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蔓荊子 Vitex (Viticis Fructus) Man Jing Zi

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蔓荆子

 

(马鞭草科植物单叶蔓荆的果实)

 编辑
声明
本词条可能涉及专业知识,中草药并非没有毒副作用,请遵医嘱服用,请勿轻信网上用药建议。
英文名:FRUCTUS VITITCIS。别名:蔓荆实荆子、万荆子、蔓青子、蔓荆白背木耳小刀豆藤、白背风白背草。来源马鞭草科植物单叶蔓荆果实。生于海边、河湖沙滩上。主产山东江西浙江、福建。
中文学名
蔓荆子
拉丁学名
Vitex trifolia Linn. var. trifolia
别    称
白背木耳白背杨、水捻子、白布荆
植物界
被子植物门 Angiospermae
双子叶植物纲 Dicotyledoneae
亚    纲
合瓣花亚纲 Sympetalae
管状花目 Tubiflorae
马鞭草科 Verbenaceae
亚    科
牡荆亚科 Viticoideae
牡荆族 VITICEAE
牡荆属 Vitex
分布区域
山东江西浙江福建

形态特征编辑

落叶灌木,罕为小乔木,高1.5-5米,有香味;
小枝四棱形,密生细柔毛。通常三出复叶,有时在侧枝上可有单叶,叶柄长1-3厘米;小叶片卵形、倒卵形或倒卵状长圆形,长2.5-9厘米,宽1-3厘米,顶端钝或短尖,基部楔形,全缘,表面绿色,无毛或被微柔毛,背面密被灰白色绒毛,侧脉约8对,两面稍隆起,小叶无柄或有时中间小叶基部下延成短柄。
圆锥花序顶生,长3-15厘米,花序梗密被灰白色绒毛;花萼钟形,顶端5浅裂,外面有绒毛;花冠淡紫色或蓝紫色,长6-10毫米,外面及喉部有毛,花冠管内有较密的长柔毛,顶端5裂,二唇形,下唇中间裂片较大;雄蕊4,伸出花冠外;子房无毛,密生腺点;花柱无毛,柱头2裂。
核果近圆形,径约5毫米,成熟时黑色;果萼宿存,外被灰白色绒毛。花期7月,果期9-11月。[1] 

生长环境编辑

适应性较强,对环境条件要求不严。但喜温暖湿润,土壤以疏松、肥沃的砂质壤土较好。耐盐碱,在酸性土壤上生长不良。

分布情况编辑

主产山东、江西、浙江、福建、广东、广西等。[2] 

栽培技术编辑

栽培技术 可采用播种、扦插、压条、分株等方法繁殖,但以扦插繁殖为主。[3] 

繁殖技术

扦插繁殖:春、秋均可进行,但以春季扦插为好。在3月下旬或9月下旬,剪取一二年生健壮
蔓荆子蔓荆子
枝条,取其中段,截成长20-30cm带有2-3个节的插穗;按株行距6cm×15cm插入苗床;育苗期应经常浇水,保持苗床湿润,并适当追肥。秋季扦插的翌年春4月上旬移栽;春季扦插的当年秋季定植。[3] 
种子繁殖:在秋季采收成熟时实,与2倍湿细沙拌匀,堆放阴凉通风的室内,翌年4月上、中旬播种,将果实搓去外壳,用35-40℃温水浸泡1昼夜,捞出稍晾后,与混合粪肥的火灰拌匀,条播于苗床,第1hm2播种75-105kg,苗期注意浇水,适当追肥,当年春季育苗,幼苗当年高30-40cm,秋后定植。[3] 
压条繁殖:5-6月间,选一二年生的健壮长枝,用波状压条法,每隔40-50cm埋入土中,深约15cm,压实。待长出不定根后,分段栽断,带根定植。[3] 
分株繁殖:在4月上旬或7月旬,随挖随栽。定植在秋季或春季,植株落叶后至萌芽前进行,按株行距1m×1.3m开穴,施土杂肥与土壤混匀,每穴栽2-3株,填土压实,浇透水。[4] 

