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胖大海 Sterculia (Stercliae Semen) Pang Da Hai

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胖大海

 

(植物物种)

 编辑
胖大海(拉丁学名:SEMEN STERCULIAE LYCHNOPHORAE),别名 :大海、大海子、大洞果、大发梧桐科植物胖大海Sterculia lychnophora Hance 的干燥成熟种子。呈纺锤形或椭圆形,长2~3cm,直径1~1.5cm。先端钝圆,基部略尖而歪,具浅色的圆形种脐,表面棕色或暗棕色,微有光泽,具不规则的干缩皱纹。外层果皮极薄,质脆,易脱落。中层果皮较厚,黑褐色,质松易碎,遇水膨胀成海绵状。断面可见散在的树脂状小点。内层果皮可与中层果皮剥离,稍革质,内有2片肥厚胚乳,广卵形;子叶2枚,菲薄,紧贴于胚乳内侧,与胚乳等大。气微,味淡,嚼之有黏性。[1] 
产于泰国、柬埔寨、马来西亚等国。4~6月果实成熟开裂时,采收种子,晒干用。多用于泡茶,可以起到降血压、润喉化痰的作用。
中文学名
胖大海
拉丁学名
Scaphium wallichii Shott & Endl
别    称
大海、大海子、大洞果、大发
二名法
Sterculia scaphigeraWall
植物界
被子植物门
双子叶植物纲
亚    纲
五桠果亚纲
锦葵目
梧桐科
苹婆属
胖大海
分布区域
分布于越南、印度、马来西亚、泰国及印度尼西亚等国。
性    味
味甘;淡;性凉
归    经
肺经、大肠经

形态特征编辑

椭圆状披针形的单叶互生,叶片革质,长10~20cm,宽6~12cm,全缘或前端3浅裂。圆锥花序顶生或腋生,花杂性同株;花萼钟状,深裂。船形的骨朵果1~5个,着生于果梗,长可达24cm。种子椭圆形至倒卵形,深褐色,种皮脆而薄,浸水后膨大成海绵状,内含丰富的粘液质。
胖大海胖大海
落叶乔木,高可达40m,单叶互生,叶片革质,卵形或椭圆状披针形,长10~20cm,宽6~12cm,通常3裂,全缘,光滑无毛。圆锥花序顶生或腋生,花杂性同株;花萼钟状,深裂;雄花具10~15个雄蕊;雌茶具1枚雌蕊。骨朵果1~5个,着生于果梗,呈船形,长可达24cm。种子棱形或倒卵形,深褐色和土黄色。
该品呈纺锤形或椭圆形,长2~3cm,直径1~1.5cm。先端钝圆,基部略尖而歪,具浅色的圆形种脐,表面棕色或暗棕色,微有光泽,具不规则的干缩皱纹。外层种皮极薄,质脆,易脱落。中层种皮较厚,黑褐色,质松易碎,遇水膨胀成海绵状。断面可见散在的树脂状小点。内层种皮可与中层种皮剥离,稍革质,内有2 片肥厚胚乳,广卵形;子叶2 枚,菲薄,紧贴于胚乳内侧,与胚乳等大。气微,味淡,嚼之有黏性。[2]  泡在水中会膨胀起来,因而名为胖大海。

生长习性编辑

①温度。胖大海原产于热带,要求年平均温度为21~24.9℃。在中国海南引种区适宜生长的月平均温度为24~28℃,月平均温度降至20.0℃以下时,停止生长。
②湿度。成龄树较耐旱,适宜生长的月降雨量为100~300毫米。
③光照。胖大海是喜阳植物,在阳光下,芽生长肥壮,叶片宽大浓绿。
胖大海因茎秆细高,木质部松脆,根系不发达,抗风能力极差,在沿海台风频繁地区种植,极易造成断干或倒株,必须选择避风地区种植。

地理分布编辑

分布于越南、印度、马来西亚等地。[3] 

