lunar, Shaoyang Six Classics.
③ "Thunder concocted herbal solution": lung, colon, bladder, gall Four Classics. [4]
Indications

Diarrhea real fire, in addition to heat, bleeding, miscarriage. Governance strong heat, thirst, Hyperactivity cough, heat Xie Li, jaundice, hot shower, spit, bleed at the nose, collapse, leakage, red eyes and throat, fetal irritability, carbuncles boils.
① "The Classic": the main Zhu heat jaundice, intestinal bleach, drain profits, by water, under the blood off, (rule) malignant sore, gangrene erosion, fire ulcers.
② "Do not record": spa phlegm, stomach heat, abdominal cramps, consumer Valley, Lee intestine, women's blood off, shower gel blood, abdominal pain in children.
③ Hongjing: governance Bentun, heat pain below the belly button.
④ "resistance": can cure hot poisonous, Gu Zheng, heat exchanges, gastrointestinal adverse, broken gas obstruct, rule Wulin, it is declared free, to joint boredom, antipyretic and thirst, heat treatment belly Xu pain, confidants Kennedy inflation.
⑤ "Japan Hanako Materia Medica": under the gas, the main day trip heat illness, boils, abscess. Cure mastitis, hair back.
⑥ "pearl sac": In addition to more than sun, cold heart to heat, cold through the grid.
⑦ Li Gao: cure fever, mouth pain.
⑧ "Southern Yunnan Materia Medica": Xiefei fire uplink and downlink bladder diarrhea fire, (rule) Wulin man, woman violent collapse, menstruation heat, the tire has a fiery anxiety, clean tire heat, in addition to six by the real fire real heat.
⑨ "outline": wind-heat treatment heat headache, Bentun heat pain, fire, cough, throat fishy Fei Wei, Zhu blood loss.
⑩ "Materia Medica is": focus on fire blight were clear, Phlegm Lee gas, fixed Asthma, stop bleeding, back between heat and cold, wind-heat heat, headache, solution plague, Qingyan, treatment consumptive lung lung abscess, mastitis hair back, especially cured muscular form of heat, so the rule rash, rat fistula, sore, red eyes; hot focus of the real person cool down, can remove dysentery, heat storage bladder, Wulin astringent pain, colon closed end, blood in the stool, Louxue.
⑾ "science of folk herbs": Washing the wound with antiseptic. [4]
Dosage

Oral: decoction, 1 to 3 money; or into pills, powder. External: washed fried or powder withdrawal. [4]
chemical composition

Scutellaria root contains flavonoids: baicalein (baicalein), skullcap new hormone (neobaicalein), namely skullcapflavone Ⅱ (skullcapflavoneⅡ), baicalin (baicalin), wogonin (wogonin), Chinese baicalin (wogono-side), wood butterfly hormone A (oroxylin, oroxylin A), 7- methoxy baicalein (7-methoxbaic alein), skullcapflavone (skullcapflavone) Ⅰ, dihydro-wood butterfly hormone A (dihydrooroxylin A), Chrysin (chrysin), 2 , 5,8-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-flavone (2,5,8-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-flavone), 2,5,8- trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavone (2 , 5,8-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone), 4,5,7- trihydroxy-6-methoxy flavanones (4,5,7-trhydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone), 2,3,5 , 6,7 pentahydroxy flavanones (2,3,5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone), wogonin -5-β-D- glucoside (wogonin-5-β-D-glucoside), 2- (3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl) - ethyl -1-O-α-L- rhamnose group (1 → 3) -β-D (4- ferulic acid) - [2- Glucose (3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl-1-O-α-L-rhamnosyl (1 → 3) -β-D- (4-feruloyl) glucoside], chrysin -6-C-α-L- Arabic glycoside (chrysin-6-C-β-D-glucoside-8-C-β-L-arabinoside), chrysin -6-C-α-L- arabinoside -8-C-β-D- glucose glycosides (chrysin-6-C-α-L-arabi-noside-8-C-β-D-glucoside), (2S) -2,5,6,7- tetrahydroxy-flavanone [(2S) -25 , 6,7-terahydroxyflavanone], 5,7,2,6- tetrahydroxy-flavone (5,7,2,6-tetrahydroxyflavone), 5,8- dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavone (5, 8-dihydroxy-6,7-drimethoxyflavone), 5,7,4- trihydroxy-8-methoxy-flavonoids (5,7,4-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), wood butterfly prime A-7-O- glucose aldehyde acid glycosides (oroxylinA-7-O-glucuronide), 5,7,2- trihydroxy-methoxy flavonoids (5,7,2-trihyroxy-6-methoxyflavone), 5,2- dihydroxy-6,7, 8- trimethoxysilane flavonoids (5,2-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyfla-vone), 5- Wing-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-flavone ), norepinephrine wogonin (norwogonin), dihydro baicalein (dihydro-baicalin), 5,7,2- trihydroxyflavone (5,7,2-trihydroxyflavone), 5,7,2- trihydroxy -8 , 6 dimethoxyflavone (5,7,2-trihydroxy-8,6-dimethoxyflavone), 5,7,2,5- tetrahydroxy--8,6- dimethoxyflavone That viscidula baicalein Ⅲ (5,7,2,5-tetrahydroxy-8,6-dimethoxyflavone, vis-ciduiin Ⅲ, 5,2,5- trihydroxy trimethoxysilane flavonoids (5,2,5-trihy-droxy-6,7,8 -trimethoxyflavone), baicalein -7-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (baicalein-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside), 5,7,2- trihydroxy-8-methoxy-flavonoids (5 , 7,2-trhiyroxy-8-methoxyflavone), 5,7,2,3- four hydroxyflavone (5,7,2,3-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone), 5,7,2,3- four Wing base flavonoids (5,7,2,3-tetrahydroxyflavone), 3,5,7,2,5,6- five hydroxyflavone (3,5,7,2,5,6-pentahydroxyflavone) That viscidula baicalein Ⅰ ( viscidulin Ⅰ), (2S) -7,2,6- three-hydroxy-5-methoxy flavanones [(2S) -7,2,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone], 2,6,2,4 - Four-hydroxy-6-methoxy-chalcone (2,6,2,4-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxychalcone), 5,7,2,5- four hydroxyflavone (5,7,2,5-tetrahydroxyflavone) , L homoeriodictyol (eriodictyol), barbata species hormone (rivularin) and viscidula baicalein Ⅲ-2-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (viscidulin Ⅲ-2-O-β-D-glucoplyranoside) Wait. Also containing β- sitosterol (β-sitosterol), campesterol (campesterol) and stigmasterol (stigmasterol). [3]
Pharmacological effects

Antibacterial effect: decoction skullcap 100% concentration, plate method test, dysentery bacillus, typhoid bacillus, paratyphoid bacillus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic Lian cocci (a, B ), pneumococcus, diphtheria bacilli are inhibited. Decoction skullcap test tube method 1: 1280 concentration inhibit Salmonella typhi, hemolytic streptococcus a, 1: 640 concentration inhibition hemolytic streptococcus B, pneumococcus and Shigella dysentery bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis people H37,1: 320 concentration inhibit Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysentery bacilli; 1: bacterium Shigella sonnei 80 concentrations inhibited. Skullcap alcohol extract 0.5g / ml or 0.05g / ml, with agar slant culture, liquid culture medium 1: 1 mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inhibited. Skullcap alcohol extract 2g / ml concentration, the plate method test for E. coli, orange grass bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus inhibition. Decoction skullcap, alcohol extraction agent 1g / ml concentration, when using the plate method test for meningococcal are suppressing effect. [5]
Antifungal effect: decoction skullcap, slant tube method test concentration of 4% inhibition small dog tooth cell bacteria and Trichophyton violaceum, 8% concentration of inhibition Xulan Shi Huang dermatophytes, 10% inhibition concentration Xulan Shi Huang dermatophytes Mongolia variant, 15% inhibition of total concentration and ferruginous concentric Trichophyton Trichophyton. Skullcap flooding agent 1: 3 concentrations in vitro on violaceum Trichophyton, concentric Trichophyton rubrum Xulan Shi Huang, Audubon Ang's small spores rubrum, wool-like small spores rubrum, red skin ringworm bacteria, K, W, s Epidermophyton, star slave card's bacteria have different degrees of antibacterial effect. [5]