田间管理

定植后1-2年,在春季萌芽前,6月和生产关系了落叶后各中耕除草1次,冬季中耕结合培土。追肥在定植后的前2年以施人畜粪水为主,第3、4年开花结果后,应增施堆肥和磷肥,每年施肥2次,第1次在开花前,第2次在修剪后,在花期可喷施1%过磷酸钙水溶液1-2次。在地势低洼的地段,雨季要注意及时排除积水。冬季休眠期,应剪除枯枝、老弱枝,病虫枝及徙长枝,对生长多年长势衰退的植株应进
蔓荆子蔓荆子
行更新,即在离地面30cm处将老枝全部剪除,增施肥料,促进多发健壮新枝。在新枝长至1m多高时,要及时打顶,太高的枝要进行弯枝,均可促其多发新枝,多结果实。[3] 
采集加工
种子繁殖的栽培后3-4年结果,扦插繁殖的栽后2-3年结果,在7月上旬至10月下旬果实陆续成熟,应边成熟边采摘,先在室内堆放3-4d,然后摊开晒或烘干,筛去枝梗,扬净杂质即成。[5] 

主要作用编辑

药用

药理作用
1. 降血压作用 蔓荆子有明显的降压作用, 其降压作用与兴奋中枢诱导的副交感神经系统有关.实验证明: 单叶蔓荆水提取物有降低兔血压的作用, 该作用可被阿托品、氯异吲哚胺(Chlorisondamine)对抗, 被毒扁豆碱增强, 甜菜甙元(Betanidine)稍加强之, 但不受心得安或赛庚啶(Cyproheptadine)的影响。
2. 镇痛、抗炎作用 单叶蔓荆果实的甲醇提取物对小鼠醋酸扭体反应有抑制作用;亦能提高小鼠热板致痛
蔓荆子蔓荆子
的痛阈及大鼠角叉菜胶炎症疼痛的痛阈;给小鼠灌胃, 对小鼠腹腔毛细血管的通透性有一定的抑制作用。
3. 其他作用 蔓荆子水煎浸膏在体外对结核杆菌有抑制作用.对孤儿病毒亦有抑制作用.蔓荆子提取物有强抗凝作用, 在体外能显著延长牛凝血酶凝聚人体纤维蛋白原时间.蔓荆子的祛痰作用优于牡荆油;亦有明显的平喘作用和增强小鼠体质的作用。[6] 
临床应用
1、用于风热感冒,头痛头风。本品辛能散风,微寒清热,轻浮上行,主散头面之邪,有祛风止痛之效,用治外感风热,头痛头晕,常与菊花、薄荷等同用,头痛头风常与白蒺藜、川芎、钩藤等同用。[7]  治风邪所致的目赤肿痛、头目昏暗,常与菊花、川芎、决明子等配伍应用。[8] 
蔓荆子用于风热引起的头痛,;对于头风头痛病症,本品又可与藁本、川芎等配伍应用。
2、用于目赤肿痛,目昏多泪。本品能疏散风热,清利头目,故可用治风热上攻,目赤肿痛,目昏多泪,常配
蔓荆子-性状蔓荆子-性状
菊花、蝉蜕龙胆草等同用;本品药性升发,清利头目,与黄芪、党参、白芍等同用,还可用治清阳不升,目生翳障,耳鸣耳聋等症,如益气聪明汤。[7] 
3、治疗慢性气管炎:用银白杨叶制成不同剂型于不同季节共观察1115例,平均有效率在88%左右,显效率为52%左右。对咳、痰、喘均有疗效,但平喘作用稍差;生效时间多在服药后3~5天。对虚寒型疗效较好,肺燥型次之,痰热型较差。疗程长者疗效较高。病程越短疗效越好。
剂型及用法:一1:2糖浆剂一日服3次,每次10毫升。二注射剂一肌肉注射,每日一次,每次1毫升(含生药2克)。三浸膏丸一每次10粒,日服3次(每日总量相当生药25克);部分病例同时并用注射剂或加服百蕊草(每次5钱,冲泡后分3次服)。初步观察,各种剂型的疗效无明显差别。
副作用:无严重副作用,仅少数患者有胃部不适,口干、腹泻、面部轻度浮肿等反应,个别出现皮疹;一般均较轻微,不影响治疗。[7] 
适合人群
胃虚体衰者慎服。
蔓荆子食疗作用:
蔓荆子蔓荆子
1、味辛、苦,性微寒。归肺、膀胱、肝经。轻浮升散。
2、疏散风热,清利头目,除湿处关节。主治外感头痛,偏正头风,昏晕目暗,赤眼多泪,目睛内痛,齿龈肿痛,湿痹拘挛