医用价值编辑

性能

性味:味甘,凉,性寒。能清肺化痰,利咽开音,润肠通便。
①《纲目拾遗》:"甘淡。"
②张寿颐:"味淡微甘,性温。"
③《药材资料汇编》:"甘淡,性凉。"[4] 

医用药理

泻下作用 动物实验证明:胖大海有缓和的泻下作用, 其机制是, 胖大海内服后增加肠内容物可产生机械性刺激,引起反射性肠蠕动增加而引起泻下的发生.将胖大海外层皮、软壳、仁分别水浸提取,对于麻醉犬, 无论何种方法给药,均可明显增加肠蠕动,此作用可被阿托品所拮抗.1:40万的仁浸出液能使离体兔肠蠕动增加, 但外层皮及软壳的作用不明显。
降压作用 胖大海仁(去脂干粉)制成25%溶液,给犬、猫静注、肌注或口服均可使血压明显下降.实验证明:其降压原理与中枢有关.亦有报告指出, 胖大海仁水浸剂对麻醉犬有降压作用,而对兔则有升压作用;但对犬、兔血压的不同影响, 均能被组胺增敏。
其他作用 胖大海外皮、软壳、仁的水浸提取物均有一定的利尿和镇痛作用,仁最强;三者皆无局部刺激作用。[5] 
胖大海味甘、性凉,入肺、大肠经,具有清肺热、利咽喉、解毒、润肠通便之功效。用于肺热声哑、咽喉疼痛、热结便秘以及用嗓过度等引发的声音嘶哑等症。
胖大海胖大海
而对于外感引起的咽喉肿痛、急性扁桃体炎只有一定的辅助疗效。

适宜人群

饮食方面,肺热咳嗽、牙龈肿痛、目赤、咽喉疼痛以及急性扁桃体炎、慢性便秘、痔疮、干咳无痰、声音嘶哑、大便出血、骨蒸内热、三焦火症、吐血下血等病症患者适宜食用;此外,还可以在炎炎夏季当做清热解暑饮料食用。[6] 
胖大海的副作用有哪些?中医讲究药食同源,但胖大海是药食同源的中药,食用胖大海要对症使用,奏效就收。
胖大海胖大海
几类病症不适喝胖大海:
1.脾胃虚寒腹泻;
2.糖尿病患者,胖大海含有半乳糖、半乳糖乙酸等,谨防因过多摄入引起血糖升高。
3.低血压患者,胖大海具备必然的降压作用,临时服用能够引起血压的偏低。

栽培技术编辑

选地整地

选择排水良好、避风的平地或坡地的砂壤土、黄壤土和砖红壤土,先砍掉灌木、杂草,挖除树根后便可种植。
①种子繁殖。采摘种皮呈黑褐色,表面具有明显皱纹的成熟种子,播于洁净的砂床上,点播,种子之间距离约3厘米。播后用沙盖种,再用稻草覆盖畦面,浇透水,并保持畦面湿润。
待出芽后,便可移入营养袋育苗,供育苗的营养土,为土与腐熟的牛粪,按3∶1的比例,或与堆肥以2∶1的比例混合均匀而成。播种后需遮荫、保湿,待苗长出新根后,可逐渐减少荫蔽,苗高30~50厘米时便可定植于大田。
②空中压条繁殖。选取已木栓化的枝条,在距离顶端20~30厘米处,进行环剥,环剥的宽度约3厘米,深度至木质部为止,并轻刮去形成层,以防剥口愈合。环剥后约经1~2天,待伤口稍干后,用湿椰糠或稻草裹湿泥包在伤口周围,再用塑料膜包裹,约经2个月左右便长出新根,新根若已开始木栓化时,便可将枝条剪下假植于沙地中,或直接定植于大田,成活率可达80%以上。