Antiviral: decoction skullcap 25-100% concentration, in vitro tests for the hepatitis B virus DNA replication inhibition. [5]
Inflammatory anti-allergic: skullcap 70% ethanol extract 200,500mg / kg orally baicalein, baicalin, wogonin 50,100mg / kg orally, inhibit acetic acid-induced mouse peritoneal exudate increased to 48 / 80 (a compound name, Sigma production) induced rat paw swelling is also inhibited, skullcap 70% ethanol extract 500mg / kg orally, baicalein, baicalin and wogonin 100mg / kg orally to rats adjuvant arthritis inhibited. Aqueous extract of Scutellaria 100,200mg / kg orally, on rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) inhibition, but on mice chloropicrin cause contact dermatitis (ear swelling) had no significant effect. [5]
Effects on the central nervous system: skullcap decoction 4g / kg intraperitoneally extension allows positive reflection on mice defensive conditioned reflex, but has no effect on non-conditioned reflex and differentiation, indicating skullcap can enhance cortical inhibition. Skullcap decoction 2g / kg, a combined vaccine against typhoid fever caused by thermal effects in rabbits. But there are also reports of water decoction skullcap or Jiujin agent 5-9g / only orally, or 2g / only im, can not prove skullcap typhoid vaccine induced fever in rabbits have antipyretic effects. [5]
Cardiovascular effects of: baicalin extract 1g / kg intravenously, can decrease blood pressure in anesthetized dogs. Skullcap decoction 0.06g / kg intravenously anesthetized dogs have significant antihypertensive effect. Baicalein 20mg / kg intravenously, can make 40-50% drop in blood pressure in anesthetized dogs. Intragastric infusion skullcap / kg orally, 3 times / day for four weeks, with chronic renal hypertension dog blood pressure, heart rate slows down. Baicalin 2 × 10 (-4) mol / l, in the guinea pig aortic strips, pulmonary Article tracheal strips and right atria are competitive antagonism of epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine caused by the contraction to go, too isoproterenol antagonized trachea and increased diastolic right atrial spontaneous frequency effect, suggesting Baicalin on a, B1, B2 receptors are blocking effect. [5]
Anti-platelet aggregation and anticoagulant: baicalein, wogonin, oroxylin A, skullcapflavone Ⅱ and Chrysin (chrysin) at concentration 1.0mM, can inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in rats, chrysin on ADP-induced platelet aggregation is also inhibited, baicalein and wogonin of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation is also inhibited, baicalein and Baicalin on thrombin-induced fibrinogen into fibrin also inhibited; baicalein and baicalin 20,50mg / kg orally, internal endotoxin induced disseminated intravascular coagulation, can be prevented and reduced platelet fibrinogen content. [5]
Fat: skullcap aqueous extracts 10% 2ml / only intragastric administration of seven weeks, can make cholesterol fed rabbits serum cholesterol levels decreased. Baicalein, baicalin 100mg / kg orally, corn oil can reduce high blood cholesterol in experimental rats - cholesterol - fed serum free fatty acid, triglycerides and liver triglyceride content, skullcapflavone Ⅱ100mg / kg orally , can reduce serum total cholesterol and liver triglycerides, increase serum high-density lipoprotein - cholesterol (HDL-ch) content, wogonin 100mg / kg orally, can prevent liver triglyceride deposition and increases in serum HDL-ch levels. Baicalein, baicalin 100mg / kg orally, for high cholesterol in rats caused by alcohol, the liver can reduce total cholesterol, free cholesterol and triglyceride levels, wogonin can reduce the level of serum triglycerides, increase baicalein Serum HDL-ch content. [5]