食用

配方:蔓荆子200克,醇酒500克。
蔓荆子制法:将上药捣碎,用酒浸于净瓶中,7日后,去渣备用。
主治:外感风热所致头昏头痛及偏头痛。
用法:每次徐饮10-15毫升,每日3次。

其他

枕头
规格:70*45,填充物:蔓荆子100%, 面料:100%棉布。
蔓荆子枕头
蔓荆子枕头 (16张)
保健原理:蔓荆子,疏散风热,清利头目。
使用注意:
1、长期坚持每晚枕用,保健效果更佳。
2、枕巾和枕套要常洗,晒,换。
3、枕心不可洗不可暴晒,可晾干。

营养知识编辑

蔓荆子知识介绍:
本品为马鞭草科植物单叶蔓荆和蔓荆的成熟果实。秋季果实成熟时采收,除去杂质,晒干。
蔓荆子果实球形,直径4至6毫米,表面棕褐色或黑褐色,被灰白色粉霜状绒毛,有4条纵浅沟,顶端微凹,有花柱痕,下部有宿萼及短果柄、宿萼包被果实的1/3至2/3,先端5齿裂,常在一侧裂为两瓣,密被茸毛,体轻,质坚韧不易破碎。横断面果皮灰黄色,有棕褐色圆点排列成环。4室,每室种子1枚,种仁黄白色,富油性。气芳香特异,味淡微辛、略苦。以粒大饱满 ,气香者为佳。
蔓荆子补充信息:
本品根据炮制方法的不同分为蔓荆子、炒蔓荆子、蔓荆子炭,炮制后贮干燥容器内,炒蔓荆子密闭,置阴凉干燥处。
蔓荆子适合人群:
胃虚体衰者慎服。
蔓荆子食疗作用:
味辛、苦,性微寒。归肺、膀胱、肝经。轻浮升散。
疏散风热,清利头目,除湿处关节。主治外感头痛,偏正头风,昏晕目暗,赤眼多泪,目睛内痛,齿龈肿痛,湿痹拘挛。
蔓荆子做法指导:
用于感受风热引起的头痛,临床常与防风、菊花、石膏等配伍应用;对于头风头痛病症,本品又可与藁本、川芎等配伍应用。治风邪所致的目赤肿痛、头目昏暗,常与菊花、川芎、决明子等配伍应用。