定植

春、秋两季均可定植,选阴天或下雨天定植成活率高。行株距为4米×4米,每亩种41株,挖长、宽、深各50厘米的种植穴,每穴施腐熟牛栏粪或堆肥15~20公斤,与表土混匀后,将苗去掉营养袋放在穴中,覆土厚约20~30厘米,浇透水,遮荫。待小苗成活后,可逐渐去除荫蔽物。
①施肥。当定植后一年内,每季度施肥一次,每次每亩施尿素1~2公斤,腐熟牛栏粪或堆肥800~1000公斤,采用穴施,施后再覆土。
②摘顶。在胖大海定植后1年,株高已达1米左右,便可摘顶进行矮化栽培。方法是用枝剪或芽接刀,在距离生长点约2厘米处剪断,大约经14~35天,便抽新的分枝,留分枝2~3条,待其连续抽梢2~3次后再进行第二次摘顶,一般连续摘顶3次,便达到矮化的目的。

病虫害防治

绿鳞象甲。成虫危害叶和嫩茎,使叶片形成不规则的缺刻,嫩茎折断。
①人工捕杀,利用成虫的假死习性,用棍子轻打叶片,使昆虫落地,集中杀死;
②用50%辛硫磷1000倍喷雾。

采收加工

胖大海果熟时就要及时采收,否则外种皮遇水即膨胀发芽。果实采摘后,晒干即可。
炮制:除去杂质,筛去泥沙即可。不能用水洗。[7] 

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/51783/6895200.htm

Panda Hai (plant species) Edit
Panda Hai (Latin name: SEMEN STERCULIAE LYCHNOPHORAE), Alias: the sea, the sea son, big hole fruit, Daihatsu Indus plants Sterculia Sterculia lychnophora Hance dry mature seeds. Fusiform or oval, long 2 ~ 3cm, diameter of 1 ~ 1.5cm. Apex obtuse, base slightly sharp and crooked, with light-colored circular hilum, surface brown or dark brown, slightly shiny, with irregular shrinkage wrinkles. The outer peel thin, crisp, easy to fall off. Middle peel thick, dark-brown, loose friable, water swelling into a sponge-like. Section scattered resinous dots. Inner and middle peel peeling peels can, slightly leathery, there are two endosperm hypertrophy, wide oval; cotyledons 2, meager, close to the inside of the endosperm, the endosperm and other large. Gas micro, tasteless, chewing sticky. [1] 
Produced in Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia and other countries. 4 to 6 months cracking fruit ripening, harvesting seeds, seasoned with. Used for tea, you can play a lower blood pressure, throat phlegm role.
Panda Hai Chinese name Latin name Scaphium wallichii Shott & Endl aka sea, the sea son, big hole fruit, Daihatsu two law Sterculia scaphigeraWall world Flora door Angiosperms Gang Dicotyledon subclass Dillenia outline Malvales Asia Division Sterculiaceae genus Sterculia Sterculia species distribution area distributed in countries such as Vietnam, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Sexual taste sweet; light; cool Meridian lung, large intestine
Contents 1 Morphological characteristics Growth habit 2 3 4 Geographical distribution of medical value performance ▪ ▪ ▪ medical pharmacology cultivation techniques suitable for people 5 to site preparation ▪ ▪ ▪ pest control ▪ planting harvesting and processing
Morphological characteristics editor
Leaves alternate elliptic-lanceolate leaves leathery, long 10 ~ 20cm, width 6 ~ 12cm, entire or front-end 3-lobed. Or axillary panicles, flowers polygamous same strain; calyx bell-shaped, deeply lobed. Boat-shaped fruit Guduo 1 to 5, was born in stems, long up to 24cm. Seeds elliptic to obovate, dark brown, crispy and thin seed after soaking into a sponge-like enlargement, contains a wealth of phlegm.
Panda Hai
Panda Hai
Deciduous trees, up to 40m, single leaf alternate, blade leathery, oval or elliptical-lanceolate, long 10 ~ 20cm, width 6 ~ 12cm, usually 3-lobed, entire, smooth and hairless. Or axillary panicles, flowers polygamous same strain; calyx campanulate, parted; male flowers with 10 to 15 stamens; female tea a pistil. Guduo fruit 1 to 5, was born in stems, was a boat, length up to 24cm. Seeds prismatic or obovate, dark brown and khaki.
The goods fusiform or oval, long 2 ~ 3cm, diameter of 1 ~ 1.5cm. Apex obtuse, base slightly sharp and crooked, with light-colored circular hilum, surface brown or dark brown, slightly shiny, with irregular shrinkage wrinkles. The outer layer of the seed coat thin, crisp, easy to fall off. Middle testa thick, dark-brown, loose friable, water swelling into a sponge-like. Section scattered resinous dots. Inner seed coat can be peeled off and middle testa, slightly leathery, there are two endosperm hypertrophy, wide oval; cotyledons 2, meager, close to the inside of the endosperm, and other large endosperm. Gas micro, tasteless, chewing sticky. [2] soaked in water will swell up, hence the name Panda Hai.
Growth habit editor
① temperature. Panda Hai native to tropical requires average annual temperature is 21 ~ 24.9 ℃. The average monthly temperature in Hainan, China Introduced Area suitable for the growth of 24 ~ 28 ℃, the monthly average temperature dropped to below 20.0 ℃, stop growing.
② humidity. Mature trees more drought-resistant, suitable for the growth of monthly rainfall of 100 to 300 mm.
③ light. Panda Hai is favored plant in the sun, shoots grow fat, dark green leaves large.
Panda Hai high fine because stem xylem crunchy roots of underdevelopment, poor wind resistance, planting frequent typhoons in coastal areas, can easily result in dry or broken down lines, you must select the sheltered area planted.
Geographical Distribution Edit
Distributed in Vietnam, India, Malaysia and other places. [3]
Medical value edit
Performance