Liver, gallbladder, anti-oxidant: Scutellaria methanol extract of 1000mg / kg intraperitoneal injection of liver damage in rats naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT) induced inhibition, can inhibit the increase in serum bilirubin. Baicalin extract 50,100mg / kg, baicalin 50,100mg / kg orally, choleretic effect in rabbits. Wogonin 10 (-4) -10 (-6) mol / l concentration in vitro tests, rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation inhibition, so malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased. Baicalein and BAICALIN 2.5 × 10 (-4) mol / l, 1.0 × 10 (-4) mol / l, wogonin 2.5 × 10 (-4) mol / l, skullcapflavone Ⅱ2.5 × 10 (-4) mol / l, wogonin -7-OD glucuronide 2.5 × 10 (-4) mol / l, 1.0 × 10 (-4) mol / l, for FeC12- mixture of vitamin C-ADP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates inhibited, so that the formation of liver MDA decreased significantly, to a NADPH ADP-induced lipid peroxidation is also suppressed. [5]
Anticancer: skullcap ether extract of mouse leukemia L1210 cell cytotoxicity, median effective dose of 10.4mg / ml, skullcapflavone Ⅱ on the median effective dose of mouse L1210 cells was 1.5μg / ml, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin had no significant effect on the L1210. [5]
Other effects: baicalein 10,20mg / kg intravenously anesthetized dogs have a diuretic effect. Decoction skullcap
Figure showing skullcap
Skullcap Show map (20)
4g / kg orally, the rats galactose cataract prevention and treatment, can delay cataract formation. Baicalin on rats crystal aldose reductase inhibition, the ID50 of 1.81 × 10 (-3) mg / ml. Baicalin 150mg / kg orally, blood sugar levels in diabetic rats chain black neomycin caused no significant decline, but significantly reduced the sorbitol content in red blood cells after treatment, suggesting that the animals also have inhibiting aldose enzymes, it is possible to use in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin 50-125μg / ml on liver sialidase inhibition. Baicalin 100mg / kg, glucuronide 43mg / kg subcutaneously in mice can be against death caused by strychnine, and aglycone baicalein invalid, that the detoxification baicalin hydrolysis glucuronide played. Skullcap have a broader impact on the metabolism of PGs, the water extract of the biosynthesis of PGs inhibited. [5]
Folklore editor
Li was born in the Ming Dynasty Jiajing, childhood smart, easy to learn, young age, determined to obtain fame. Guangyao doors. But there are unexpected storms, in Li's ten, the age of six, he suddenly acutely ill, coughing, and the long rule of unhealed. As the disease intensifies, he spit bowl over day, tired, thirsty cited drinking, Gu Zheng labor hot, six-pulse floating flood, although taking Radix, Radix, Nepeta, Zhu Li et relieving fever, lungs Qingxin, phlegm of the agent has no effect. Hundreds of miles of doctors are helpless, that its been incurable. Seeing hour Jane lives are at stake.
Li's parents are desperate sadness of the occasion, the village came a wandering this priests from afar, the Taoist hair long beard, quite figure who trained one kind of taste. Heard Taoist cures incurable diseases, hours Taoist Jane's parents hurried to go home to his doctor. Janet number of priests to the hour after the pulse, stroked his long beard, said: "wish, wish, the disease simply take skullcap 30 grams, add water Liangzhong, fry cup, take a half months to heal." Materia parents skeptical press square decoction. Miracle occurred. After the half, hour full refund Jane fever, cough, phlegm symptoms disappeared, the body gradually restored to health. Blindly skullcap actually played a therapeutic effect immediate.