中药学·相关科技名词

其他名词

参考资料
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/40451/15978029.htm

Vitex (Verbenaceae plant single leaf vitex fruit) Edit
Statement
This entry may involve expertise is not no toxic side effects of Chinese herbal medicine, prescribed medication, please, do not believe drugs online recommendations.
English Name: FRUCTUS VITITCIS. Alias: Vitex real, Jing son, Wan Jing son, vine young children, vitex, white back fungus, small beans vine, white leeward, white back grass. Source Verbenaceae plant single leaf vitex fruit. Born on the sea, lake and river beaches. Production of Shandong, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian.
Chinese name Latin name Vitex Vitex trifolia Linn. Var. Trifolia aka white back fungus, white back Yang, water spill, white circles Flora door Jing Gang angiosperm Angiospermae Dicotyledoneae Dicotyledon subclass gamopetalous subclass Sympetalae mesh tubular flower head Tubiflorae families Verbenaceae Verbenaceae Vitex subfamily subfamily Viticoideae family clan VITICEAE genus Vitex Vitex Vitex distribution area of ​​Shandong, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian
Contents 1 Morphology 2 habitat 3 4 cultivation techniques for the distribution of reproductive technology ▪ ▪ 5 field management major role ▪ pharmaceutical ▪ ▪ 6 other edible nutrition knowledge
Morphological characteristics editor
Deciduous shrubs, rarely small tree, 1.5-5 m high, fragrant;
Twigs four prism, dense Soft hair. Usually three compound leaves, sometimes on collateral may have a single leaf, petiole 1-3 cm; leaf blade ovate, obovate or oblong, 2.5-9 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, top blunt or short tip, base cuneate, entire, surface green, glabrous or slightly pubescent, abaxially densely gray hair, lateral veins ca. 8 pairs, two slightly elevated, leaflets sessile or sometimes cast into the base of the intermediate lobule Brachypodium ʱ??
Inflorescence terminal, 3-15 cm long, peduncle densely gray hair; calyx bell-shaped, the top 5-lobed, outside tomentose; corolla purple or blue-purple, 6-10 mm long, hairy outside and throat within the corolla tube have more dense villous, apex 5-lobed, 2-lipped, lower lip large middle lobes; stamens 4, extending corolla; ovary glabrous, densely glandular dots; style glabrous, stigma 2-lobed ʱ??
Drupe nearly circular, diameter of about 5 mm, black when ripe; calyx persistent fruit, outside gray hair. Flowering in July, fruiting from September to November. [1] 
Growth Environment Editor
Adaptability, strict requirements on the environmental conditions. But hi warm and humid, with loose soil, fertile sandy loam is better. Salinity, poor growth on acidic soils.
Distribution Edit
Production of Shandong, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi. [2] 
Cultivation Technical Editor
Cultivation techniques may be sowing, cuttings, layering, division propagation and other methods, but mainly cutting propagation. [3]
Reproductive technology

Cutting Propagation: spring and autumn can be carried out, but in spring cuttings as well. In late March or late September, clipping a biennial robust
Viticis
Viticis
Branches, whichever is the middle, cut grow 20-30cm cuttings with 2-3 section; by 6cm × 15cm spacing insert seedbed; nursery period should be watered frequently to keep the seedbed moist, and appropriate dressing. Autumn cuttings in early April next spring transplanting; the year in spring and autumn planting cuttings. [3]
Seed propagation: real maturity in the fall harvest, and 2-fold the wet sand mix, piling cool ventilated room, on April the following year, in mid-sowing, rub the fruit to shell, with 35-40 ℃ warm water day and night, remove and a little dry, and the ashes mixed manure mix, drilling in the seedbed, sowing the first 1hm2 75-105kg, seedling pay attention to watering, proper dressing, then in the spring breeding, seedling year high 30-40cm, autumn planting. [3]
Layering: 5 - June, the election of a biennial robust long sticks, with wavy layering, every 40-50cm buried in the soil, depth of about 15cm, compaction. After grow adventitious roots, planted segmentation fault with root colonization. [3]
Division propagation: in early April or late July, with the digging with the plant. Planting in the fall or spring, before the leaves to sprout after the plants were, according to the spacing of 1m × 1.3m open hole, Shi farmyard manure and soil mix, planted 2-3 plants per hole, backfill compaction, irrigated. [4]
Field management

1 after planting - two years before the spring bud, June and production relations after the deciduous weeding once each winter combined cultivator earth. Dressing in the first two years after planting to Shi Ren Chufen water main, section 3, after four years to bear fruit, should be added to compost and fertilizer, fertilizer twice a year, the first time before flowering, 2nd after pruning In flowering can be sprayed with a 1% aqueous solution of calcium phosphate 1-2 times. In the low-lying area, attention should exclude water during the rainy season. Winter dormant period, should be cut off branches, the elderly and branches, worms branches and resettlement long branch, the growth of many years of recession growing plants should be carried out
Viticis
Viticis
Row update, namely at 30cm from the ground all the old branches cut off, increased fertilizer and promoting robust multiple new branches. When the new shoots grow to 1m tall, topping a timely manner, the branches are too high to be bent branches, which can promote multiple new branches, more fruit. [3]
Acquisition and processing
After 3 planting seed propagation - 4 years results after transplanting 2 Cutting Propagation - 3 years results in early July to late October mature fruit after another, should mature side edge picking first in the room stacked 3-4d, then stalls open drying or drying, to weed out the branch, cleanse impurities Serve. [5]
The main role of editor
Medicinal