Taste: Sweet, cool, cold. Can Qingfei phlegm, Liyan open sound, laxative.
① "Checklist Supplements": "sweet light."
② Zhang Shou Yi: "tasteless slightly sweet, warm."
③ "medicinal compilation": "sweet light, cool." [4]
Medical Pharmacology

⒈ purgative action animal experiments show: Panda Hai have mild laxative effect, its mechanism is to increase intestinal Panda Hai after oral contents can cause mechanical irritation, causing increased peristalsis reflex caused by the occurrence of diarrhea. The Panda Hai outer layer of skin, soft shell, Jen flooding were extracted for anesthetized dogs, regardless of method of administration, may significantly increase bowel movements, this effect could be antagonized by atropine. 1:40 square leachate can make benevolence isolated rabbit peristalsis, but the outer layer of skin and soft-shell effect is not obvious.
Panda Hai pictures
Panda Hai pictures (21)
⒉ antihypertensive effect Panda Hai Ren (degreased powder) is made of 25% solution, to dogs, cats intravenous, intramuscular or oral administration can make blood pressure decreased significantly. Experimental results show: its antihypertensive and central principles related. The report also pointed out that Panda Hai Ren flooding agent antihypertensive effect in anesthetized dogs, and boost the role of rabbit you; but different effects on dogs, rabbits blood pressure, can be histamine-sensitizing.
⒊ other effects Panda Hai skin, soft shell, Jen flooding extracts have some diuretic and analgesic effects, the strongest benevolence; all three-no local irritation. [5]
Panda Hai Sweet, cool, lung, large intestine, with Qingfei heat, Lee throat, detoxification, laxative effect. For Hyperactivity hoarse, sore throat, hot junction constipation and excessive use of voice and other sound hoarse embolism caused.
Panda Hai
Panda Hai
For sore throat caused by exogenous, acute tonsillitis, only some secondary effects.
The crowd

Diet, Hyperactivity cough, sore gums, red eyes, sore throat and acute tonsillitis, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids, dry cough without phlegm, hoarseness, stool bleeding, heat Gu Zheng, triple burner fire syndrome, vomiting and other symptoms in patients with lower blood fit for human consumption; in addition, can also be used as Qingre drinks consumed in the heat of summer. [6]
Panda Hai side effects are there? Chinese pay attention to food and medicine homologous, but Panda Hai is a drug Edible medicine, food Panda Hai symptomatic use, work on the land.
Panda Hai
Panda Hai
Not drinking several types of disorders Panda Hai:
1. Spleen Deficiency diarrhea;
2. diabetes, Panda Hai containing galactose, galactose, acetic acid, etc., beware caused due to excessive intake of elevated blood sugar.
3. hypotension, Panda Hai have inevitable antihypertensive effect, temporary taking can cause low blood pressure.
Cultivation Technical Editor
Site preparation