Li deeply magical Chinese medicine, but to the great talent of the road 士钦佩 endless, from now on, will follow assiduously Taoist medicine, read through the ancient medical books, travels alpine Okawa. Hard work pays off, Li finally made tremendous achievements in medicine, medical Lin become a great master. He edited the "Compendium of Materia Medica", the Li to save the life of his skullcap respected prepare this herb added, called "drug misses the mark, such as drums should rafter, doctors are wonderful, there are so indeed! [6]
Atlas Atlas more
Entry pictures
Entry pictures (5)
Figure showing skullcap
Skullcap display images (20)
Skullcap
Skullcap (20)
Skullcap whole plant
Skullcap whole plant (12)
Skullcap leaves
Skullcap leaves (1)
Skullcap fruit
Skullcap fruit (5)
Skullcap flower
Skullcap flowers (4)
Skullcap
Skullcap (7)
Skullcap
Skullcap (5)
Yunnan skullcap
Yunnan skullcap (4)
Beijing skullcap
Beijing skullcap (10)
Skullcap
Skullcap (5)
Scutellaria
Scutellaria subgenus
Galeate skullcap group
Banzhilian Department
▪ banzhilian
Galeate skullcap Department
▪ galeate skullcap
Floret skullcap Department
▪ ▪ Shanxi delicate skullcap skullcap
Rhizome rosary skullcap Department
▪ rosary skullcap roots
Angustifolia skullcap Department
▪ ▪ leaves and grass head Scutellaria angustifolia
And head of the Department of skullcap
▪ ▪ beach and head skullcap skullcap ▪ Tumen Scutellaria
Different flowers skullcap group
▪ Leis skullcap
Membrane shell skullcap group
Altai skullcap ▪ ▪ ▪ Show less tooth wool skullcap skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ missing teeth supine skullcap
▪ Sit skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ Qin dry micro-tip bud bud skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ wide parted leaves skullcap
Axillary order skullcap group
▪ ▪ bamboo axillary flower skullcap skullcap skullcap Qimen ▪ ▪ ▪ Luodian Hunan skullcap skullcap
▪ ▪ Ruili Pingbian skullcap skullcap skullcap Guangdong ▪ ▪ ▪ Henan skullcap rock rugosa
Emei skullcap ▪ ▪ ▪ four cracked ribs skullcap flower stems skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ narrow tube fine flower skullcap
Weishan skullcap ▪ ▪ ▪ Guangdong and Guangxi lobed leaves skullcap skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ caudate lobe side branch skullcap
Top order skullcap group
▪ skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ Forsythia leaf straight calyx Gansu skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ white skullcap
▪ ▪ viscidula skullcap Yunnan Zhongdian skullcap Scutellaria ▪ ▪ ▪ Lijiang limestone skullcap skullcap
▪ large teeth skullcap ▪ ▪ Xi Han grass-lined skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ Yongtai light purple skullcap
▪ ▪ large leaf yellow skullcap skullcap skullcap Beijing ▪ ▪ ▪ Taiwan fake tough skullcap skullcap
▪ ▪ Yingde partial spend skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ Hainan blue flower skullcap skullcap skullcap ▪ Java
▪ ▪ hairy leaves Luzon skullcap skullcap skullcap Stenotaphrum ▪ ▪ ▪ volts less pulse skullcap skullcap
▪ ▪ Xichou significant veins skullcap skullcap skullcap Jinyun ▪ ▪ ▪ weak red stem skullcap skullcap
Vincent wool skullcap ▪ ▪ ▪ Dapingzi stem skullcap skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ tough Dayao skullcap
Anhui skullcap ▪ ▪ ▪ Caryopteris bag from the skullcap-like skullcap ▪ ▪ Chishui Zhejiang skullcap skullcap
Basil leaves skullcap ▪ ▪ ▪ scattered coarse teeth skullcap skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ long tube leading skullcap
Small purple skullcap ▪ ▪ ▪ sinister black skullcap skullcap skullcap ▪ ▪ Purple Heart nettle leaf skullcap
▪ Wenshan skullcap
Calyx bag skullcap subgenus
▪ Tibetan skullcap
Even money skullcap subgenus
▪ ▪ false even money skullcap promoting blood grass
Above species are distributed in China
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. skullcap. Flora of China [reference date 2013-10-17]
2. Zhang Yongqing, Liu Gang together. Cultivation of medicinal plants: Chinese Medicine Press, 2013: 358-362
3. skullcap. Chinese medicine [reference date 2014-05-7]
4. skullcap. Chinese medicine [reference date 2014-06-26]
5. skullcap. Chinese medicine [reference date 2013-12-4]
6. The editor in chief of the Encyclopedia of China committee "Encyclopedia of China" Encyclopedia of China Publishing House








Comments