Pharmacological effects
1. hypotensive effect Viticis have significant antihypertensive effect, its antihypertensive effect and excitement induced by the parasympathetic nervous system central related. Experimental results show: a single leaf vitex water extract of rabbit blood pressure lowering effect, the effect can be atropine, chlorine isoindole amine (Chlorisondamine) confrontation, is enhanced physostigmine, beet aglycone (Betanidine) slightly strengthening of, but not propranolol or affect cyproheptadine (Cyproheptadine) of.
2. analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects of single leaf vitex fruit methanol extract of mouse acetic acid writhing inhibition; also enhanced mouse hot plate induced pain
Viticis
Viticis
The pain threshold and rat carrageenan inflammatory pain, pain threshold; mice fed on mouse peritoneal capillary permeability has a certain extent.
3. Other action Viticis decoction extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro inhibition. Orphans also inhibited virus. Vitex extract has strong anticoagulant effect in vitro can significantly prolong the bovine thrombin Human fibrinogen coagulation time. Expectorant effect Vitex Vitex is better than oil; there is an apparent asthma in mice enhanced the role and the role of physical fitness. [6]
Clinical application
1, for the common cold, headache, head wind. This product can be scattered wind Sheen, slightly cold heat, light up, the main bulk of the evil head, face, have chills and pain effect, with the governance of exogenous wind-heat, headache, dizziness, often with chrysanthemum, mint equated with headache head wind often with white terrestris root, Uncaria equated with. [7] rule pathogenic wind-induced red eyes and throat, head dark, often with chrysanthemum root, cassia and other compatible applications. [8] 
Vitex for wind-heat-induced headache,; for head wind headache disorders, but also with the goods ligustilide, Chuanxiong application compatibility.
2, for the red eyes and throat, head faint more tears. This product can evacuation wind-heat, clearing leader, it can cure wind-heat upside, red eyes and throat, head faint more tears, often with
Vitex - Characters
Vitex - Characters
Chrysanthemum, cicada, gentian equated with; the product potency ascending, clearing leader, and Astragalus, Codonopsis, white peony root equated with, but also with the governance of Qing Yang does not rise, head of Health Yi Zhang, tinnitus and deafness embolism, such as benefits Gas smart soup. [7]
3, the treatment of chronic bronchitis: Populus leaves made with different formulations were observed in 1115 cases in different seasons, an average efficiency of around 88%, effective rate is around 52%. Of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, are effective, but somewhat less asthma role; more time to take effect after taking the drug for 3 to 5 days. Deficiency type of good effect, Dryness type followed, phlegm type poor. Elderly higher treatment efficacy. The more the better short duration effect.
Dosage and usage: a 1: 2 syrup 3 times a day, each 10 ml. Second, an intramuscular injection once a day, every 1 ml (2 g crude drug). Three extract Maruichi 10 each, 3 times a day (daily total of 25 grams fairly crude drug); in some cases simultaneously with injections or add services thesium (every 5 money, after brewing 3 service points) ʱ?? Preliminary observation, no significant difference in the efficacy of various formulations.
Side effects: no serious side effects, only a minority of patients with stomach discomfort, dry mouth, diarrhea, facial swelling and other mild reactions, individual rash; generally were mild, does not affect the treatment. [7]
For the crowd
Stomach empty and feeble were careful service.
Vitex therapeutic effect:
Viticis
Viticis
1, spicy, bitter, slightly cold. In the lungs, bladder, liver. L scattered light.
2, evacuation wind-heat, clearing leader, dehumidification at joints. Indications exogenous headache, prejudiced head wind, fainting head dark, red eyes and more tears, intraocular eye pain, gingival swelling, wet Bi Spasm.
Edible

liqueur
Recipe: Viticis 200 g, 500 g wine.
Vitex Method: the drug mashed, with Jiujin in Jingping, 7 days, to the residue spare.
Indications: exogenous wind-heat-induced dizziness, headache and migraine.
Usage: Each Xu drink 10-15 ml, 3 times a day.
Other