Choose a well-drained, sheltered flat or sloping sandy loam, loam and yellow brick red loam, the first cut shrubs, weeds, roots can be planted after the excavation.
① seed propagation. Picking seed coat was dark brown, the surface has obvious wrinkles mature seeds, sown in clean sand bed, on demand, about 3 cm distance between seeds. After sowing seed covered with sand, and then straw mulching Qimian irrigated and maintained Qimian moist.
After sprouting, can be shifted into nutrition bag nursery for seedling nutrition soil, the soil and decomposition of cow dung, in proportion 3:1 or compost to the mix ratio of 2 is made. After sowing the need shade, moisture, seedlings grow new roots until later, you can gradually reduce the shade, it can be planted in the field 30 to 50 cm height.
② air layering. Select has cork branches, at a distance of 20 to 30 cm at the top, girdling, girdling the width of about 3 cm, depth up to the xylem, cambium and scuffing to prevent stripping healing. After girdling by about 1 to 2 days, until the wound is slightly dry, with wet coconut husk or straw wet mud pack wrapped around the wound, and then plastic wrap, after about two months or so it will grow new roots, new roots When Ruoyi beginning cork, you can cut the branches heel in the sand, or directly planted in the field, the survival rate up to 80%.
Colonization

Spring and autumn can be planted, cloudy or rainy planting selected high survival rate. Row spacing of 4 m × 4 m, 41 species per acre, digging length, width and depth of 50 cm each planting hole, fertilizing every cowshed manure or compost maturity of 15 to 20 kg, after mixing with the topsoil, the seedlings remove the nutrition bag placed in the hole, the overburden thickness of 20 to 30 cm, irrigated shade. After the seedlings survived, shade material can be gradually removed.
① fertilization. When within a year after planting, fertilize once every quarter, urea per acre 1 to 2 kg, decomposed manure or compost barn of 800 to 1000 kg, the use of fertilizing, applied after casing.
② top pick. 1 year after planting Panda Hai, reached about one meter height, can be decapitating dwarfing cultivation. The method is to use sticks scissors or budding knife, cut the growing point at a distance of about 2 cm, after about 14 to 35 days, will draw new branches, leaving the branches of 2 to 3, until 2 or 3 times in a row Choushao and then a second decapitating, general decapitating three times in a row, will reach the dwarf purposes.
Pest Control

Green scales weevil. Adults harm leaves and stems, so that leaves form irregular notch, spears broken.
① artificial hunting, the use of suspended animation adult habit, tapped with a stick blade, insect landing, centralized killed;
② with 50% phoxim 1000 times spray.
Harvesting and processing

Panda Hai ripe fruit when necessary and timely harvest, otherwise testa water that expansion germinate. After picking the fruit, can be dried.
Processing: remove impurities, weed out the sediment can be. It can not be washed with water. [7]
Atlas Atlas more
Entry pictures
Entry pictures (4)
Panda Hai pictures
Panda Hai Pictures (21)
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Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. Panda Hai. Chinese family [reference date 2013-11-9]
2. Panda Hai efficacy and indications. Chinese Vegetarian Network [reference date 2013-10-20]
3. drug known to win the series - Panda Hai. Oriental herbal medicines network. 2012-07-2 [reference date 2012-10-1]
4. Panda Hai. 39 Chinese medicine health network. 2013-02-28 [reference date 2013-02-28]
5. Panda Hai. Two drug paradise station. 2012-09-13 [reference date 2012-09-13]
6. [Panda Hai efficacy and role]. Dish scoop Valley [reference date 2013-07-4]
7. Panda Hai clinical application. . [Reference date 2012-11-29]









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