Pillow
Specifications: 70 * 45, filler: Viticis 100%, Fabric: 100% cotton.
Vitex pillow
Vitex Pillows (16)
Health Principle: Vitex, evacuation wind-heat, clearing leader.
Caution:
1, long-term adherence night pillow with health better.
2, pillow and pillowcase should always wash, sun, change.
3, the pillow can not wash non-exposure, can be dry.
Nutritional knowledge Edit
Vitex knowledge introduction:
This product verbena plants Vitex Vitex Jing and ripe fruit. Autumn harvest ripe fruit, remove impurities, and dried.
Vitex fruit spherical diameter of 4-6 mm, surface brown or dark brown, gray-white powder hair cream, there are four vertical shallow trench, top dimples, have style marks, the lower part calyx and short stalk, Calyx package is the fruit of 1/3 to 2/3, apex 5-toothed lobed, often split into two on one side, densely covered with hairs, lightweight, quality tough not broken. Cross section peel sallow, there are brown dots arranged in a ring. Room 4, one seed per room, Seeds yellow-white, rich oil. Gas aromatic specificity, tasteless slightly acrid, slightly bitter. In tablets plump, fragrant air better.
Vitex Supplementary information:
This product is based on different processing methods into Viticis, fried Vitex, Vitex charcoal, Dry storage vessel after processing, fried Viticis closed, cool and dry place.
Vitex for the crowd:
Stomach empty and feeble were careful service.
Vitex therapeutic effect:
Spicy, bitter, slightly cold. In the lungs, bladder, liver. L scattered light.
Evacuation of wind-heat, clearing leader, dehumidification at joints. Indications exogenous headache, prejudiced head wind, fainting head dark, red eyes and more tears, intraocular eye pain, gingival swelling, wet Bi Spasm.
Vitex practice guidance:
Feel the wind for heat-induced headache, often associated with clinical windproof, chrysanthemum, gypsum and other compatible applications; for head wind headache disorders, but also with the goods ligustilide, Chuanxiong application compatibility. Governance pathogenic wind-induced red eyes and throat, head dark, often with chrysanthemum root, cassia and other compatible applications.
Atlas Atlas more
Entry pictures
Entry pictures (7)
Vitex pillow
Vitex Pillows (16)
Molecular Structure
Molecular Structure (2)
Vitex flavin original form Figure
Vitex flavin original form chart (5)
Exterior
Appearance (2)
Source plant
Plant sources (2)
1/2
Pharmacy · Related Tech Terms
Medicinal herbs ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ fresh authentic ingredients medicine ▪ natural medicine
▪ ▪ collect and harvest production processing ▪ ▪ ▪ wither period of germination
▪ Storage ▪ drying ▪ dry season ▪ ▪ drying
Moth mildew ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ swap ▪ weeping original plant identification
▪ original animal identification ▪ original mineral identification based source identification ▪ ▪ ▪ rhizome root
Leaves skin ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fruit ▪ flower seeds
Characters Description whole plant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the size of the surface characteristics of shape
Color and texture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ section fracture surface features ▪ chrysanthemum heart
Other terms
Reference material
1. Vitex. Flora of China [reference date 2014-01-24]
2. Viticis. Medical Education Network [reference date 2013-10-23]
3. Viticis cultivation techniques. Food Science and Technology Network [reference date 2013-12-16]
4. Viticis cultivation techniques. Medical Education Network [reference date 2013-10-23]
5. Viticis cultivated. Medical Education Network [reference date 2013-10-23]
6. Viticis pharmacological effects. Medical Education Network [reference date 2013-10-23]
7. Viticis. Wen Kang network [reference date 2013-12-16]
8. Viticis plant property. Medical Education Network [reference date 2013-10-23]










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